Biodiversity & Conservation

'Maritime activities to environmental factors' matrix


The cultivation of aquatic organisms by human effort for commercial purposes. For the cultivation of marine organisms in seawater, the term ‘mariculture’ is also used. (Based on Baretta-Bekker et al. 1992.). For more information see the marine topic page.

Climate Change

Natural and anthropogenic change in the climate. The climate of an area refers to the totality of weather conditions at a certain location for a certain period (conventionally 30 years).

Coastal defence

Includes both sea defence and flood defence in coastal areas against inundation of land by seawater or fresh water. Defence measures vary from engineering solutions such as sea walls, breakwaters and revetments, beach re-charge to ‘managed retreat’.


Includes commercial harvesting of living resources and collection of marine organisms for personal use or consumption but excludes fishing.


Property, industrial or other commercial development of coastal land or below the mean low water mark. Coastal land may be arbitrarily defined as land adjacent to the sea or areas of sea water influence such as estuaries and lagoons or areas whose climate is influenced by its proximity to the sea.


Removal of material from the seabed.

Energy generation

Industrial plants for the generation of energy in the form of heat or primarily electricity.


Physical removal of non-renewable resources from marine or coastal resources.

Fisheries / Shellfisheries

Human activities directed towards the capture of fish or shellfish. The method used depends on the type of fish or shellfish sought.


Any pursuit in the maritime area designed for pleasure, amenity or tourism and includes diverse activities such as bathing, water-skiing, power boating, jet-skis, surfing, horse-riding, dog-walking and sailing.


Other activities or uses that are dependent on a coastal or maritime location.


Waste is generally regarded as material that is no longer required or fit for its original purpose and that has no alternative use. For example special and controlled hazardous wastes, packaging, oils, sewage and garbage.


Activities not addressed above.