MarLIN

information on the biology of species and the ecology of habitats found around the coasts and seas of the British Isles

Bibliography (A-Z)

Bäck, S., 1993. Morphological variation of northern Baltic Fucus vesiculosus along the exposure gradient.  Annales Botanici Fennici, 275-283.

Bäck, S., Collins, J. & Russell, G., 1992. Effects of salinity on growth of Baltic and Atlantic Fucus vesiculosus. British Phycological Journal, 27 (1), 39-47.

Bégin, C. & Scheibling, R.E., 2003. Growth and survival of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in tide pools on a rocky shore in Nova Scotia. Botanica Marina, 46 (5), 404-412.

Baardseth, E., 1956. The growth rings in Alaria stipes.  In Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 2, Trondheim (eds T. Braarud & N.A. Sorensen)  pp. 153-157. London: Pergamon Press.

Baardseth, E., 1970. Synopsis of the biological data on knotted wrack Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, no. 38, Rev. 1.

Babarro, J.M. & de Zwaan, A., 2001. Factors involved in the (near) anoxic survival time of Cerastoderma edule: associated bacteria vs. endogenous fuel. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 128 (3), 325-337.

Bacescu, M.C., 1972. Substratum: Animals. In: Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive Treatise on Life in Oceans and Coastal Waters. Volume 1 Environmental Factors Part 3. (ed. O. Kinne ). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Bachelet, G., 1987. Processus de recrutement er rôle des stades juvé d'invertébrés dans le fonctionnement des systèmes benthiques de substrat meuble en milieu intertidal estuarien. , Thèse d'éat, Université Bordeaux, France.

Bachinski, N., Koziol, C., Batel, R., Labura, Z., Schröder, H.C. & Müller, W.E., 1997. Immediate early response of the marine sponge Suberites domuncula to heat stress: reduction of trehalose and glutathione concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity. Journal of experimental marine biology and ecology, 210 (1), 129-141.

Bäck, S., Collins, J.C. & Russell, G., 1991. Aspects of the reproductive biology of Fucus vesiculosus from the coast of south west Finland. Ophelia, 34, 129-141.

Backlund, H.O., 1945. Wrack fauna of Sweden and Finland: ecology and chorology. Opuscula Entomologica (Supplementum) 5, 1-236.

Backman, T. & Barilotti, D., 1976. Irradiance reduction: effects on standing crops of the eelgrass Zostera marina in a coastal lagoon. Marine Biology, 34 (1), 33-40.

Bacon, L.M. & Vadas, R.L., 1991. A model for gamete release in Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology, 27, 166-173.

Baden, S., Gullström, M., Lundé n, B., Pihl, L. & Rosenberg, R., 2003. Vanishing Seagrass (Zostera marina, L.) in Swedish Coastal Waters. Ambio, 32(5), 374-377.

Baden, S.P. & Neil, D.M., 1998. Accumulation of manganese in the haemolymph, nerve and muscle tissue of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and its effect on neuromuscular performance. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A, 1, 351-359.

Baden, S.P., Depledge, M.H. & Hagerman, L., 1994. Glycogen depletion and altered copper and manganese handling in Nephrops norvegicus following starvation and exposure to hypoxia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 103, 65-72.

Baden, S.P., Loo, L.O., Pihl, L. & Rosenberg, R., 1990. Effects of eutrophication on the benthic communities including fish - Swedish west coast. Ambio, 19, 113-122.

Baden, S.P., Pihl, L. & Rosenberg, R., 1990. Effects of oxygen depletion on the ecology, blood physiology and fishery of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 67, 141-155.

Baeck, S., Collins, J.C. & Russell, G., 1992. Recruitment of the Baltic flora: the Fucus ceranoides enigma. Botanica Marina, 35, 53-59.

Baeck, S., Lehvo, A. & Blomster, J., 2000. Mass occurrence of unattached Enteromorpha intestinalis on the Finnish Baltic Sea coast. Annales Botanici Fennici, 37, 155-161.

Bagheri, E. & McLusky, D., 1982. Population dynamics of oligochaetes and small polychaetes in the polluted forth estury ecosystem. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 16, 55-66.

Bagheri, E.A. & McLusky, D.S., 1984. The oxygen consumption of Tubificoides benedeni (Udekem) in relation to temperature and its application to production biology. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 78, 187-197.

Bahmet, I., Berger, V. & Halaman, V., 2005. Heart rate in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (Bivalvia) under salinity change. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 31: 314-7

Bailey, J., Parsons, J. & Couturier, C., 1996. Salinity tolerance in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Rep. Report no. 0840-5417, Aquaculture Association of Canada, New Brunswick, Canada

Bailey, N. & Chapman, C.J., 1983. A comparison of density, length composition and growth of two Nephrops populations off the west coast of Scotland. ICES CM 1983/K:42.

Bailey, N., Howard, F.G. & Chapman, C.J., 1986. Clyde Nephrops: Biology and fisheries. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 90 (B), 501-518.

Bailey-Brook, J.H., 1976. Habitats of tubicolous polychaetes from the Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Atoll. Pacific Science, 30, 69-81.

Baird, D., Evans, P.R., Milne, H. & Pienkowski, M.W., 1985. Utilization by shorebirds of benthic invertebrate production in intertidal areas. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 23, 573-597.

Baird, R.H., 1966. Factors affecting the growth and condition of mussels (Mytilus edulis). Fishery Investigations. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Series II, no. 25, 1-33.

Bak, U.G., 2014. Suitable cultivation areas for Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) and Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae) in the inner Danish waters in relation to variations in light, temperature and salinity. Roskilde University. MSc thesis

Bak, U.G. 2014. Suitable cultivation areas for Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) and Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae) in the inner Danish waters in relation to variations in light, temperature and salinity. Roskilde University. MSc thesis

Baker, J.M., 1976. Investigation of refinery effluent effects through field surveys. In Marine Ecology and Oil Pollution (ed. J.M. Baker), pp. 201-225. Barking: Applied Science Publishers Ltd.

Baker, J.M., 1979. Responses of salt marsh vegetation to oil spills and refinery effluents. In Ecological processes in coastal environments (ed. R.L. Jefferies & A.J. Davy), pp. 529-542. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Baker, J.T., 1974. Tyrian purple: an ancient dye, a modern problem. Endeavour, XXXIII, 11-17.

Bakus, G.J., 1968. Sedimentation and benthic invertebrates of Fanning Island, Central Pacific. Marine Geology, 6, 45-51.

Balata, D., Piazzi, L., & Cinelli, F., 2007. Increase of sedimentation in a subtidal system: effects on the structure and diversity of macroalgal assemblages. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology351(1), 73-82.

Baldock, B. & Bishop, J.D.D., 2001. Occurrence of the non-native ascidian Perophora japonica in the Fleet, southern England. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 81, 1067.

Baldock, B.M., Mallinson, J.M. & Seaward, D.R., 1998. Observations on extensive, dense populations of the bivalve mollusc Musculus discors (L. 1758). Journal of Conchology, 36, 43-46.

Ball, B., Munday, B. & Tuck, I., 2000b. Effects of otter trawling on the benthos and environment in muddy sediments. In: Effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats, (eds. Kaiser, M.J. & de Groot, S.J.), pp 69-82. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Ball, B.J., Costelloe, J., Könnecker, G. & Keegan, B.F., 1995. The rocky subtidal assemblages of Kinsale Harbour (south coast of Ireland). In Proceedings of the 28th European Marine Biology Symposium, Instiitute of Marine Biology of Crete, Iraklio, Crete, 1993. Biology and Ecology of Shallow Coastal Waters (ed. A. Eleftheriou, A.D. Ansell & C.J. Smith), pp.293-302. Fredensborg: Olsen & Olsen.

Ball, B.J., Fox, G. & Munday, B.W., 2000a. Long- and short-term consequences of a Nephrops trawl fishery on the benthos and environment of the Irish Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57, 1315-1320.

Ballantine, W., 1961. A biologically-defined exposure scale for the comparative description of rocky shores. Field Studies, 1, 73-84.

Ballarin, L., Pampanin, D.M. & Marin, M.G., 2003. Mechanical disturbance affects haemocyte functionality in the Venus clam Chamelea gallina. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 136 (3), 631-640.

Ballesteros, E., Torras, X., Pinedo, S., García, M., Mangialajo, L. & De Torres, M., 2007. A new methodology based on littoral community cartography dominated by macroalgae for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 55 (1), 172-180.

Balseiro P., Montes A., Ceschia G., Gestal C., Novoa B. & Figueras A., 2007. Molecular epizootiology of the European Marteilia spp., infecting mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis and M. edulis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis): an update. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 27(4), 148-156.

Bamber, R., Gilliland, P. & Shardlow, M., 2001. Saline lagoons: A guide to their management and creation. English Nature, Peterborough, 171 pp. 

Bamber, R.N. & Davis, M.H., 1982. Feeding of Achelia echinata Hodge (Pycnogonida) on marine algae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 60, 181-187.

Bamber, R.N. & Henderson, P.A., 1994. Seasonality of caridean decapod and mysid distribution and movements within the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 51 (1‐2), 83-91.

Bamber, R.N. & Irving, P.W., 1997. The differential growth of Sabellaria alveolata (L.) reefs at a power station outfall. Polychaete Research, 17, 9-14.

Bamber, R.N. & Irving, P.W., 1993. The Corallina run-offs of Bridgewater Bay. Porcupine Newsletter, 5, 190-197.

Bamber, R.N. & Seaby, R.M.H., 2004. The effects of power station entrainement passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda). Marine Environmental Research, 57, 281-294.

Bamber, R.N. & Spencer, J.F. 1984. The benthos of a coastal power station thermal discharge canal. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 64, 603-623.

Bamber, R.N., 1985. Coarse substrate benthos of Kingsnorth outfall lagoon, with observations on Petricola pholadiformis Lamarck. Central Electricity Research Laboratories Report TPRD/L2759/N84., Central Electricity Research Laboratories Report TPRD/L2759/N84.

Bamber, R.N., 1988. A comparison of epifaunal arthropods from sixteen potential community associations at Cullercoats. Porcupine Newsletter, 4, 45-48.

Bamber, R.N., 1993. Changes in the infauna of a sandy beach. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 172, 93-107.

Bamber, R.N., 1990. The effects of acidic seawater on three species of lamellibranch mollusc. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 143, 181-191.

Bamber, R.N., Batten, S.D. & Bridgwater, N.D., 1991. The brackish ponds at Killingholme, Humberside, UK. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 1 (2), 173-181.

Bamber, R.N., Batten, S.D., Sheader, M. & Bridgwater, N.D., 1992. On the ecology of brackish water lagoons in Great Britain. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 2 (1), 65-94.

Bamber, R.N., Gilliland, P.M. & Shardlow, M.E.A., 2001. Saline lagoons: a guide to their management and creation (interim version). Peterborough: English Nature.

Bandeira, S.O., 1995. Marine botanical communities in southern Mozambique: Sea grass and seaweed diversity and conservation. Ambio, 24, 506-509.

Bang, A., Grø nkjæ r, P. & Lorenzen, B., 2008. The relation between concentrations of ovarian trace elements and the body size of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 65(7), 1191-1197.

Banks, P.D. & Brown, K.M., 2002. Hydrocarbon effects on fouling assemblages: the importance of taxonomic differences, seasonal, and tidal variation. Marine Environmental Research, 53 (3), 311-326.

Bantock, C.R. & Cockayne, W.L., 1975. Chromosomal polymorphism in Nucella lapillus. Heredity, 34, 231-245.

Barbaglio, A., Biressi, A., Melone, G., Bonasoro, F., Lavado, R., Porte, C. & Carnevali, M.D.C., 2009. Reproductive cycle of Antedon mediterranea (Crinoidea, Echinodermata): correlation between morphology and physiology. Zoomorphology, 128 (2), 119-134.

Barber, B.J., 2004. Neoplastic diseases of commercially important marine bivalves. Aquatic Living Resources, 17 (04), 449-466.

Barber, B.J. & Blake, N.J., 1991. Reproductive physiology. In Scallops: biology, ecology and aquaculture (ed. S.E. Shumway), pp. 377-428. Amsterdam: Elsevier. [Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, no. 21.]

Barbera C., Bordehore C., Borg J.A., Glemarec M., Grall J., Hall-Spencer J.M., De la Huz C., Lanfranco E., Lastra M., Moore P.G., Mora J., Pita M.E., Ramos-Espla A.A., Rizzo M., Sanchez-Mata A., Seva A., Schembri P.J. and Valle C. 2003. Conservation and managment of northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean maerl beds. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 13, S65-S76.

Barda, I., Purina, I., Rimsa, E. & Balode, M., 2014. Seasonal dynamics of biomarkers in infaunal clam Macoma balthica from the Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea). Journal of Marine Systems, 129, 150-156.

Baretta-Bekker, J.G., Duursma, E.K. & Kuipers, B.R., 1992. Encyclopedia of marine sciences Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Barfield, P., 2003. Notes on the history of the celtic sea slug; Onchidella celtica (Cuvier, 1817). Porcupine Newsletter, 13, 10-12.

Barker, M., 2001. Echinoderms 2000: Proceedings of the 10th International Echinoderm Conference. CRC Press Inc

Barker, M.F. & Nichols, D., 1983. Reproduction, recruitment and juvenile ecology of the starfish Asterias rubens and Marthasterias glacialis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 63, 745-765.

Barnard, J.L., 1958. Amphipod crustaceans as fouling organisms in Los Angeles-Long Beach harbours, with reference to the influence of seawater turbidity. California Fish and Game, 44, 161-170.

Barnay, A.S., Ellien, C., Gentil, F. & Thiebaut, E., 2003. A model study on variations in larval supply: are populations of the polychaete Owenia fusiformis in the English Channel open or closed? Helgoland Marine Research, 56, 229-237.

Barnes, D. K. A., Steele, S., Maguire, D. & Turner, J., 1999. Population dynamics of the urchin Paracentrotus lividus at Lough Hyne, Ireland. In Echinoderm research, M. D. C. Carnevali & F. Bonasoro (eds). Rotterdam: Balkema, 427– 431.

Barnes, H., 1956. Balanus balanoides (L.) in the Firth of Clyde: the development and annual variation in the larval population and the causative factors. Journal of Animal Ecology, 25, 72-84.

Barnes, H. & Bagenal, T.B., 1951. Observations on Nephrops norvegicus and an epizoic population of Balanus crenatus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 30, 369-380.

Barnes, H. & Barnes, M., 1974. The responses during development of the embryos of some common cirripedes to wide changes in salinity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 15 (2), 197-202.

Barnes, H. & Barnes, M., 1965. Egg size, nauplius size, and their variation with local, geographical and specific factors in some common cirripedes. Journal of Animal Ecology, 34, 391-402.

Barnes, H. & Barnes, M., 1968. Egg numbers, metabolic efficiency and egg production and fecundity; local and regional variations in a number of common cirripedes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2, 135-153.

Barnes, H. & Barnes, M., 1958. Further observations on self-fertilisation in Chthamalus sp. Ecology, 39, 550.

Barnes, H. & Powell, H.T., 1953. The growth of Balanus balanoides and B. crenatus under varying conditions of submersion. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 32, 107-127.

Barnes, H. & Stone, R., 1972. Suppression of penis development in Balanus balanoides (L.). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 9 (3), 303-309.

Barnes, H., 1963. Light, temperature and the breeding of Balanus balanoides. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 43 (03), 717-727.

Barnes, H., 1953. The effect of lowered salinity on some barnacle nauplii. Journal of Animal Ecology, 22, 328-330.

Barnes, H., 1956. The growth rate of Chthamalus stellatus (Poli). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 35, 355-361.

Barnes, H., 1958. Regarding the southern limits of Balanus balanoides (L.). Oikos, 9, 139-157.

Barnes, H., 1957. Processes of restoration and synchronization in marine ecology. The spring diatom increase and the 'spawning' of the common barnacle Balanus balanoides (L.). Année Biologique. Paris, 33, 68-85.

Barnes, H., Finlayson, D.M. & Piatigorsky, J., 1963. The effect of desiccation and anaerobic conditions on the behaviour, survival and general metabolism of three common cirripedes. Journal of Animal Ecology, 32, 233-252.

Barnes, M., 2000. The use of intertidal barnacle shells. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 38, 157-187.

Barnes, M., 1996. Pedunculate cirripedes of the genus Pollicipes. Oceanography and Marine Biology, 34, 303-394

Barnes, M., 1989. Egg production in Cirripedia. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 27, 91-166.

Barnes, M., 1992. The reproductive periods and condition of the penis in several species of common cirripedes. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 30, 483-525.

Barnes, M.K.S. 2008. Acrocnida brachiata Sand burrowing brittlestar. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from: http://192.171.193.68/species/detail/134

Barnes, R.D., 1980. Invertebrate Zoology, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Holt-Saunders International Editions.

Barnes, R.S.K. & Head, S.M., 1977. Variation in paragnath number in some British populations of the estuarine polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 5, 771-781.

Barnes, R.S.K. & Hughes, R.N., 1992. An introduction to marine ecology. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Barnes, R.S.K., 1980b. Coastal lagoons. The natural history of a neglected habitat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Barnes, R.S.K., 1991. Dilemmas in the theory and practice of biological conservation as exemplified by British coastal lagoons. Biological Conservation, 55, 315 - 323.

Barnes, R.S.K., 1973. The intertidal lamellibranchs of Southampton Water, with particular reference to Cerastoderma edule and C. glaucum. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 40, 413-433.

Barnes, R.S.K., 1994. The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Barnes, R.S.K., 1988. On reproductive strategies in adjacent lagoonal and intertidal marine populations of the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 68, 365-375.

Barnes, R.S.K., 1990. Reproductive strategies in the contrasting populations of the coastal gastropod Hydrobia ulvae. II. Longevity and lifetime egg production. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 138, 183-200.

Barnes, R.S.K., 1981. An experimental study of the pattern and significance of the climbing behaviour of Hydrobia ulvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 61, 285-299.

Barnes, R.S.K., Coughlan, J. & Holmes, N.J., 1973. A preliminary survey of the macroscopic bottom fauna of the Solent, with particular reference to Crepidula fornicata and Ostrea edulis. Proceedings of the Malacological Society, 40, 253-275.

Barnes, R.S.K., Williams, A., Little, C. & Dorey, A.E., 1979. An ecological study of the Swanpool, Falmouth. IV. Population fluctuations of some dominant macrofauna. In: Ecological processes in coastal environments, (ed. R.L. Jefferies & A. J. Davy), pp. 177-197. Oxford: Blackwell.

Barnett, B.E., 1983. Oligochaetes as indicators of pollution in the Humber estuary, with special reference to Tubificoides benedii. Environmental Pollution (Series A), 30, 277-291.

Barnich, R. & Fiege, D., 2000. Review of the north east Atlantic and Mediterranean species of Aphrodita Linnaeus, 1758 and Aphroditella Roule, 1898 (Polychaeta: Aphroditidae). Ophelia, 53, 131-140.

Barradas, A., Alberto, F., Engelen, A.H. & Serrào, E.A., 2011. Fast sporophyte replacement after removal suggests banks of latent microscopic stages of Laminaria ochroleuca (Phaeophyceae) in tide pools in northern Portugal. CBM-Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 52 (4), 435.

Barreiro, R., Real, C., Carballeira, A., 1993. Heavy-metal accumulation by Fucus ceranoides in a small estuary in north-west Spain. Marine Environmental Research, 36, 39-61.

Barro, D.G., 2005. The genus Sebastes Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces, Scorpaenidae) in the North Atlantic: species and stock discrimination using traditional and geometric morphometrics. , Ph.D. thesis, University of Vigo.

Bartels-Hardege, H.D. & Zeeck, E., 1990. Reproductive behaviour of Nereis diversicolor (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Biology, 106, 409-412.

Barthel, D., 1986. On the ecophysiology of the sponge Halichondria panicea in Kiel Bight. I. Substrate specificity, growth and reproduction. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 32, 291-298.

Barthel, D. & Wolfrath, B., 1989. Tissue sloughing in the sponge Halichondria panicea: a fouling organism prevents being fouled. Oecologia, 78, 357-360.

Barthel, D., 1988. On the ecophysiology of the sponge Halichondria panicea in Kiel Bight. II. Biomass, production, energy budget and integration in environmental processes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 43, 87-93.

Bartolomaeus, T. 1992. On the ultrastructure of the cuticle, the epidermis and the gills of Sternaspis scutata (Annelida). Microfauna Marina, 7, 237-253.

Barton, E.S., 1892. On malformations of Ascophyllum and Desmarestia. Phycological Memoirs, London, Part I, 21-24.

Barton, E.S., 1901. On certain galls in Furcellaria and Chondrus. Journal of Botany, 39, 49-51.

Bartsch, I., Vogt, J., Pehlke, C. & Hanelt, D., 2013. Prevailing sea surface temperatures inhibit summer reproduction of the kelp Laminaria digitata at Helgoland (North Sea). Journal of Phycology, 49 (6), 1061-1073.

Bartsch, I., Wiencke, C., Bischof, K., Buchholz, C.M., Buck, B.H., Eggert, A., Feuerpfeil, P., Hanelt, D., Jacobsen, S. & Karez, R., 2008. The genus Laminaria sensu lato: recent insights and developments. European Journal of Phycology, 43 (1), 1-86.

Basford, D., Eleftheriou, A. & Raffaelli D. 1990. The Infauna and Epifauna of the Northern North Sea. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 25: 165-173.

Basford, D.J., Eleftheriou, A. & Raffaelli, D., 1989. The epifauna of the northern North-Sea (56-°-61°N). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 69, 387-407.

Basimi, R.A. & Grove, D.J., 1985. Estimates of daily food intake by an inshore population of Pleuronectes platessa L. off eastern Anglesey, north Wales. Journal of Fish Biology, 27, 505-520.

Basova, L., Begum, S., Strahl, J., Sukhotin, A., Brey, T., Philipp, E. & Abele, D., 2011. Age-dependent patterns of antioxidants in Arctica islandica from six regionally separate populations with different lifespans. Aquatic Biology, 14(2), 141-152.

Bassindale, R., 1938. The intertidal fauna of the Mersey estuary. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 23 (01), 83-98.

Bassindale, R., 1943. A comparison of the varying salinity conditions of the Tees and Severn estuaries. The Journal of Animal Ecology, 1-10.

Bassindale, R., 1964. British Barnacles. London: The Linnean Society of London.[Synopses of the British Fauna, no. 14.]

Bassindale, R., Ebling, F.J., Kitching, J.A. & Purchon, R.D. 1948. The ecology of the Lough Ine rapids with special reference to water currents. I. Introduction and hydrography. Journal of Ecology, 36, 305-322.

Bat, L. & Raffaelli, D., 1998. Sediment toxicity testing: a bioassay approach using the amphipod Corophium volutator and the polychaete Arenicola marina. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 226, 217-239.

Bat, L., Gündoğdu, A., Akbulut, M., Çulha, M. & Satılmıs, H.H., 2001. Toxicity of zinc and lead to the polychaete Hediste diversicolor (Müller 1776). Turkish Journal of Marine Science, 7, 71-84.

Bat, L., Raffaelli, D. & Marr, I.L., 1998. The accumulation of copper, zinc and cadmium by the amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 223, 167-184.

Batten, L.A., Bibby, C.J., Clement, P., Elliott, G.D. & Porter, R.F., 1990. Red data birds in Britain, The Nature Conservancy Council and RSPB. T. & A.D. Poyser.

Bauer, B., Fioroni, P., Ide, I., Liebe, S., Oehlmann, J., Stroben, E. & Watermann, B., 1995. TBT effects on the female genital system of Littorina littorea: a possible indicator of tributyl tin pollution. Hydrobiologia, 309, 15-27.

Bauvais, C., Zirah, S., Piette, L., Chaspoul, F., Domart-Coulon, I., Chapon, V., Gallice, P., Rebuffat, S., Pérez, T. & Bourguet-Kondracki, M.-L., 2015. Sponging up metals: bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis. Marine Environmental Research, 104, 20-30.

Bavestrello, G., Cattaneo‐Vietti, R., Danovaro, R. and Fabiano, M., 1991. Detritus rolling down a vertical cliff of the Ligurian Sea (Italy): the ecological role in hard bottom communities. Marine Ecology, 12 (4), 281-292.

Bavestrello, G., Cerrano, C., Zanzi, D. & Cattaneo Vietti, R. 1997. Damage by fishing activities in the gorgonian coral Paramuricea clavata in the Ligurian Sea. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 7, 253-262.

Baxter, J.M., 1997. Aulacomya ater: Magellan mussel: Moray Firth in Scotland in 1994 and again in 1997. Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Baxter, J.M., 1984. The incidence of Polydora ciliata and Cliona celata boring the shell of Patella vulgata in Orkney. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 64, 728-729.

Baxter. J. & Light. J., 1990. Some unusual specimens of Acanthochitona crinita from off the Isle of Wight, Weymouth and Anglesey. Journal of Conchology, 33, 335-340.

Bay-Nouailhat, W., 2007. Description de Sarcodictyon roseum. [cited 17.03.2016]. Available from: http://www.mer-littoral.org/05/sarcodictyon-roseum.php

Bayed, A., Cherkaoui, E. & Glemarec, M., 2006. Population dynamics of Scolelepis Squamata (Anelida: Polychaeta) from a Northwest African beach. Cahiers De Biologie Marine, 47 (2), 143-155.

Bayer, M.M., Cormack, R.M. & Todd, C.D., 1994. Influence of food concentration on polypide regression in the marine bryozoan Electra pilosa (L.) (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 178, 35-50.

Bayer, M.M., Todd, C.D., Hoyle, J.E. & Wilson, J.F.B., 1997. Wave-related abrasion induces formation of extended spines in a marine bryozoan. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 264, 1605-1611.

Bayne B., 1964. Primary and secondary settlement in Mytilus edulis L.(Mollusca). Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 513-523.

Bayne, B. 1969. The gregarious behaviour of the larvae of Ostrea edulis L. at settlement. Journal of
the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
, 49, 327–356.

Bayne, B., 1969. The gregarious behaviour of the larvae of Ostrea edulis L. at settlement. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 49(2), 327-356.

Bayne, B., 1969. The gregarious behaviour of the larvae of Ostrea edulis L. at settlement. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 49 (2), 327-356.

Bayne, B., Iglesias, J., Hawkins, A., Navarro, E., Heral, M., Deslous-Paoli, J-M., 1993. Feeding behaviour of the mussel, Mytilus edulis: responses to variations in quantity and organic content of the seston. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 73, 813-29

Bayne, B.L. & Scullard, C., 1978. Rates of feeding by Thais (Nucella) lapillus (L.). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 32, 75-94.

Bayne, B.L. (ed.), 1976b. Marine mussels: their ecology and physiology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [International Biological Programme 10.]

Bayne, B.L., 1965. Growth and the delay of metamorphosis of the larvae of Mytilus edulis (L.). Ophelia, 2, 1-47.

Bayne, B.L., 1983. Physiological ecology of marine molluscan larvae. In The Mollusca, vol III. Development, (ed. K.M. Wilbur), pp. 299-343. New York: Academic Press.

Bayne, B.L., 1976a. The biology of mussel larvae. In Marine mussels: their ecology and physiology (ed. B.L. Bayne), pp. 81-120. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [International Biological Programme 10.]

Bayne, B.L., Widdows, J. & Thompson, R.J., 1976. Physiological integrations. In Marine mussels: their ecology and physiology (ed. B.L. Bayne), pp. 261-299. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [International Biological Programme 10.]

Bayne, B.L., Widdows, J., Moore, M.N., Salkeld, P., Worrall, C.M. & Donkin, P., 1982. Some ecological consequences of the physiological and biochemical effects of petroleum compounds on marine molluscs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 297, 219-239.

Beadle, L.C., 1937. Adaptation to changes of salinity in the Polychaetes. Journal of Experimental Biology, 14 (1), 56-70.

Beasley, T.M. & Fowler, S.W., 1976. Plutonium and Americium: uptake from contaminated sediments by the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Marine Biology, 38, 95-100.

Beauchamp, E., 2012. Effects of UV radiation and salinity on the intertidal macroalgae Palmaria palmata and Ulva lactuca; effects on photosynthetic performance, growth and pigments. The Plymouth Student Scientist, 5 (1), 3-22.

Beauchamp, K.A., Gowing, M.M., 1982. A quantitative assessment of human trampling effects on a rocky intertidal community. Marine Environmental Research, 7, 279-94

Beaugrand, G., Brander, K.M., Lindley, J.A., Souissi, S. & Reid, P.C., 2003. Plankton have effect on cod recruitment in North Sea. Nature, 426, 661-664.

Beaumont A., Abdul-Matin A. & Seed R., 1993. Early development, survival and growth in pure and hybrid larvae of Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 59(1), 120-123.

Beaumont, A., 2000. Genetic considerations in transfers and introductions of scallops. Aquaculture International, 8 (6), 493-512.

Beaumont, A. & Budd, M.D., 1983. Effects of self-fertilization and other factors on the early development of scallop Pecten maximus. Marine Biology, 76, 285-289.

Beaumont, A., 2011. In Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture, S.E. Shumway, & G.J. Parsons (eds) pp. 543-594. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science.

Beaumont, A., Abdul-Matin, A. & Seed, R., 1993. Early development, survival and growth in pure and hybrid larvae of Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 59, 120-123.

Beaumont, A.R. & Barnes, D.A. 1992. Aspects of the veliger larval growth and byssus drifting of the spat of Pecten maximus and Aequipecten (Chlamys) opercularis. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 49, 417-423.

Beaumont, A.R. & Budd, M.D., 1984. High mortality of the larvae of the common mussel at low concentrations of tributyl tin. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 15, 402-405.

Beaumont, A.R. & Budd, M.D., 1982. Delayed growth of mussel (Mytilus edulis) and scallop (Pecten maximus) veligers at low temperatures. Marine Biology, 71, 97-100.

Beaumont, A.R. & Newman, P.B., 1986. Low levels of tributyl tin reduce growth of marine micro-algae. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 17, 457-461.

Beaumont, A.R. & Zouros, E., 1991. Genetics of scallops. In Scallops: biology, ecology and aquaculture (ed. S.E. Shumway), pp. 585-624. Amsterdam: Elsevier. [Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, no.21.]

Beaumont, A.R., 2005. Genetics. In Scallops: biology, ecology and aquaculture 2nd edn, (ed. S.E. Shumway and J. Parsons). Amsterdam: Elsevier (in press).

Beaumont, A.R., Gjedrem, T. & Moran, P., 2007. Blue mussel Mytilus edulis and Mediterranean mussel M. galloprovincialis. In T., S., et al. (eds.). Genetic impact of aquaculture activities on native populations. GENIMPACT final scientific report (EU contract n. RICA-CT-2005-022802), pp. 62-69.

Beaumont, A.R., Gosling, E.M., Beveridge, C.M., Budd, M.D. & Burnell, C.M., 1985. Studies on heterozygosity and growth rate in the scallop, Pecten maximus (L.). In Proceedings of the Nineteenth European Marine Biology Symposium (ed. P.E. Gibbs), pp. 443-455. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Beaumont, A.R., Newman, P.B., Mills, D.K., Waldock, M.J., Miller, D. & Waite, M.E., 1989. Sandy-substrate microcosm studies on tributyl tin (TBT) toxicity to marine organisms. Scientia Marina, 53, 737-743.

Beaumont, A.R., Turner, G., Wood, A.R. & Skibinski, D.O.F., 2004. Hybridisations between Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis and performance of pure species and hybrid veliger larvae at different temperatures. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 302 (2), 177-188.

Beaver, R. & Dipper, F.A., 2002. Marine Nature Conservation Review Sector 14. Sealochs in the Outer Hebrides: Area summaries. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Bebianno, M.J., Cravo, A., Miguel, C. & Morias, S., 2003. Metallothionein concentrations in a population of Patella aspera: variation with size. Science of the Total Environment, 301, 151-161.

Becker, P.T., Egea, E. & Eeckhaut, I., 2008. Characterization of the bacterial communities associated with the bald sea urchin disease of the echinoid Paracentrotus lividusJournal of Invertebrate Pathology98 (2), 136-147.

Bedford, A.P. & Moore, P.G., 1985. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin)(Echinodermata: Echinoidea) Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 20, 19-40.

Beeftink, W.G., 1979. The structure of salt marsh communities in relation to environmental disturbances. In Ecological processes in coastal environments (ed. R.L. Jefferies, R.L. & A.J. Davy), pp.77- 93. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Beer, S. & Kautsky, L., 1992. The recovery of net photosynthesis during rehydration of three Fucus species from the Swedish West Coast following exposure to air. Botanica Marina, 35 (6), 487-492.

Beer, S., Björk, M. & Beardall, J., 2014. Photosynthesis in the Marine Environment. John Wiley & Sons.

Beermann, A.J., Ellrich, J.A., Molis, M. & Scrosati, R.A., 2013. Effects of seaweed canopies and adult barnacles on barnacle recruitment: the interplay of positive and negative influences. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 448, 162-170.

Bégin, C., Johnson, L.E. & Himmelman, J.H., 2004. Macroalgal canopies: distribution and diversity of associated invertebrates and effects on the recruitment and growth of mussels. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 271 (1), 121-132.

Begum, S., Basova, L., Heilmayer, O., Philipp, E.E.R., Abele, D. & Brey, T., 2010. Growth and Energy Budget Models of the Bivalve Arctica islandica at Six Different Sites in the Northeast Atlantic Realm. Journal of Shellfish Research, 29(1), 107-115.

Begum, S., Basova, L., Strahl, J., Sukhotin, A., Heilmayer, O., Philipp, E., Brey, T. & Abele, D., 2009. A Metabolic Model for the Ocean Quahog Arctica islandica - Effects of Animal Mass and Age, Temperature, Salinity, and Geographyon Respiration Rate. Journal of Shellfish Research, 28 (3), 533-539.

Behbehani, M.I. & Croker, R.A., 1982. Ecology of beach wrack in northern New England with special reference to Orchestia platensis. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 15 (6), 611-620.

Beiras, R., Perez-Camacho, A. & Albentosa, M., 1993. Influence of food concentration on energy balance and growth performance of Venerupis pullastra seed reared in an open flow system. Aquaculture, 116, 353-365.

Beiring, E.A. & Lasker, H.R., 2000. Egg production by colonies of a gorgonian coral. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 196, 169-177.

Bekkby, T. & Moy, F.E., 2011. Developing spatial models of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) potential distribution under natural conditions and areas of its disappearance in Skagerrak. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 95 (4), 477-483.

Belan, T., 2003. Benthos abundance pattern and species composition in conditions of pollution in Amursky Bay (the Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46 (9), 1111-1119.

Bell, A.A., 1990. Population structure, feeding habits and parasites of flounder, Platichthys flesus L. in the upper Forth estuary. , BSc Hons. thesis, University of Stirling. 97pp.

Bell, A.M. 2001. Effects of an endocrine disrupter on courtship and aggressive behaviour of male three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Animal Behaviour, 62, 775-780.

Bell, G. 1982. The masterpiece of nature, the evolution and genetics of sexuality. London: Croom Helm.

Bell, J.J., 2007. The ecology of sponges in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve (south-west Ireland): past, present and future perspectives. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 87 (6), 1655-1668.

Bell, J.J. & Barnes, D.K., 2001. Sponge morphological diversity: a qualitative predictor of species diversity? Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 11 (2), 109-121.

Bell, J.J. & Barnes, D.K., 2000. The distribution and prevalence of sponges in relation to environmental gradients within a temperate sea lough: inclined cliff surfaces. Diversity and Distributions, 6 (6), 305-323.

Bell, J.J. & Smith, D., 2004. Ecology of sponge assemblages (Porifera) in the Wakatobi region, south-east Sulawesi, Indonesia: richness and abundance. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 84 (3), 581-591.

Bell, J.J. & Turner, J.R., 2000. Factors influencing the density and morphometrics of the cup coral Caryophyllia smithii in Lough Hyne. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80, 437-441.

Bell, J.J., 2002. Morphological responses of a cup coral to environmental gradients. Sarsia, 87, 319-330.

Bell, J.J., Barnes, D. & Shaw, C., 2002. Branching dynamics of two species of arborescent demosponge: the effect of flow regime and bathymetry. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 82 (2), 279-294.

Bell, M.C. & Fish, J.D., 1996. Fecundity and seasonal changes in reproductive output of females of the gravel beach amphipod Pectenogammarus planicrurus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 76, 37-55.

Bell, M.C., 1995. Pectenogammarus planicrurus - there is life in gravel beaches. Porcupine Newsletter, 6, 41-47.

Bell, M.C., 1992. The ecology of the gravel beach amphipod Pectenogammarus planicrurus Reid. PhD thesis, University of Wales., PhD thesis, University of Wales.

Bell, M.C., Elson, J.M., Addison, J.T., Revill, A.S. & Bevan, D., 2008. Trawl catch composition in relation to Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus L.) abundance on the Farn Deeps grounds, NE England. Fisheries Research (Amsterdam), 90(1-3), 128-137.

Bell, N. & Smith, J., 1999. Coral growing on North Sea oil rigs. Nature, 402, 601.

Bellan, G., 1967. Pollution et peuplements benthiques sur substrat meuble dans la région de Marseille. I. Le secteur de Cortiou. Revue Internationale d'Océanographie Médicale, 6, 53-87.

Bellan, G., 1967. Pollution et peuplements benthiques sur substrat meuble dans la région de Marseille. Deuxieme partie. L'ensemble portuaire Marseillais. Revue Internationale d'Océanographie Médicale, 8, 51-95.

Bellan, G., 1976. La pollution par les tensio-actifs. In: La pollution des Eaux Marines, J.M. Peres (Ed.). Paris: Gauthier-Villas, pp 31-50.

Bellan-Santini, D., 1980. Relationship between populations of amphipods and pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 11, 224-227.

Bellas, J., 2005. Toxicity assessment of the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione using early developmental stages of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Biofouling, 21 (5-6), 289-296.

Bellas, J., Beiras, R. & Vázquez, E., 2004. Sublethal effects of trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg) on embryogenesis and larval settlement of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, 46 (1), 61-66.

Bellgrove, A., Clayton, M.N. & Quinn, G., 1997. Effects of secondarily treated sewage effluent on intertidal macroalgal recruitment processes. Marine and Freshwater Research, 48 (2), 137-146.

Bellgrove, A., McKenzie, P.F., McKenzie, J.L. & Sfiligoj, B.J., 2010. Restoration of the habitat-forming fucoid alga Hormosira banksii at effluent-affected sites: competitive exclusion by coralline turfs. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 419, 47-56.

Bendell-Young, L., 2006. Contrasting the community structure and select geochemical characteristics of three intertidal regions in relation to shellfish farming. Environmental Conservation, 33 (01), 21-27.

Benedetti-Cecchi, L. & Cinelli, F., 1992. Effects of canopy cover, herbivores and substratum type on patterns of Cystoseira spp. settlement and recruitment in littoral rockpools. Marine Ecology Progress Series90 (2), 183-191.

Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Acunto, S., Bulleri, F. & Cinelli, F., 2000. Population ecology of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus in the northwest Mediterranean. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 198, 157-170.

Benito-Gutiérrez, È., Weber, H., Bryant, D.V. & Arendt, D., 2013. Methods for generating year-round access to amphioxus in the laboratory. Plos One, 8 (8), e71599.

Bennell, S.J., 1981. Some observations on the littoral barnacle populations of North Wales. Marine Environmental Research, 5, 227-240.

Bennett, D.B. & Brown, C.G., 1983. Crab (Cancer pagurus) migrations in the English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 63, 371-398.

Bennett, D.B., 1995. Factors in the life history of the edible crab (Cancer pagurus L.) that influence modelling and management. ICES Marine Science Symposia, 199, 89-98.

Bennett, D.B., 1979. Population assessment of the edible crab (Cancer pagurus L.) fishery off southwest England. Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Reunions. Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 175, 229-235.

Benson, A., Foster-Smith, B., Gubbay, S. & Hendrick, V., 2013. Background document on Sabellaria spinulosa reefs. Biodiversity Series, OSPAR Commission, London, pp. http://www.ospar.org/documents/dbase/publications/p00614/p00614_sabellaria.pdf

Benson-Evans, K., & Antoine, R. 1993. A check list of the freshwater, brackish and marine algae of South Wales, U.K. Cowbridge: D.Brown and Sons Limited.

Bentley, M.G. & Pacey, A.A., 1992. Physiological and environmental control of reproduction in polychaetes. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 30, 443-481.

Bentley, M.G. & Pacey, A.A., 1989. A scanning electron microscopial study of sperm development and activation in Arenicola marina L. (Annelida: Polychaeta). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 15, 211-219.

Bentley, M.G., 1989. An ultrastructural study of oogenesis in the polychaete Nephtys hombergii Savigny. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 43, 157-169.

Bentley, M.G., Olive, P.J.W., Garwood, P.R. & Wright, N.H., 1984. The spawning and spawning mechanism of Nephtys caeca (Fabricius, 1780) and Nephtys hombergii Savigny, 1818 (Annelida: Polychaeta). Sarsia, 69, 63-68.

Berge, J., Johnsen, G., Nilsen, F., Gulliksen, B. & Slagstad, D., 2005. Ocean temperature oscillations enable reappearance of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in Svalbard after a 1000 year absence. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 303, 167-175.

Berge, J., Johnsen, G., Nilsen, F., Gulliksen, B. & Slagstad, D. 2005. Ocean temperature oscillations enable reappearance of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in Svalbard after a 1000 year absence. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 303, 167–175.

Berge, J.A., Johannessen, K.I. & Reiersen, L.O., 1983. Effects of the water soluble fraction of the North Sea crude oil on the swimming activity of the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 68, 159-167.

Berger, R., Bergström, L., Granéli, E. & Kautsky, L., 2004. How does eutrophication affect different life stages of Fucus vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea? - a conceptual model. Hydrobiologia, 514 (1-3), 243-248.

Berger, R., Henriksson, E., Kautsky, L. & Malm, T., 2003. Effects of filamentous algae and deposited matter on the survival of Fucus vesiculosus L. germlings in the Baltic Sea. Aquatic Ecology, 37 (1), 1-11.

Berger, R., Malm, T. & Kautsky, L., 2001. Two reproductive strategies in Baltic Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae). European Journal of Phycology, 36, 265-273.

Berger, V.J. & Kharazova, A., 1997. Mechanisms of salinity adaptations in marine molluscs. Interactions and Adaptation Strategies of Marine Organisms: Springer, pp. 115-126.

Berghahn, R. & Offermann, U., 1999. Laboratory investigations on larval development, motility and settlement of white weed (Sertularia cupressina L.) - in view of its assumed decrease in the Wadden Sea. Hydrobiologia, 392 (2), 233-239.

Berghahn, R. & Offermann, U. 1999. Laboratory investigations on larval development, motility and settlement of white weed (Sertularia cupressina L.) - in view of its assumed decrease in the Wadden Sea. Hydrobiogia, 392(2), 233–239.

Berghahn, R., 1996. Episodic mass invasions of juvenile gadoids into the Wadden Sea and their consequences for the population dynamics of the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon). Marine Ecology, 17, 251-260.

Bergman, M.J.N. & Hup, M., 1992. Direct effects of beam trawling on macro-fauna in a sandy sediment in the southern North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 49, 5-11.

Bergman, M.J.N. & Van Santbrink, J.W., 2000b. Fishing mortality of populations of megafauna in sandy sediments. In The effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats (ed. M.J. Kaiser & S.J de Groot), 49-68. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Bergman, M.J.N. & Van Santbrink, J.W., 2000a. Mortality in megafaunal benthic populations caused by trawl fisheries on the Dutch continental shelf in the North Sea in 1994. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57 (5), 1321-1331.

Bergmann, M. & Moore, P.G., 2001. Survival of decapod crustaceans discarded in the Nephrops fishery of the Clyde Sea area, Scotland. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 58, 163-171.

Bergmann, M. & Moore, P.G., 2001. Mortality of Asterias rubens and Ophiura ophiura discarded in the Nephrops fishery of the Clyde Sea area, Scotland. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 58, 531-542.

Bergmann, M., Beare, D.J. & Moore, P.G., 2001. Damage sustained by epibentic invertebrates discarded in the Nephrops fishery of the Clyde Sea area, Scotland. Journal of Sea Research, 45, 105-118.

Bergmann, M., Wieczorek, S.K., Moore, P.G., 2002. Utilisation of invertebrates discarded from the Nephrops fishery by variously selective benthic scavengers in the west of Scotland. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 233,185-98

Bergmann, M., Wieczorek, S.K., Moore, P.G. & Atkinson, R.J.A., 2002a. Discard composition of the Nephrops fishery in the Clyde Sea area, Scotland. Fisheries Research, 57, 169-183.

Bergquist, P.R. 1978. Sponges. London: Hutchinson.

Bergstad, O.A., 1990. Distribution, population structure, growth and reproduction of the roundnose grenadier Coryphaenoides rupestris (Pisces: Macrouridae) in the deep waters of the Skagerrak. Marine Biology, 107, 25-39

Bergstad, O.A., Hoines, A.S. & Jorgensen, T., 2002. Growth of sandeel, Ammodytes marinus, in the northern North Sea and Norwegian coastal waters. Fisheries Research, 56, 9-23

Bergstad, O.A., Jørgensen, T. & Dragesund, O., 1987. Life history and ecology of the gadoid resources of the Barents Sea. Fisheries Research, 5, 119-161.

Bergstadt, O.A.; Hoines, A.S.; Kruger-Johnsen, E.M., 2001. Spawning time, age and size at maturity, and fecundity of sandeel, Ammodytes marinus, in the north-eastern North Sea and in unfished coastal waters off Norway. Aquatic Living Resources, 14(5), 293-301

Bergström, L., Berger, R. & Kautsky, L., 2003. Negative direct effects of nutrient enrichment on the establishment of Fucus vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea. European Journal of Phycology, 38 (1), 41-46.

Bergstrom, Bo I., 1985. Aspects of natural foraging by Sepietta oweniana (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Ophelia, 24, 65-74.

Bergström, P., 2014. Blue Oceans with Blue Mussels-Management and planning of mussel farming in coastal ecosystems. Ph.D. thesis, Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.

Berman, J., Burton, M., Gibbs, R., Lock, K., Newman, P., Jones, J. & Bell, J., 2013. Testing the suitability of a morphological monitoring approach for identifying temporal variability in a temperate sponge assemblage. Journal for Nature Conservation, 21 (3), 173-182.

Bernard, G., Boudouresque, C.F. & Picon, P. 2007. Long term changes in Zostera meadows in the Berre lagoon (Provence, Mediterranean Sea) Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 73, 617-629

Bernárdez, C., Freire, J. & González-Gurriarán, E., 2000. Feeding of the spider crab Maja squinado in rocky subtidal areas of the Ría de Arousa (north-west Spain). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80, 95-102.

Bernhard, J.M., Buck, K.R., Farmer, M.A. & Bowser, S.S., 2000. The Santa Barbara Basin is a symbiosis oasis. Nature, 403, 77-80.

Bernstein, B.B., Williams, B.E. & Mann, K.H., 1981. The role of behavioral responses to predators in modifying urchins' (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) destructive grazing and seasonal foraging patterns. Marine Biology, 63 (1), 39-49.

Berrill, N.J., 1975. Chordata: Tunicata. In Reproduction of marine Invertebrates, vol. II, (ed. A.C. Geise & J.S. Pearse), pp. 241-282. New York: Academic Press.

Berril, N.J., 1931. Studies in tunicate development. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (B), 219, 281-346.

Berrill, M., 1962. The biology of three New England Stauromedusae, with a description of a new species. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 40 (7), 1249-1262.

Berrill, N.J., 1987. Early chordate evolution part 2. Amphioxus and ascidians to settle or not to settle. International Journal of Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 11 (1), 15-27.

Berrill, N.J., 1949. The polymorphic transformation of Obelia. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 90, 235-264.

Berrill, N.J., 1948. A new method of reproduction in Obelia. Biological Bulletin, 95, 94-99.

Berrill, N.J., 1950. The Tunicata with an account of the British species. London: Ray Society.

Berrilli, F., Ceschia, G., De Liberato, C., Di Cave, D. & Orecchia, P., 2000. Parasitic infections of Chamelea gallina (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from commercially exploited banks of the Adriatic Sea. Bulletin of European Association of Fish Pathologists, 20 (5), 199-205.

Berrow, S. & O'Connor, I., 2013. Marine Mammals and Megafauna in Irish Waters - Behaviour, Distribution and Habitat Use- Biotelemetry of Marine Megafauna in Irish Waters: Marine Institute, Galway (Ireland).

Berrow, S.D. & Heardman, C., 1994. The Basking Shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus) in Irish Waters: Patterns of Distribution and Abundance. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 94B (2), 101-107.

Berrow, S.D. & Heardman, C., 1994. The basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus) in Irish waters - patterns of distribution and abundance. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy B 94(2) 101-107.

Berrow, S.D., 1994. Incidental capture of elasmobranchs in the bottom set gill-net fishery off the south coast of Ireland. Journal of Marine Biological Association UK, 74, 837-847.

Berry, R.J. & Crothers, J.H., 1968. Stabilizing selection in the dog-whelk (Nucella lapillus). Journal of Zoology, 155, 5-17.

Berry, R.J., 1983. Polymorphic shell banding in the dog whelk Nucella lapillus. Journal of Zoology (London), 200, 455-470.

Berschick, P., Bridges, C.R., & Grieshaber, M.K., 1987. The influence of hyperoxia, hypoxia and temperature on the respiratory physiology of the intertidal rockpool fish Gobius cobitis Pallas. Journal of Experimental Biology, 130, 369-387.

Bertelli, C.M. & Unsworth, R.K.F., 2014 Protecting the hand that feeds us: seagrass Zostera marina serves as commercial juvenile fish habitat. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 83 (2), 425-429.

Berthe, F.C.J., Le Roux, F., Adlard, R.D. & Figueras, A., 2004. Marteiliosis in molluscs: a review. Aquatic Living Resources, 17 (4), 433-448.

Berthet, B., Mouneyrac, C., Amiard, C.J., Amiard-Triquet, C., Berthelot, Y., Le Hen, A., Mastain, O., Rainbow, S.P. & Smith, D.B., 2003. Accumulation and Soluble Binding of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in the Polychaete Hediste diversicolor from Coastal Sites with Different Trace Metal Bioavailabilities. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 45 (4), 468-478.

Bertness, M.D., 1984. Habitat and community modification by an introduced herbivorous snail. Ecology, 65, 370-381.

Bertness, M.D., Ewanchuk, P.J., & Silliman, B.R., 2002. Anthropogenic modification of New England salt marsh landscapes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 99, 1395-1398.

Bertness, M.D., Gaines, S. D., Stephens, E. G., & Yund, P. O. , 1992. Components of recruitment in populations of the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 156 (2), 199-215.

Bertness, M.D., Gaines, S.D., Bermudez, D. & Sanford, E., 1991. Extreme spatial variation in the growth and reproductive output of the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 75, 91-100.

Bertness, M.D., Leonard, G.H., Levine, J.M., Schmidt, P.R. & Ingraham, A.O., 1999. Testing the relative contribution of positive and negative interactions in rocky intertidal communities. Ecology, 80 (8), 2711-27

Bertocci, I., Araujo, R., Vaselli, S. & Sousa-Pinto, I., 2011. Marginal populations under pressure: spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Ascophyllum nodosum and associated assemblages affected by human trampling in Portugal. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 439, 73-82.

Bertocci, I., Arenas, F., Matias, M., Vaselli, S., Araújo, R., Abreu, H., Pereira, R., Vieira, R. & Sousa-Pinto, I., 2010. Canopy-forming species mediate the effects of disturbance on macroalgal assemblages on Portuguese rocky shores. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 414, 107-116.

Bessa, F., Goncalves, S.C., Franco, J.N., Andre, J.N., Cunha, P.P. & Marques, J.C., 2014. Temporal changes in macrofauna as response indicator to potential human pressures on sandy beaches. Ecological Indicators, 41, 49-57.

Best, B.A., 1988. Passive Suspension Feeding in a Sea Pen: Effects of Ambient Flow on Volume Flow Rate and Filtering Efficiency. The Biological Bulletin, 175 (3), 332-342.

Best, M.A. & Thorpe, J.P., 1986. Effects of food particle concentration on feeding current velocity in six species of marine Bryozoa. Marine Biology, 93, 255-262.

Best, M.A. & Thorpe, J.P., 1994. An analysis of potential food sources available to intertidal bryozoans in Britain. In Proceedings of the 9th International Bryozoology conference, Swansea, 1992. Biology and Palaeobiology of Bryozoans (ed. P.J. Hayward, J.S. Ryland & P.D. Taylor), pp. 1-7. Fredensborg: Olsen & Olsen.

Besten, P.J. den, Donselaar, E.G. van, Herwig, H.J., Zandee, D.I. & Voogt, P.A., 1991. Effects of cadmium on gametogenesis in the seastar Asterias rubens L. Aquatic Toxicology, 20, 83-94.

Besten, P.J. den, Herwig, H.J., Zandee, D.I. & Voogt, P.A., 1989. Effects of Cd and PCBs on reproduction in the starfish Asterias rubens: aberrations in early development. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 18, 173-180.

Bester, K., 2000. The effects of pesticides on seagrass beds. Helgoland Marine Research, 54, 95-98.

Bestwick, B.W., Robbins, I.J. & Warren, L.M., 1989. Metabolic adaptations of the intertidal polychaete Cirriformia tentaculata to life in an oxygen-sink environment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 125, 193-202

Beszczynska-Möller, A., & Dye, S.R., 2013. ICES Report on Ocean Climate 2012. In ICES Cooperative Research Report, vol. 321 pp. 73.

Bethel, W.M. & Holmes, J.C., 1977. Increased vulnerability of amphipods to predation owing to altered behavior induced by larval acanthocephalans. Canadian Journal of Zoology55 (1), 110-115.

Bett, B.J., 2000. Benthic survey of the Faeroe-Shetland Channel. [CD-ROM] AFEN (2000) Atlantic margin environmental surveys of the seafloor 1996 and 1998. United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association.

Bett, B.J., 2001. UK Atlantic Margin environmental survey: introduction and overview of bathyal benthic ecology. Continental Shelf Research, 21, 917-956.

Bettencourt, V. & Guerra, A., 1999. Carbon- and oxygen-isotope composition of the cuttlebone of Sepia officinalis: a tool for predicting ecological information? Marine Biology, 133, 651-657.

Beuerlein, K. & Schipp, R., 1998. Cytomorphological aspects on the response of the branchial heart complex of Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda) to xenobiotics and bacterial infection. Tissue and Cell, 30(6), 662-671.

Beukema, J., 1991. The abundance of shore crabs Carcinus maenas (L.) on a tidal flat in the Wadden Sea after cold and mild winters. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 153 (1), 97-113.

Beukema, J. & Cadée, G., 1999. An estimate of the sustainable rate of shell extraction from the Dutch Wadden Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology, 36 (1), 49-58.

Beukema, J. & De Vlas, J., 1989. Tidal-current transport of thread-drifting postlarval juveniles of the bivalve Macoma balthica from the Wadden Sea to the North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Oldendorf, 52 (2), 193-200.

Beukema, J. & Dekker, R., 2005. Decline of recruitment success in cockles and other bivalves in the Wadden Sea: possible role of climate change, predation on postlarvae and fisheries. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 287, 149-167.

Beukema, J., Essink, K., Michaelis, H. & Zwarts, L., 1993. Year-to-year variability in the biomass of macrobenthic animals on tidal flats of the Wadden Sea: how predictable is this food source for birds? Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 31 (4), 319-330.

Beukema, J.J., 1989. Long term changes in macrozoobenthic abundance on the tidal flats of the western part of the Dutch Wadden Sea. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 43 (3-4), 405-415.

Beukema, J.J., 2002. Expected changes in the benthic fauna of Wadden Sea tidal flats as a result of sea-level rise or bottom subsidence. Journal of Sea Research, 47 (1), 25-39.

Beukema, J.J. & De Vlas, J., 1979. Population parameters of the lugworm, Arenicola marina, living on tidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 13, 331-353.

Beukema, J.J. & Dekker, R., 2005. Decline of recruitment success in cockles and other bivalves in the Wadden Sea: possible role of climate change, predation on postlarvae and fisheries. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 287, 149-167.

Beukema, J.J., 1979. Biomass and species richness of the macrobenthic animals living on a tidal flat area in the Dutch Wadden Sea: effects of a severe winter. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 13, 203-223.

Beukema, J.J., 1992. Expected changes in the Wadden Sea benthos in a warmer world - lessons from periods with mild winters. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 30, 73-79.

Beukema, J.J., 1992. Dynamics of juvenile shrimp Crangon crangon in a tidal-flat nusery of the Wadden Sea after mild and cold winters. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 83, 157-165.

Beukema, J.J., 1985. Growth and dynamics in populations of Echinocardium cordatum living in the North Sea off the Dutch corth coast. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 19, 129-134.

Beukema, J.J., 1990. Expected effects of changes in winter temperatures on benthic animals living in soft sediments in coastal North Sea areas. In Expected effects of climatic change on marine coastal ecosystems (ed. J.J. Beukema, W.J. Wolff & J.J.W.M. Brouns), pp. 83-92. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publ.

Beukema, J.J., 1987. Influence of the predatory polychaete Nephtys hombergii on the abundance of other polychaetes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 40, 95-107.

Beukema, J.J., 1995. Long-term effects of mechanical harvesting of lugworms Arenicola marina on the zoobenthic community of a tidal flat in the Wadden Sea. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 33, 219-227.

Beukema, J.J., Cadee, G.C., Dekker, R. & Philippart, C.J.M., 2014. Annual and spatial variability in gains of body weight in Macoma balthica (L.): Relationships with food supply and water temperature. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 457, 105-112.

Beukema, J.J., De Bruin, W. & Jansen, J.J.M., 1978. Biomass and species richness of the macrobenthic animals living on the tidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea: Long-term changes during a period of mild winters. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 12, 58-77.

Beukema, J.J., Dekker, R., Essink, K. & Michaelis, H., 2001. Synchronized reproductive success of the main bivalve species in the Wadden Sea: causes and consequences. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 211, 143-155.

Beukema, J.J., Doerjes, J. & Essink, K., 1988. Latitudinal differences in survival during a severe winter in macrozoobenthic species sensitive to low temperatures. Senckenbergiana maritima, 20, 19-30.

Beukers-Stewart, B.D., Mosley, M.W.J & Brand, A.R., 2003. Population dynamics and predictions in the Isle of Man fishery for the great scallop. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60, 224-242.

Beyst, B., Hostens, K. & Mees, J., 2001. Factors influencing fish and macrocrustacean communities in the surf zone of sandy beaches in Belgium: temporal variation. Journal of Sea Research, 46, 281-294.

Bhattacharya, D., 1985. The demography of fronds of Chondrus crispus Stackhouse. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 91, 217-231.

Bhaud, M., 2000. Two contradictory elements determine invertebrate recruitment: dispersion of larvae and spatial restrictions on adults. Oceanologica Acta, 23, 409-422.

Bianchelli, S., Pusceddu, A., Buschi, E. & Danovaro, R., 2016. Trophic status and meiofauna biodiversity in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Insights for the assessment of good environmental status. Marine Environmental Research, 113, 18-30.

Bianchi, C.N., Aliani, S. & Morri, C., 1995. Present-day serpulid reefs, with reference to an on-going research project on Ficopomatus enigmaticus. Pubblications du Service géologique du Luxembourg, 29, 61-65.

Bianchini, A. & Gilles, R., 1996. Toxicity and accumulation of mercury in three species of crabs with differing osmoregulatory capacities. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 57, 91-98.

Biebl, R. & McRoy, C., 1971. Plasmatic resistance and rate of respiration and photosynthesis of Zostera marina at different salinities and temperatures. Marine Biology, 8 (1), 48-56.

Bieler, R., 1992. Gastropod phylogeny and systematics. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 23, 311 -338.

Biernbaum, C. K., 1981. Seasonal changes in the Amphipod fauna of Microciona prolifera (Ellis and Solander) (Porifera: Demospongia) and associated Sponges in a shallow Salt-Marsh Creek. Estuaries, 4, 85-96.

Bierne, N., David, P., Boudry, P. & Bonhomme, F., 2002. Assortative fertilization and selection at larval stage in the mussels Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis. Evolution, 56, 292-298.

Biggs, B.C., 2013. Harnessing Natural Recovery Processes to Improve Restoration Outcomes: An Experimental Assessment of Sponge-Mediated Coral Reef Restoration. Plos One, 8 (6), e64945.

Bijkerk, R., 1988. Ontsnappen of begraven blijven: de effecten op bodemdieren van een verhoogde sedimentatie als gevolg van baggerwerkzaamheden: literatuuronderzoek: RDD, Aquatic ecosystems.

Billard, A., 1901a. De la scissiparité chez les hydroïdes. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaire des Scéances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 133, 441-443.

Billard, A., 1901b. De la stolonization chez les hydroïdes. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaire des Scéances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 133, 521-524.

Billot, C., Engel, C.R., Rousvoal, S., Kloareg, B. & Valero, M., 2003. Current patterns, habitat discontinuities and population genetic structure: the case of the kelp Laminaria digitata in the English Channel. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 253 (111), 21.

Bilotta, G. & Brazier, R., 2008. Understanding the influence of suspended solids on water quality and aquatic biota. Water Research, 42 (12), 2849-2861.

Bingham, S., & Schiff, J.A., 1979. Conditions for attachment and development of single cells released from mechanically-disrupted thalli of Prasiola stipitata Suhr. Biological Bulletin, 156 (3), 257-271

Binyon, J., 1979. Branchiostoma lanceolatum - a freshwater reject? Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 59 (1), 61-67.

Binyon, J. 1961. Salinity tolerance and permeability to water of the starfish Asterias rubens L. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 41(01), 161-174.

Binyon, J., 1966. Salinity tolerance and ionic regulation. In Physiology of Echinodermata (ed. R.A. Boolootian), pp. 359-377. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Binyon, J., 1981. The effects of lowered salinity upon Branchiostoma lanceolatum from the English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 61, 685-689.

Biodiversity Reporting and Information Group, 2007. Report on the Species and Habitat Review. Report to the UK Biodiversity Partnership.

Biodiversity Steering Group, 1995. Biodiversity: the UK Steering Group report, vol. 1 & 2. London: HMSO.

BIOMAERL team, 1998. Maerl grounds: Habitats of high biodiversity in European seas. In Proceedings of the Third European Marine Science and Technology Conference, Lisbon 23-27 May 1998, Project Synopses, pp. 170-178.

BIOMAERL team, 1999. Biomaerl: maerl biodiversity; functional structure and anthropogenic impacts. EC Contract no. MAS3-CT95-0020, 973 pp.

Birchenough, S., 2013. Impact of bait collecting in Poole Harbour and other estuaries within the Southern IFCA District. MMO FISHERIES CHALLENGE FUND, Southern Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority.

Birchenough, S. N. & C. L. Frid, 2009. Macrobenthic succession following the cessation of sewage sludge disposal. Journal of Sea Research 62 (4), 258-267.

Bird, C.J., Saunders, G.W. & McLachlan, J., 1991. Biology of Furcellaria lumbricalis (Hudson) Lamouroux (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales), a commercial carrageenophyte. Journal of Applied Phycology, 3, 61-82.

Bird, E.C.F., 1983. Factors influencing beach and accretion: a global review. In Sandy beaches as ecosystems(ed. A. McLachlan & T. Erasmus), pp. 709-717. The Hague: Dr W. Junk Publishers.

Bird, K., 1988. Agar Production and Quality from Gracilaria sp. Strain G—16: Effects of Environmental Factors. Botanica Marina, 31 (1), 33-38.

Bird, K.T., Jewett-Smith, J. & Fonseca, M.S., 1994. Use of in vitro propagated Ruppia maritima for seagrass meadow restoration. Journal of Coastal Research, 10 (3), 732-737.

Bird, N.L. & McLachlan, J., 1976. Control of the formation of receptacles in Fucus distichus L. ssp. Distichus (Phaeophyceae: Fucales). Phycologia, 15, 79-84.

Bird, N.L., Chen, L.C.-M. & McLachlan, J., 1979. Effects of temperature, light and salinity of growth in culture of Chondrus crispus, Furcellaria lumbricalis, Gracilaria tikvahiae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), and Fucus serratus (Fucales, Phaeophyta). Botanica Marina, 22, 521-527.

Birkeland, C., 1974. Interactions between a seapen and seven of its predators. Ecological Monographs, 44, 211-232.

Birkett, D.A., Maggs, C.A. & Dring, M.J., 1998a. Maerl. an overview of dynamic and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Natura 2000 report prepared by Scottish Association of Marine Science (SAMS) for the UK Marine SACs Project., Scottish Association for Marine Science. (UK Marine SACs Project, vol V.). Available from: http://www.ukmarinesac.org.uk/publications.htm

Birkett, D.A., Maggs, C.A., Dring, M.J. & Boaden, P.J.S., 1998b. Infralittoral reef biotopes with kelp species: an overview of dynamic and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Natura 2000 report prepared by Scottish Association of Marine Science (SAMS) for the UK Marine SACs Project., Scottish Association for Marine Science. (UK Marine SACs Project, vol V.). Available from: http://www.ukmarinesac.org.uk/publications.htm

Birkett, D.A., Maggs, C.A., Dring. M.J., Boaden. P.J.S. & Seed, R., 1988. Infralittoral reef biotopes with kelp species (volume VII). An overview of dynamic and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association of Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project). 174 pp

Birtwell, I.K. & Arthur, D.R., 1980. The ecology of tubificids in the Thames Estuary with particular reference to Tubifex costatus (Claparède). In Proceedings of the first international symposium on aquatic oligochaete biology, Sydney, British Colombia, Canada, May 1-4, 1979. Aquatic oligochaete biology (ed. R.O. Brinkhurst & D.G. Cook), pp. 331-382. New York: Plenum Press

Bisalputra, T., Shields, C.M. & Markham, J.M., 1971. In situ observations of the fine structure of Laminaria gametophytes and embryos in culture. Journal de Microscopie, 10, 83-98.

Bischof, K., Kräbs, G., Hanelt, D. & Wiencke, C., 2000. Photosynthetic characteristics and mycosporine-like amino acids under UV radiation: a competitive advantage of Mastocarpus stellatus over Chondrus crispus at the Helgoland shoreline? Helgoland Marine Research, 54 (1), 47-52.

Bischof, K., Kraebs, G., Hanelt, D. & Wiencke, C., 2000. Photosynthetic characteristics and mycosporine-like amino acids under UV radiation: a competitive advantage of Mastocarpus stellatus over Chondrus crispus at the Helgoland shoreline ? Helgoland Marine Research, 54, 47-52.

Bischoff, B. & Wiencke, C., 1995. Temperature adaptation in strains of the amphi-equatorial green alga Urospora penicilliformis (Acrosiphoniales): Biogeographical implications. Marine biology. Berlin, Heidelberg, 122 (4), 681-688.

Bishop, G.M. & Earll, R., 1984. Studies on the populations of Echinus esculentus at the St Abbs and Skomer voluntary Marine Nature Reserves. Progress in Underwater Science, 9, 53-66.

Bishop, G.M., 1985. Aspects of the reproductive ecology of the sea urchin Echinus esculentus L. Ph.D. thesis, University of Exeter, UK.

Bishop J. 2011b.Orange-tipped sea squirt, Corella eumyota. Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat. [cited 16/06/2015]. Available from: http://www.nonnativespecies.org

Bishop, J. 2012b. Botrylloides violaceus. Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat. [On-line] [cited 16/06/2015]. Available from:

Bishop, J. 2012c. Carpet Sea-squirt, Didemnum vexillum.Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat [On-line]. [cited 16/06/2015]. Available from: <http://www.nonnativespecies.org

Bishop, J. 2011a. Botrylloides cf. diegensis. Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat. [On-line][cited 16/06/2015]. Available from: http://www.nonnativespecies.org

Bishop, J. 2015b. Watersipora subatra. Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat. [On-line][cited 16/06/2015]. Available from: <http://www.nonnativespecies.org

Bishop, J. 2015a. Compass sea squirt, Asterocarpa humilis. Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat. [On-line] [cited 16/06/2015]. Available from: <http://www.nonnativespecies.org

Bishop, J. 2012d. Leathery sea squirt, Styela clava. Great Britain Non-native Species Secretariat. [cited 16/06/2015]. Available from:

Bishop, J., 2005a. Leathery sea squirt Styela clava. Marine Aliens project. [On-line] http://www.marlin.ac.uk/marine_aliens/marine_aliens.htm,

Bishop, J., 2005b. A colonial sea squirt Perophora japonica. Marine Aliens project. [On-line] http://www.marlin.ac.uk/marine_aliens/marine_aliens.htm,

Bixler, H.J. & Porse, H., 2010. A decade of change in the seaweed hydrocolloids industry. Journal of Applied Phycology, 23 (3), 321-335.

Bj örnsson, B. & Steinarsson, A., 2002. The food-unlimited growth rate of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 59, 494-502.

Bjerregaard, P. & Depledge, M.H., 1994. Cadmium accumulation in Littorina littorea, Mytilus edulis and Carcinus maenas: the influence of salinity and calcium ion concentrations. Marine Biology, 119, 385-395.

Black, K.D., Fleming, S. Nickell, T.D. & Pereira, P.M.F. 1997. The effects of ivermectin, used to control sea lice on caged farmed salmonids, on infaunal polychaetes. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54, 276-279.

Black, K.D., Fleming, S. Nickell, T.D. & Pereira, P.M.F. 1997. The effects of ivermectin, used to control sea lice on caged farmed salmonids, on infaunal polychaetes. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54, 276-279.

Blackler, H., 1956. The phenology of certain algae at St Andrews, Fife. Transactions and Proceedings - Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 37, 61-78.

Blackman, R.A.A., Baker, J.M., Jelly, J. & Reynard, S., 1973. The Dona Marika oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 4, 181-182.

Blackmore, D.T., 1969. Growth, reproduction and zonation of Patella vulgata. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 3, 200-213.

Blacknell, W. M. & Ansell, A. D., 1975. Features of the reproductive cycle of an arctic bivalve from a Scottish sea loch. Marine Ecology, Pubblicazioni Della Stazione Zoologica Di Napoli I, 39, Suppl., 26-52.

Blacknell, W. M. & Ansell, A. D., 1974. The direct development of bivalve Thyasira gouldi (Philippi). Thalassia Jugoslavica, 10, 23-43.

Blackstock, J. & Barnes, M., 1982. The Loch Eil project: biochemical composition of the polychaete, Glycera alba (Müller), from Loch Eil. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 57 (1), 85-92.

Blahudka, S. & Türkay, M. 2002. A population of the shrimp Crangon allmanni in the German Bight. Helgoland Marine Research, 56, 190-197.

Blake, C. & Maggs, C.A., 2003. Comparative growth rates and internal banding periodicity of maerl species (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from northern Europe. Phycologia42 (6), 606-612.

Blake, C., Maggs, C. & Reimer, P., 2007. Use of radiocarbon dating to interpret past environments of maerl beds. Ciencias Marinas, 33 (4), 385-397.

Blake, J.A., Hilbig, B., and Scott, P.V., 2000. Taxonomic Atlas of the benthic fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel. Volume 7. The Annelida Part 4. Polychaeta: Flabelligeridae to Sternaspidae. Santa Barbara, California: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.

Blake, R.W., 1976. On seahorse locomotion. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 56, 939-949,

Blanc, A. & Daguzan, J., 1999. Young cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Sepiidae) in the Morbihan Bay (south Brittany, France): accessory prey of predators. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 79, 1133-1134.

Blanc, A., du Sel, G.P. & Daguzan, J., 1999. Relationships between length of prey/predator for the most important prey of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Malacologia, 41(1), 139-145.

Blanc, A., du Sel, P. & Daguzan, J., 1998. Habitat and diet of early stages of Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda) in Morbihan Bay, France. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 64, 263-274.

Blanchard, M., 2009. Recent expansion of the slipper limpet population (Crepidula fornicata) in the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel (Western Channel, France). Aquatic Living Resources, 22 (1), 11-19.

Blanchard, M., 1997. Spread of the slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata (L.1758) in Europe. Current state and consequences. Scientia Marina, 61, Supplement 9, 109-118.

Blanchette, C.A., 1997. Size and survival of intertidal plants in response to wave action: a case study with Fucus gardneri. Ecology, 78 (5), 1563-1578.

Blight, A.J. & Thompson, R.C., 2008. Epibiont species richness varies between holdfasts of a northern and a southerly distributed kelp species. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 88 (03), 469-475.

Blinks, L.R., 1955. Accessory pigments and photosynthesis. In Photophysiology, Vol. 1.,(ed. A.C. Giese), pp. 199-221. New York & London: Academic Press.

Blomster, J., Maggs, C.A. & Stanhope, M.J., 1998. Molecular and morphological analysis of Enteromorpha intestinalis and Enteromorpha compressa (Chlorophyta) in the British Isles. Journal of Phycology, 34, 319-340.

Bloomfield, A. & Solandt, J-L., 2008. The Marine Conservation Society Basking Shark Watch Project: 20 year report (1987-2006). Marine Conservation Society, Ross on Wye, UK.

Bloomfield, A. & Solandt, J-L., 2006. The Marine Conservation Society Basking Shark Watch 20-year report (1987-2006). Ross on Wye, UK: Marine Conservation Society, 62 pp. 

Blum, J.C., Chang, A.L., Liljesthröm, M., Schenk, M.E., Steinberg, M.K. & Ruiz, G.M., 2007. The non-native solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis (L.) depresses species richness. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 342 (1), 5-14.

Blunden G., 1991. Agricultural uses of seaweeds and seaweed extracts. In Guiry M. D. & Blunden, G. Seaweed Resources in Europe: Uses and Potential.. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 65-81

Blunden, G. & Wildgoose, P.B., 1977. The effects of aqueous seaweed extract and kinetin on potato yields. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 28 (2), 121-125.

Blunden, G., Farnham, W.F., Jephson, N., Barwell, C.J., Fenn, R.H. & Plunkett, B.A., 1981. The composition of maerl beds of economic interest in northern Brittany, Cornwall and Ireland. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium,10, 651-656

Blunden, G., Smith, B.E. & Cary, P.D., 1989. Trans-4-hydroxy-beta-prolinebetaine, a new betaine from Furcellaria lumbricalis. Journal of Applied Phycology, 1, 1-4.

Blyth, R.E., Kaiser, M.J., Edward-Jones, G. & Hart, P.J.B., 2004. Implications of a zoned fishery management system for marine benthic communities. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 951-961.

BMLSS (British Marine Life Study Society) 2006. Barnacles http://www.glaucus.org.uk,

BMLSS (British Marine Life Study Society), 2002b. Ethics and conservation on the shore, [On-line] http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/BMLSS/ethics.htm, 2002-07-17

BMLSS (British Marine Life Study Society), 2008. Sea Mammals: Seals Page. www.glaucus.org.uk/seals1.htm, 2008-03-13

BMLSS (British Marine Life Study Society), 2002c. Sagartia troglodytes: Part 1. http://www.glaucus.org.uk/S-troglo2.htm, 2002-08-28

BMLSS (British Marine Life Study Society), 2002. Jellyfish page [On-line] http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/BMLSS/Moonjell.htm, 2002-07-02

Bo, M., Bava, S., Canese, S., Angiolillo, M., Cattaneo-Vietti, R. & Bavestrello, G., 2014. Fishing impact on deep Mediterranean rocky habitats as revealed by ROV investigation. Biological Conservation, 171, 167-176.

Boaden, P.J.S. & Dring, M.T., 1980. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of Ascophyllum harvesting on the littoral ecosystem. Helgolander Meerestuntersuchungen, 33, 700-710.

Boaden, P.J.S., Gotto, R.V., Hartnoll, R.G. & Williams, G., 1964. North-east Ireland. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 197.

Boaden, P.J.S., O' Connor, R.J. & Seed, R., 1975. The composition and zonation of a Fucus serratus community in Strangford Lough, Co. Down. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 17, 111-136.

Boal, J.G. & Golden, D.K., 1999. Distance chemoreception in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 235, 307-317.

Boalch, G.T. & Jephson, N.A., 1981. A re-examination of the seaweeds on Colman's traverses at Wembury. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 8, 290-293.

Boalch, G.T., 1979. The dinoflagellate bloom on the coast of south-west England, August to September 1978. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 59, 515-517.

Boalch, G.T., Holme, N.A., Jephson, N.A. & Sidwell, J.M.C., 1974. A resurvey of Colman's intertidal traverses at Wembury, South Devon. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 5, 551-553.

Boar, R.R., 1992. Factors which affect the growth of Phragmites australis. In Reedbeds for wildlife (ed. D. Ward), pp. 21-30. Sandy, Bedfordshire: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) / University of Bristol.

Board, P.A., 1963. Teredo investigations: Rivers Stour and Orwell. Laboratory Reports. Central Research Laboratories, (RD-L-N 119-63),

Board, P.A., 1963. Teredo investigations: River Hamble. Laboratory note: Central Electricity Research Laboratories, (RD-L-N 45-63),

Board, P.A., 1963. Teredo investigations: River Medway. Laboratory note: Central Electricity Research Laboratories, (RD-L-N 26-63),

Board, P.A., 1969. The effect of a warm effluent on the biology of shipworms. Part 1. Preliminary studies of the shipworms Teredo navalis L. and Lyrodus pedicellatus Quatrefages. Laboratory note: Central Electricity Research Laboratories, (1/69), 10pp.

Boaventura, D., 2000. Patterns of distribution in intertidal rocky shores: the role of grazing and competition in structuring communities.  Tese de Doutoramento, Universidade do Algarve.

Boaventura, D. (2000). Patterns of distribution in intertidal rocky shores: the role of grazing and competition in structuring communities.  Tese de Doutoramento, Universidade do Algarve.

Boaventura, D., Alexander, M., Della Santina, P., Smith, N.D., Re, P., da Fonseca, L.C. & Hawkins, S.J., 2002. The effects of grazing on the distribution and composition of low-shore algal communities on the central coast of Portugal and on the southern coast of Britain. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 267 (2), 185-206.

Boaventura, D., Da Fonseca, L.C. & Hawkins, S.J., 2003. Size matters: competition within populations of the limpet Patella depressa. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72 (3), 435-446.

BODC (British Oceanic Data Centre), 1998. United Kingdom Digital Marine Atlas: an atlas of the seas around the British Isles. 3rd ed. [CD-ROM] Birkenhead: British Oceanic Data Centre, Natural Environment Research Council.

Boddeke, R., 1996. Changes in the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) population off the Dutch coast in relation to fisheries and phosphate discharge. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 53, 995-1002.

Boddeke, R., 1982. The occurrence of winter and summer eggs in the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) and the pattern of recruitment. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 16, 151-162.

Boddeke, R., 1989. Management of the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) stock in Dutch coastal waters. In: (Ed. J.F. Caddy) Marine invertebrate fisheries: their assessment and management, pp. 35-62. Wiley.

Boddeke, R., 1975. Autumn migration and vertical distribution of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon L. in relation to environmental conditions.

Boddeke, R., Driessen, G., Doesburg, W. & Ramaekers, G., 1986. Food availability and predator presence in a coastal nursery area of the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon). Ophelia, 26, 77-90.

Bode, A., Lombas, I. & Anadon, N., 1986. Preliminary studies on the reproduction and population dynamics of Monodonta lineata and Gibbula umbilicalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the central coast of Asturias (N. Spain). Hydrobiologia, 142, 31-39.

Boden, G.T., 1979. The effect of depth on summer growth of Laminaria saccharina (Phaeophyta, Laminariales). Phycologia, 18, 405-408.

Boero, F. & Bouillon, J., 1993. Zoogeography and life cycle patterns of Mediterranean hydromedusae (Cnidaria). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 48, 239-266.

Boero, F. & Fresi, E., 1986. Zonation and evolution of a rocky bottom hydroid community. Marine Ecology, 7, 123-150.

Boero, F., 1984. The ecology of marine hydroids and effects of environmental factors: a review. Marine Ecology, 5, 93-118.

Boesch, D.F. & Rabalais, N.N., 1991. Long-term environmental effects of offshore oil and gas development.

Boese, B.L., 2002. Effects of recreational clam harvesting on eelgrass (Zostera marina) and associated infaunal invertebrates: in situ manipulative experiments. Aquatic Botany, 73 (1), 63-74.

Boese, B.L., Alayan, K.E., Gooch, E.F. & Robbins, B.D., 2003. Desiccation index: a measure of damage caused by adverse aerial exposure on intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina) in an Oregon (USA) estuary Aquatic Botany, 76, 329-337

Boese, B.L., Kaldy, J.E., Clinton, P.J., Eldridge, P.M. & Folger, C.L., 2009. Recolonization of intertidal Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) following experimental shoot removal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 374 (1), 69-77.

Bohn, K., Richardson, C.A. & Jenkins, S.R., 2015. The distribution of the invasive non-native gastropod Crepidula fornicata in the Milford Haven Waterway, its northernmost population along the west coast of Britain. Helgoland Marine Research, 69 (4), 313.

Bohorquez, J., Papaspyrou, S., Yufera, M., van Bergeijk, S.A., Garcia-Robledo, E., Jimenez-Arias, J.L., Bright, M. & Corzo, A., 2013. Effects of green macroalgal blooms on the meiofauna community structure in the Bay of Cadiz. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 70 (1-2), 10-17.

Boilly, B. & Richard, A., 1978. Accumulation de fer chez une annelide polychete: Magelona papillicornis F. Müller. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire Acadamie Sciences de Paris, 286, 1005-1008.

Boisson, F., Hartl, M.G.J., Fowler, S.W. & Amiard-triquet, C., 1998. Influence of chronic exposure to silver and mercury in the field on the bioaccumulation potential of the bivalve Macoma balthica. Marine Environmental Research, 45, 325-340.

Boisson, F., Hutchins, D.A., Fowler, S.W., Fisher, N.S. & Teyssie, J.-L., 1997. Influence of temperature on the accumulation and retention of 11 radionuclides by the marine alga Fucus vesiculosus (L.). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 35, 313-321.

Bokn, T., 1985. Effects of diesel oil on commercial benthic algae in Norway. In Proceedings of 1985 Oil Spill Conference, (ed. American Petroleum Institute), pp. 491-496. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute.

Bokn, T., 1987. Effects of diesel oil and subsequent recovery of commercial benthic algae. Hydrobiologia, 151/152, 277-284.

Bokn, T., Berge, J.A., Green, N. & Rygg, B., 1990. Invasion of the planktonic alga Chrysochomulina polylepsis along south Norway in May-June 1988: acute effects on biological communities along the coast. In Eutrophication and algal blooms in the North Sea coastal zones and adjacent areas: prediction and assessment of preventive actions (ed. C. Lancelot, G. Billen & H. Barth ), pp.183-193. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities.

Bokn, T.L., Duarte, C.M., Pedersen, M.F., Marba, N., Moy, F.E., Barrón, C., Bjerkeng, B., Borum, J., Christie, H. & Engelbert, S., 2003. The response of experimental rocky shore communities to nutrient additions. Ecosystems, 6 (6), 577-594.

Bokn, T.L., Moy, F.E. & Murray, S.N., 1993. Long-term effects of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on rocky shore populations maintained in experimental mesocosms. Botanica Marina, 36, 313-319.

Bokn, T.L., Moy, F.E., Christie, H., Engelbert, S., Karez, R., Kersting, K., Kraufvelin, P., Lindblad, C., Marba, N. & Pedersen, M.F., 2002. Are rocky shore ecosystems affected by nutrient-enriched seawater? Some preliminary results from a mesocosm experiment. Sustainable Increase of Marine Harvesting: Fundamental Mechanisms and New Concepts: Springer, pp. 167-175.

Bolam, S. & Whomersley, P., 2003. Invertebrate recolonization of fine-grained beneficial use schemes: An example from the southeast coast of England. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 9 (2), 159-169.

Bolam, S., Whomersley, P. & Schratzberger, M., 2004. Macrofaunal recolonization on intertidal mudflats: effect of sediment organic and sand content. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 306 (2), 157-180.

Bolam, S.F. & Fernandes, T.F., 2003. Dense aggregations of tube-building polychaetes: response to small-scale disturbances. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 269 (2), 197-222.

Bolam, S.G., 1999. An Investigation Into The Processes Responsible For The Generation Of The Spatial Pattern Of The Spionid Polychaete Pygospio Elegans Claparede.  Napier University.

Bolam, S.G., 2011. Burial survival of benthic macrofauna following deposition of simulated dredged material. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 181 (1-4), 13-27.

Bolam, S.G. & Fernandes, T.F., 2002. Dense aggregations of tube-building polychaetes: response to small-scale disturbances. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 269, 197-222.

Bolam, S.G., Coggan, R.C., Eggleton, J., Diesing, M. & Stephens, D., 2014. Sensitivity of macrobenthic secondary production to trawling in the English sector of the Greater North Sea: A biological trait approach. Journal of Sea Research, 85 (0), 162-177.

Bolam, S.G., Fernandes, T.F., Read, P. & Raffaelli, D., 2000. Effects of macroalgal mats on intertidal sandflats: an experimental study. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 249 (1), 123-137.

Bold, H.C. & Wynne, M.J., 1978. Introduction to the algae: structure and reproduction. New-Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Boldina, I. & Beninger, P.G., 2014. Fine-scale spatial distribution of the common lugworm Arenicola marina, and effects of intertidal clam fishing. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 143, 32-40.

Boldina-Cosqueric, I., Amiard, J.-C., Amiard-Triquet, C., Dedourge-Geffard, O., Metais, I., Mouneyrac, C., Moutel, B. & Berthet, B., 2010. Biochemical, physiological and behavioural markers in the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana as tools for the assessment of estuarine sediment quality. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73 (7), 1733-1741.

Boller, M.L. & Carrington, E., 2007. Interspecific comparison of hydrodynamic performance and structural properties among intertidal macroalgae. Journal of Experimental Biology, 210 (11), 1874-1884.

Boller, M.L. & Carrington, E., 2006. In situ measurements of hydrodynamic forces imposed on Chondrus crispus Stackhouse. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 337 (2), 159-170.

Bolton, J.J. & Lüning, K., 1982. Optimal growth and maximal survival temperatures of Atlantic Laminaria species (Phaeophyta) in culture. Marine Biology, 66, 89-94.

Bolton, J.J. & Lüning, K.A.F., 1982. Optimal growth and maximal survival temperatures of Atlantic Laminaria species (Phaeophyta) in culture. Marine Biology, 66, 89-94.

Bolton, T.F. & Havenhand, J.N., 1996. Chemical mediation of sperm activity and longevity in the solitary ascidians Ciona intestinalis and Ascidiella aspersa. Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 190, 329-335.

Bond, P.T., Brown, M.T., Moate, R.M., Gledhill, M., Hill, S.J. & Nimmo, M., 1999. Arrested development in Fucus spiralis (Phaeophyceae) germlings exposed to copper. European Journal of Phycology, 34, 513-521.

Bone, Q., 1971. On the scabbard fish Aphanopus carbo. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 51, 219-225

Boney, A., 1980. Effects of seawater suspensions of iron ore dust on Fucus oospheres. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 11 (2), 41-43.

Boney, A.D., 1979. Long-term observations on the intertidal lichen Lichina pygmaea Ag. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 59(3), 801-802.

Boney, A., 1961. A note on the intertidal lichen Lichina pygmaea AG. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 41 (01), 123-126.

Boney, A.D., 1975. Regenerates from Excised Pseudolateral Branches of Heterosiphonia plumosa (Ellis) Batt. New Phytologist, 74(1), pp.93-100.

Boney, A.D., 1969. A biology of marine algae. London: Hutchinson International.

Boney, A.D., 1971. Sub-lethal effects of mercury on marine algae. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2, 69-71.

Boney, S.H., 1978. Survival and growth of alpha-spores of Porphyra schizophylla Hollenberg (Rhodophyta: Bangiophyceae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 35, 7-29.

Bonis, A., Lepart, J. & Grillas, P., 1995. Seed bank dynamics and coexistence of annual macrophytes in a temporary and variable habitat. Oikos, 81-92.

Bonnard, M., Romeo, M. & Amiard-Triquet, C., 2009. Effects of copper on the burrowing behavior of estuarine and coastal invertebrates, the polychaete Nereis diversicolor and the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 15 (1), 11-26.

Bonner, T. M., Pyatt, F. B. & Storey, D. M., 1993. Studies on the motility of the limpet Patella vulgata in acidified sea-water. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 43, 313-320.

Bonsdorff, E. & Pearson, T.H., 1997. The relative impact of physical disturbance and predation by Crangon crangon on population density in Capitella capitella: An experimental study. Ophelia, 46, 1-10.

Bonsdorff, E. & Vahl, O., 1982. Food preferences of the sea urchins Echinus actus and Echinus esculentus. Marine Behaviour and Physiology, 8 (3), 243-248.

Bonsdorff, E., 1984. Establishment, growth and dynamics of a Macoma balthica (L.) population. Limnologica (Berlin), 15, 403-405.

Bonsdorff, E., Norrko, A. & Boström, C., 1995. Recruitment and population maintenance of the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) - factors affecting settling success and early survival on shallow sandy bottoms. In Proceedings of the 28th European Marine Biology Symposium. Biology and ecology of shallow coastal waters (ed. A. Eleftheriou, A.D. Ansell and C.J. Smith). Olsen and Olsen.

Bonsdorff, E., Rönnberg, C. & Aarnio, K., 2002. Some ecological properties in relation to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Nutrients and Eutrophication in Estuaries and Coastal Waters: Springer, pp. 371-377.

Bonsdorff, E., Rönnberg, C. & Aarnio, K., 2002. Some ecological properties in relation to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Nutrients and Eutrophication in Estuaries and Coastal Waters: Springer, pp. 371-377.

Bookhout, C.G., 1964. Salinity effects on the larval development of Pagurus bernhardus (L.) reared in the laboratory. Ophelia, 1, 275-294.

Boolootian, R.A.,1966. Physiology of Echinodermata. (Ed. R.A. Boolootian), pp. 822-822. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Boon, J.P., Zantvoort, M.B., Govaert, M.J.M.A. & Duinker, J.C ., 1985. Organochlorines in benthic polychaetes (Nephtys spp.) and sediments from the southern North Sea. Identification of individual PCB components. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 19, 93-109.

Boos, K. & Franke, H.-D., 2006. Brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in the German Bight (North Sea)- species diversity during the past 130 years. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 86 (5), 1187-1197.

Boos, K., Gutow, L., Mundry, R. & Franke, H.-D., 2010. Sediment preference and burrowing behaviour in the sympatric brittlestars Ophiura albida Forbes, 1839 and Ophiura ophiura (Linnaeus, 1758) (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 393 (1–2), 176-181.

Booth, A. M., Hansen, B.H., Frenzel, M., Johnsen, H. & Altin, D., 2015. Uptake and toxicity of methylmethacrylate‐based nanoplastic particles in aquatic organisms. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 9999, 1–9.

Booth, J.D., 1979. Common bivalve larvae from New Zealand: Pteriacea, Anomiacea, Ostreacea. New Zealand Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, 13, 131-139.

Borg, A., Pihl, L. & Wennhage, H., 1997. Habitat choice by juvenile cod (Gadus morhua L.) on sandy soft bottoms with different vegetation types. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 51(2), 197-212.

Borg, A.A., Forsgren, E. & Magnhagen, C., 2002. Plastic sex-roles in the common goby - the effect of nest availability. Oikos, 98, 105-115.

Borja, Á., Rodríguez, J.G., Black, K., Bodoy, A., Emblow, C., Fernandes, T.F., Forte, J., Karakassis, I., Muxika, I. & Nickell, T.D., 2009. Assessing the suitability of a range of benthic indices in the evaluation of environmental impact of fin and shellfish aquaculture located in sites across Europe. Aquaculture, 293 (3), 231-240.

Borja, A., Franco, J. & Perez, V., 2000. A marine biotic index to establish the ecological quality of soft-bottom benthos within European estuarine and coastal environments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40 (12), 1100-1114.

Borsje, B.W., Bouma, T.J., Rabaut, M., Herman, P.M. & Hulscher, S.J., 2014. Formation and erosion of biogeomorphological structures: A model study on the tube‐building polychaete Lanice conchilega. Limnology and Oceanography, 59 (4), 1297-1309.

Borum, J., Pedersen, M.F., Krause-Jensen, D., Christensen, P.B. & Nielsen, K., 2002. Biomass, photosynthesis and growth of Laminaria saccharina in a high-arctic fjord, NE Greenland. Marine Biology, 141, 11-19.

Boschma, H., 1973. On the occurrence of Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus) and its parasite Sacculina carcini Thompson in Burma, with notes of the transport of crabs to new localities. Zoologische mededeelingen. Leiden, 47, 145-155

Boschung, H.T. & Shaw, R.F., 1988. Occurrence of planktonic lancelets from Louisiana's continental shelf, with a review of pelagic Branchiostoma (Order Amphioxi). Bulletin of Marine Science, 43 (2), 229-240.

Bosence D. and Wilson J. 2003. Maerl growth, carbonate production rates and accumulation rates in the northeast Atlantic. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 13, S21-S31.

Bosence, D.W., 1976. Ecological studies on two unattached coralline algae from western Ireland. Palaeontology, 19 (2), 365-395.

Bosence, D.W.J., 1979. Live and dead faunas from coralline algal gravels, Co. Galway. Palaeontology, 22, 449-478.

Bosence, D.W.J., 1979b. The factors leading to aggregation and reef formation in Serpula vermicularis L. In Proceedings of an International Symposium held at the University of Durham, April 1976. Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms (ed. G. Larwood & B.R. Rosen), pp. 299-318. London: Academic Press.

Bosselmann, A., 1989. Larval plankton and recruitment of macrofauna in a subtidal area in the German Bight. In Reproduction, Genetics and Distributions of Marine Organisms (ed. J.S. Ryland & P.A. Tyler), pp. 43-54.

Bosselmann, A., 1991. Recruitment and postlarval growth of some macrozoobenthos species in the German Bight. Meeresforschung, 33, 141-158.

Bosselmann, A., 1988. Settlement and succession of benthic animals - subtidal experiment in the German Bight compared with the "Benthosgarten" experiment in Kiel Bay. Kieler Meeresforsuchungen Sonderhefte, 6, 375-388.

Boström, C. & Bonsdorff, E., 2000. Zoobenthic community establishment and habitat complexity - the importance of seagrass shoot density, morphology and physical disturbance for faunal recruitment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 205, 123-138.

Bouchard, N., Pelletier, E. & Fournier, M., 1999. Effects of butyl tin compounds on phagocytic activity of hemocytes from three marine bivalves. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18, 519-522.

Bouche, M., Habets, F., Biagianti-Risbourg, S. & Vernet, G., 2000. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of cadmium in the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 46, 246-251.

Bouchereau, J.L, Joyeux, J.C. & Quignard, J.P., 1989. La reproduction de Pomatoschistus microps (Kroyer, 1938), Poissons, Gobiides, dans la lagune de Mauguio. (France). Bulletin d'ecologie, 20, 193-202.

Bouchereau, J.L. & Guelorget, O., 1998. Comparison of 3 Gobiidae (Teleostei) life history strategies over their geographical range. Oceanologica Acta, 21, 503-517.

Bouchereau, J.L., Quignard, J.P., Tomansi, J.A. & Capape, C., 1990. Sexual cycle, condition, fecundity and spawning of Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770) (Gobiidae), from the Gulf of Lion, France. Cybium, 14, 251-267.

Bouchet, P., 2012. Paludinella globularis (Hanley in Thorpe, 1844). MolluscaBase (2017). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species. http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=607944

Bouchet, P., Danrigal, F. & Huyghens, C., 1978. Living seashells, molluscs of the English channel and Atlantic coasts. Poole: Blandford Press Ltd.

Bouchet, V.M. & Sauriau, P.-G., 2008. Influence of oyster culture practices and environmental conditions on the ecological status of intertidal mudflats in the Pertuis Charentais (SW France): A multi-index approach. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56 (11), 1898-1912.

Boudouresque, C.F. & Verlaque, M., 2001. Ecology of Paracentrotus lividus. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, 32, 177-216.

Boudouresque, C.-F., Nedelec, H. & Shepherd, S., 1980. The decline of a population of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in the Bay of Port-Cros (Var, France). Scientific Reports of Port-Cros National Park, 6-243.

Bouillon, J., 1963. Sur quelques particularités de la reproduction sexuée de Cordylophora caspia (Pallas 1771). Annales de la Société Royale Zoologique de Belgique, 93, 157-158.

Bouillon, J., Boero, F., Cicogna, F., & Cornelius, P.F.S. (eds.), 1987. Modern trends in the systematics, ecology and evolution of hydroids and hydromedusae. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Bouillon, J., Medel, M.D., Pages, F., Gili, J.M., Boero, F. & Gravili, C. 2004. Fauna of the Mediterranean hydrozoa. Barcelona: Institut de Ciencies del Mar.

Bouland, C. & Claereboudt, M.R., 1994. Effect of the castrating parasitic ciliate Orchitophrya stellarum on the population structure of Asterias vulgaris. In Echinoderms through time (ed. B. David, A. Guille, J.P. Féral & M. Roux), pp. 280. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

Boulcott, P. & Howell, T.R.W., 2011. The impact of scallop dredging on rocky-reef substrata. Fisheries Research (Amsterdam), 110 (3), 415-420.

Boult, S., Collins, D.N., White, K.N. & Curtis, C.D., 1994. Metal transport in a stream polluted by acid mine drainage - the Afon Goch, Anglesey, U.K. Environmental Pollution, 84, 279-284.

Bouma, H., Duiker, J., De Vries, P., Herman, P. & Wolff, W., 2001. Spatial pattern of early recruitment of Macoma balthica (L.) and Cerastoderma edule (L.) in relation to sediment dynamics on a highly dynamic intertidal sandflat. Journal of Sea Research, 45 (2), 79-93.

Bourgain, J-L., Dewez, S., Dewarumez, J-M., Richard, A. & Beck, C., 1988. Les rejets de vases portuaires: impacts sedimentologiques et biologiques sur le peuplement des sables a Ophelia borealis de la manche orientale et de la mer du nord. Journal de Recherche Océanographique, 13, 25-27.

Bourget, E., 1977. Shell structure in sessile barnacles. Le Naturaliste Canadien, 104, 281-323.

Bourget, E., 1983. Seasonal variations of cold tolerance in intertidal molluscs and their relation to environmental conditions in the St. Lawrence Estuary. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 61, 1193-1201.

Bourget, E., Ardisson, P-L., Lapointe, L. & Daigle, G. 2003. Environmental factors as predictors of epibenthic assemblage biomass in the St. Lawrence system. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 57, 641-652.

Bourgoin, A. & Goillou, M., 1988. Démographie d' Amphiura filiformis (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) en baie de Concarneau (Finistére, France). Oceanologica Acta, 11, 79-87.

Bourgoin, A. & M. Guillou (1994). Arm regeneration in two populations of Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu)(Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in Douarnenez Bay (Brittany: France): an ecological significance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 184(1): 123-139.

Bourgoin, A., Guilloum, M. & Morvan, C., 1985. Étude préliminaire de l'épifaune des sédiments meubles de la Rade de Brest (Finistère, France) à l'aide d'une caméra vidéo sous-marine. Annals de l'Institut Océanographique, 61, 39-50.

Bourne, G. C., 1919. Observations on Arachnactis albida M. Sars. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science N.S. 64 27–65.

Bourne, N., 1982. Distribution, reproduction, and growth of Manila clam, Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeves), in British Columbia, Journal of Shellfish Research, 2, 47-54.

Boury-Esnault, N., 1987. The Polymastia species (Demosponges, Hadromerida) of the Atlantic area. Taxonomy of Porifera: Springer, pp. 29-66.

Bousfield, E.L., 1973. Shallow-water gammaridean Amphipoda of New England. London: Cornell University Press.

Bowden, J. & Heppel, D., 1973. Revised list of British Mollusca. 2. Unionacea - Cardiacea. Journal of Conchology, 26, 237-272.

Bowden, J. & Heppell, D., 1966. Revised List of British Mollusca 1. Introduction; Nuculacea-Ostreacea. Journal of Conchology, 26, 99-124.

Bower, S.M., 2004. Rickettsia-like and Chlamydia-like Organisms of Mussels. Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish. http://www.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/species-especes/shellfish-coquillages/diseases-maladies/pages/rcomu-eng.htm

Bower S.M., 2010. Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish [online]. Ontario, Fisheries and Oceans, Canada. Available from: http://dev-public.rhq.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/species-especes/shellfish-coquillages/diseases-maladies/index-eng.htm [Accessed: 14/02/2014]

Bower, S.M., 1996. Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish: Bald-sea-urchin Disease. [On-line]. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. [cited 26/01/16]. Available from: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/aah-saa/diseases-maladies/bsudsu-eng.html

Bower, S.M., 2011. Marteilia refringens/maurini of Mussels [online]. Available from: http://dev-public.rhq.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/species-especes/shellfish-coquillages/diseases-maladies/pages/mrmaurmu-eng.htm [Accessed: 05/03/2014]

Bower, S.M. & McGladdery, S.E., 1996. Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish. SeaLane Diseases of Shellfish. [on-line]. http://www-sci.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/sealane/aquac/pages/toc.htm, 2000-11-27

Bower, S.M., 1996. Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish: Vibrio spp. (Larval Vibriosis) of Scallops. [on-line]. SeaLane Diseases of Shellfish. http://www-sci.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/shelldis/title_e.htm, 2000-10-20

Bower, S.M., 1992. Diseases and parasites of mussels. In The mussel Mytilus: ecology, physiology, genetics and culture (ed. E.M. Gosling), pp. 543-563. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publ. [Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, no. 25.]

Bower, S.M., Blackbourn, J., Meyer, G.R. & Welch, D.W., 1999. Effect of Perkinsus qugwadi on various species and strains of scallops. Diseases of aquatic organisms, 36 (2), 143-151.

Bower, S.M., Hervio, D. & Meyer, G.R., 1997. Infectivity of Microcytos mackini, the causative agent of Denman Island disease in Pacific oysters C. gigas to various species of oysters. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 29, 111-116.

Bower, S.M., McGladdery, S.E. & Price, I.M., 1994. Synopsis of infectious diseases and parasites of commercially exploited shellfish. Annual Review of Fish Diseases, 4, 1-199.

Bowerbank, J.S., 1857. On the vital powers of the Spongiadae. British Association for the Advancement of Science for 1856, 1-15.

Bowerbank, J.S., 1874. A monograph of the British Spongiadae, vol. lll. London: Hardwicke.

Bowerbank, J.S., 1865. A monograph of the British Spongiadae, vol. II. London: Ray Society.

Bowling, J.W., Leversee, G.J., Landrum, P.F. & Giesy, J.P., 1983. Acute mortality of anthracene-contaminated fish exposed to sunlight. Aquatic Toxicology, 3, 79-90.

Bowman, R.S., 1985. The biology of the limpet Patella vulgata L. in the British Isles: spawning time as a factor determining recruitment sucess. In The Ecology of Rocky Coasts: essays presented to J.R. Lewis, D.Sc., (ed. P.G. Moore & R. Seed), Hodder and Stoughton, London, pages 178-193.

Bowman, R.S. and Lewis, J.R., 1986. Geographical variation in the breeding cycles and recruitment of Patella spp. Hydrobiologia, 142, 41-56.

Bowman, R.E., 1981b. Food of 10 species of northwest Atlantic juvenile groundfish. Fisheries Bulletin U.S., 79, 200-206.

Bowman, R.S. & Lewis, J.R., 1977. Annual fluctuations in the recruitment of Patella vulgata L. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 793-815.

Bowman, R.S., 1981. The morphology of Patella spp. juveniles in Britain, and some phylogenetic inferences. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 61, 647-666.

Bowman, T.E., Meyers, C.D. & Hicks, S.D., 1963. Notes on associations between hyperiid amphipods and medusae in Chesapeake and Narragansett Bays and the Niantic River Cheasapeake Science, 4(3), 141-146.

Bowmer, T., 1982. Reproduction in Amphiura filiformis (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea): seasonality in gonad development. Marine Biology, 69, 281-290.

Boyd, S., Limpenny, D., Rees, H. & Cooper, K., 2005. The effects of marine sand and gravel extraction on the macrobenthos at a commercial dredging site (results 6 years post-dredging). ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 62 (2), 145-162.

Boyd, S., Limpenny, D., Rees, H., Cooper, K. & Campbell, S., 2003. Preliminary observations of the effects of dredging intensity on the re-colonisation of dredged sediments off the southeast coast of England (Area 222). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 57 (1), 209-223.

Boyden, C., 1971. A comparative study of the reproductive cycles of the cockles Cerastoderma edule and C. glaucum. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 51 (03), 605-622.

Boyden, C.R. & Russel, P.J.C., 1972. The distribution and habitat range of the brackish water cockle (Cardium (Cerastoderma) edule) in the British Isles. Journal of Animal Ecology, 41, 719-734.

Boyden, C.R., 1972. Behaviour, survival and respiration of the cockles Cerastoderma edule and C. glaucum in air. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 52, 661-680.

Boyle, P. R., 1986. A descriptive ecology of Eledone Cirrhosa (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in Scottish waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 66, 855-865.

Boyle, P.R. & Knobloch, D., 1983. The female reproductive cycle of the octopus, Eledone cirrhosa. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 63, 71-83.

Boyle, P.R. & Pierce, G.J., 1994. Fishery biology of northeast Atlantic squid: an overview. Fisheries Research, 21(Special Issue), 1-15.

Boyle, P.R. (ed.), 1983. Cephalopod Life Cycles, vol 1. Species Accounts. London: Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd.

Boyle, P.R., Sillar, M.Y. & Bryceson, K., 1979. Water balance and mantle cavity fluid of Nucella lapillus (L.) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 40, 41-51.

Braber, L. & Borghouts, C.H., 1977. Distribution and ecology of Anthozoa in the estuarine region of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt. Hydrobiologia, 52, 15-21.

Bradley, J. & Heck Jr, K.L., 1999. The potential for suspension feeding bivalves to increase seagrass productivity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 240 (1), 37-52.

Bradshaw, C., Collins, P. & Brand, A., 2003. To what extent does upright sessile epifauna affect benthic biodiversity and community composition? Marine Biology, 143 (4), 783-791.

Bradshaw, C., Veale, L.O., Hill, A.S. & Brand, A.R., 2001. The effect of scallop dredging on Irish Sea benthos: experiments using a closed area. Hydrobiologia, 465, 129-138.

Bradshaw, C., Veale, L.O., Hill, A.S. & Brand, A.R., 2002. The role of scallop-dredge disturbance in long-term changes in Irish Sea benthic communities: a re-analysis of an historical dataset. Journal of Sea Research, 47, 161-184.

Bradshaw, C., Veale, L.O., Hill, A.S. & Brand, A.R., 2000. The effects of scallop dredging on gravelly seabed communities. In: Effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats (ed. M.J. Kaiser & de S.J. Groot), pp. 83-104. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Braeckman, U., Foshtomi, M.Y., Gansbeke, D., Meysman, F., Soetaert, K., Vincx, M. & Vanaverbeke, J., 2014. Variable importance of macrofaunal functional biodiversity for biogeochemical cycling in temperate coastal sediments. Ecosystems, 17 (4), 720-737.

Braeckman, U., Provoost, P., Gribsholt, B., Gansbeke, D., Middelburg, J.J., Soetaert, K., Vincx, M. & Vanaverbeke, J., 2010. Role of macrofauna functional traits and density in biogeochemical fluxes and bioturbation. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 399, 173-186.

Braeckman, U., Provoost, P., Moens, T., Soetaert, K., Middelburg, J.J., Vincx, M. & Vanaverbeke, J., 2011. Biological vs. physical mixing effects on benthic food web dynamics. PLoS ONE, 6 (3), e18078.

Brafield, A.E. & Newell, G.E., 1961. The behaviour of Macoma balthica (L.). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 41, 81-87.

Brafield, A.E., 1978. Life in sandy shores. London: Edward Arnold.

Brafield, A.E., 1963. The effects of oxygen deficiency on the behaviour of Macoma balthica. Animal Behaviour, 11, 245-346.

Brafield, A.E., 1964. The oxygen content of interstitial water in sandy shores. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 97-116.

Braithwaite, C., Robinson, R., & Jones, G., 2006. Sabellarids: a hidden danger or an aid to subsea pipelines? Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 39(3), 259-265.

Branch, G.M., 1984. Competition between marine organisms: ecological and evolutionary implications. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 22, 429-593.

Branch, G.M., Griffiths, C.L., Branch, M.L. & Beckley, L.E., 1994. A guide to the marine life of South Africa. South Africa: David Philips Publishers.

Brand, A.R. & Morris, D.J., 1984. The respiratory responses of the dog cockle Glycymeris glycymeris (L.) to declining environmental oxygen tension. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 83, 89-106.

Brand, A.R. & Roberts, D., 1973. The cardiac responses of the scallop Pecten maximus (L.) to respiratory stress. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 13, 29-43.

Brand, A.R., 1991. Scallop ecology: Distributions and behaviour. In Scallops: biology, ecology and aquaculture (ed. S.E. Shumway), pp. 517-584. Amsterdam: Elsevier. [Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, no.21.]

Brand, A.R., Wilson, U.A.W., Hawkins, S.J., Allison, E.H. & Duggan, N.A., 1991. Pectinid fisheries, spat collection, and the potential for stock enhancement in the Isle of Man. ICES Marine Science Symposia, 192, 79-86.

Brander, K., 2000. Effects of environmental variability on growth and recruitment in cod (Gadus morhua) using a comparative approach. Oceanologica Acta, 23(4), 485-496.

Brander, K., 1981. Disappearance of common skate Raja batis from Irish Sea. Nature, 290, 48-49.

Brander, K., 1995. The effect of temperature on growth of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). ICES Journal of Marine Science, 52, 1-10.

Brander, K.M., 2007. The role of growth changes in the decline and recovery of North Atlantic cod stocks since 1970. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64(2), 211-217.

Brander, K.M., 2005. Cod recruitment is strongly affected by climate when stock biomass is low. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 62(3), 339-343.

Brandt, G., Fleßner, J., Glaser, D. et al., 1995. Dokumentation zur hydrographischen Frühjahrs-Meßkampagne 1994 der ökosystemforschung Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer im Einzugsgebeit der otzmer Balje. Hyrographie Nr. 8, Nieders. Landesamt für ökologie - Forschungstelle Küste, Norderney.

Brante, A. & Hughes, R.N., 2001. Effect of hypoxia on the prey-handling behaviour of Carcinus maenas feeding on Mytilus edulis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 209, 301-305.

Brante, A., Fernández, M. & Viard, F., 2009. Limiting factors to encapsulation: the combined effects of dissolved protein and oxygen availability on embryonic growth and survival of species with contrasting feeding strategies. Journal of Experimental Biology, 212 (14), 2287-2295.

Bratton, J. H. (ed.), 1991. British Red Data Books: 3. Invertebrates other than insects. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Brattström, H., 1946. Observations on Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes) in the Gullmar Fjord. Arkive fur Zoologie, 37A, 1-27.

Brault, S. & Bourget, E., 1985. Structural changes in an estuarine subtidal epibenthic community: biotic and physical causes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 21, 63-73.

Brawley, S.H., 1992a. Fertilization in natural populations of the dioecious brown alga Fucus ceranoides and the importance of the polyspermy block. Marine Biology, 113 (1), 145-157.

Brawley, S.H. & Johnson, L.E., 1991. Survival of fucoid embryos in the intertidal zone depends upon developmental stages and microhabitat. Journal of Phycology, 27 (2), 179-186.

Brawley, S.H., 1992b. Mesoherbivores. In Plant-animal interactions in the marine benthos (ed. D.M John, S.J. Hawkins & J.H. Price), pp. 235-263. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [Systematics Association Special Volume, no. 46.]

Brawley, S.H., Coyer, J.A., Blakeslee, A.M., Hoarau, G., Johnson, L.E., Byers, J.E., Stam, W.T. & Olsen, J.L., 2009. Historical invasions of the intertidal zone of Atlantic North America associated with distinctive patterns of trade and emigration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (20), 8239-8244.

Brawley, S.H., Johnson, L.E., Pearson, G.A., Speransky, V., Li, R. & Serrão, E., 1999. Gamete release at low tide in fucoid algae: maladaptive or advantageous? American Zoologist, 39 (2), 218-229.

Brazier, D.P., Holt, R.H.F., Murray, E. & Nichols, D.M., 1999. Marine Nature Conservation Review Sector 10. Cardigan Bay and North Wales: area summaries. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR Series.]

Brazier, P., Davies, J., Holt, R. & Murray, E., 1998. Marine Nature Conservation Review Sector 5. South-east Scotland and north-east England: area summaries. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and Seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR Series]

Breeman, A.M. & Guiry, M.D., 1989. Tidal influences on the photoperiodic induction of tetrasporogenesis in Bonnemaisonia hamifera (Rhodophyta). Marine Biology, 102 (1), 5-14.

Breeman, A.M. & Hoeksema, B.W., 1987. Vegetative propagation of the red alga Rhodochorton purpureum by means of fragments that escape digestion by herbivores. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 35, 197-201.

Breeman, A.M. & Hoeksema, B.W., 1987. Vegetative propagation of the red alga Rhodochorton purpureum by means of fragments that escape digestion by herbivores. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 35, 197-201.

Breeman, A.M., 1988. Relative importance of temperature and other factors in determining geographic boundaries of seaweeds: experimental and phenological evidence. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 42, 199-241.

Breeman, A.M., Meulenhoff, E.J.S. & Guiry, M.D., 1988. Life history regulation and phenology of the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 42(3), 535-551.

Bregazzi, P.K. & Naylor, E., 1972. The locomotor activity rhythm of Talitrus saltator (Montagu) (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Journal of Experimental Biology, 57, 375-391.

Bregazzi, P.K., 1972. The effects of low temperature upon the locomotor activity rhythm of Talitrus saltator (Montagu) (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Journal of Experimental Biology, 57, 393-399.

Brenchley, G.A., 1981. Disturbance and community structure : an experimental study of bioturbation in marine soft-bottom environments. Journal of Marine Research, 39, 767-790.

Brenchley, J.L., Rava, J.A. & Johnston, A.M., 1997. Resource acquisition in two intertidal fucoid seaweeds, Fucus serratus and Himanthalia elongata: seasonal variation and effects of reproductive development. Marine Biology, 129, 367-375.

Brenchley, J., Raven, J. & Johnston, A., 1996. A comparison of reproductive allocation and reproductive effort between semelparous and iteroparous fucoids (Fucales, Phaeophyta). Hydrobiologia, 326-327 (1), 185-190.

Brennan, G., Kregting, L., Beatty, G.E., Cole, C., Elsäßer, B., Savidge, G. & Provan, J., 2014. Understanding macroalgal dispersal in a complex hydrodynamic environment: a combined population genetic and physical modelling approach. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, 11 (95), 20140197.

Brenner, M., Fraser, D., Van Nieuwenhove, K., O'Beirn, F., Buck, B.H., Mazurié, J., Thorarinsdottir, G., Dolmer, P., Sanchez-Mata, A., Strand, O., Flimlin, G., Miossec, L. & Kamermans, P., 2014. Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part B: Environmental impacts of transfer activities. Ocean & Coastal Management, 89, 139-146.

Breum, O., 1970. Stimulation of burrowing activity by wave action in some marine bivalves. Ophelia, 8 (1), 197-207.

Brey, T., 1990. Estimating productivity of macrobenthic invertebrates from biomass abd mean individual weight. Meeresforschung, 32,329-343.

Brey, T., Arntz, W.E., Pauly, D. & Rumohr, H., 1990. Arctica (Cyprina) islandica in Kiel Bay (Western Baltic): growth, production and ecological significance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 136, 217-235.

Bricelj, V.M. & Shumway, S., 1991. Physiology: energy acquisition and utilization. In Scallops: biology, ecology and aquaculture (ed. S.E. Shumway), pp. 305-346. Amsterdam: Elsevier. [Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, no. 21.]

Bricker, S.B., Clement, C.G., Pirhalla, D.E., Orlando, S.P. & Farrow, D.R., 1999. National estuarine eutrophication assessment: effects of nutrient enrichment in the nation's estuaries. NOAA, National Ocean Service, Special Projects Office and the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Silver Spring, MD, 71 pp.

Bricker, S.B., Longstaff, B., Dennison, W., Jones, A., Boicourt, K., Wicks, C. & Woerner, J., 2008. Effects of nutrient enrichment in the nation's estuaries: a decade of change. Harmful Algae, 8 (1), 21-32.

Bridges, T.S., 1996. Effects of organic additions to sediment, and maternal age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in two opportunistic deposit-feeding polychaetes. Marine Biology, 125, 345-357.

Bridges, T.S., Levin, L.A., Cabrera, D. & Plaia, G., 1994. Effects of sediment amended with sewage, algae, or hydrocarbons on growth and reproduction in two opportunistic polychaetes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 177 (1), 99-119.

Briggs, A.D., Greenwood, N. & Grant, A., 2003. Can turbidity caused by Corophium volutator (Pallas) activity be used to assess sediment toxicity rapidly? Marine Environmental Research, 55, 181-192.

Briggs, R.P. & McAliskey, M., 2002. The prevalence of Hematodinium in Nephrops norvegicus from the western Irish Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 82, 427-433.

Briggs, R.P., 2000. The great scallop: an endangered species. Biologist, 47, 260-264.

Briggs, R.P., Atkinson, R.J.A., McAliskey, M. & Rogerson, A., 1997. Histriobdella homari on Nephrops norvegicus from the Irish Sea and Clyde Sea area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 77, 557-559.

Brils, J.M., Huwer, S.L., Kater, B.J., Schout, P.G., Harmsen, J., Delvigne, G.A.L. & Scholten, M.C.T., 2002. Oil effect in freshly spiked marine sediment on Vibrio fischeri, Corophium volutator, and Echinocardium caudatum. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 21, 2242-2251.

Brinkhuis, B.H. 1976. The ecology of temperate saltmarsh fucoids. I. Occurrence and distribution of Ascophyllum nodosum ecads Marine Biology (34), 325–338

Brinkhuis, B.H. & Jones, R.F. 1976. The ecology of temperate saltmarsh fucoids. II. In situ growth of transplanted Ascophyllum nodosum ecads.

Brinkhuis, B.H., Tempel, N.R. & Jones, R.F., 1976. Photosynthesis and respiration of exposed salt-marsh fucoids. Marine Biology, 34, 339-348.

Brinkhurst, R. & Kennedy, C., 1962. Some aquatic Oligochaeta from the Isle of Man with special reference to the Silver Burn Estuary. Archive fur Hydrobiologie, 58 (3), 367-766.

Brinkhurst, R.O. & Chuan, K.E., 1969. Preliminary investigation of the exploitation of some potential nutritional resources by three sympatric tubificid oligochaetes. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 26, 2659-2668.

Brinkhurst, R.O. & Jamieson, B.G.M., 1971. Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.

Brinkhurst, R.O., 1982. British and other marine and estuarine oligochaetes. Cambridge University Press, [Synopses of the British Fauna, No. 21].

Brinkhurst, R.O., 1974. The benthos of lakes. New York: St Martin's Press, p. 190.

Brinkmann, N. & Wanninger, A., 2010. Capitellid connections: contributions from neuromuscular development of the maldanid polychaete Axiothella rubrocincta (Annelida). BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10, 168-168.

Bristow, P., 1992. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Fishes. Chancellor Press, London.

British Trust for Ornithology 2007. Bird Atlas 2007-11. Mapping Britain and Ireland's Birds. Results from earlier BTO Atlases. http://www.bto.org/birdatlas/previous/index.htm, 2008-10-08

Brito, M.C., Martin, D. & Nunez, J., 2005. Polychaetes associated to a Cymodocea nodosa meadow in the Canary Islands: assemblage structure, temporal variability and vertical distribution compared to other Mediterranean seagrass meadows. Marine Biology, 146 (3), 467-481.

Britton-Simmons, K. H., 2006. Functional group diversity, resource preemption and the genesis of invasion resistance in a community of marine algae. Oikos, 113(3), 395-401.

Britton-Simmons, K.H., 2004. Direct and indirect effects of the introduced alga Sargassum muticum on bethic, subtidal communities of Washington State, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 277, 61-78.

Brkovic-Popovic, I. & Popovic, M., 1977. Effects of heavy metals on survival and respiration rates of tubificid worms: Part 1- Effects on survival. Environmental Pollution, 13, 65-72.

Brkovic-Popovic, I. & Popovic, M., 1977b. Effects of heavy metals on survival and respiration rates of tubificid worms: Part II-Effects on respiration rate. Environmental Pollution, 13, 93-98.

Broch, H., 1927. Hydrozoen. Tierwelt Deutschlands und der Angrenzenden Meeresteile, 4, 95-160.

Brock, V., 1979. Habitat selection of two congeneric bivalves, Cardium edule and C. glaucum in sympatric and allopatric populations. Marine Biology, 54, 149-156.

Brock, V., 1992. Effects of mercury on the biosynthesis of porphyrins in bivalve molluscs (Cerastoderma edule (L.) and Cerastoderma lamarcki (Reeve)). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 164, 17-29.

Brodeur, R.D., 2001. Habitat-specific distribution of Pacific Ocean perch (Sebastes alutus) in Pribilof Canyon, Bering Sea. Continental Shelf Research, 21, 207-224.

Brodie, J., Andersen, R.A., Kawachi, M. & Millar, A.J., 2009. Endangered algal species and how to protect them. Phycologia, 48 (5), 423-438.

Brodie, J., Maggs, C.A. & John, D.M., 2007. Green Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. British Phycology Society

Brodie J., Williamson, C.J., Smale, D.A., Kamenos, N.A., Mieszkowska, N., Santos, R., Cunliffe, M., Steinke, M., Yesson, C. & Anderson, K.M., 2014. The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO2 world. Ecology and Evolution, 4 (13), 2787-2798.

Bromley, R.G., 2012. Trace Fossils: Biology, Taxonomy and Applications: Routledge.

Brongersma, L.D., 1972. European Atlantic Turtles. Leiden. Zoologische Verhandlingen.

Bronsdon, S.K., Rogers, A.D., Tyler, P.A., Rice, A.L. and Gage, J.D., 1997. Genetic study of the extent and consequences of sexual and asexual reproduction in the deep-sea epizoic anemones Amphianthus inornata and Kadosactis commensalis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Marine Biology, 128, 231-239.

Brooke, S. & Järnegren, J., 2013. Reproductive periodicity of the scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa from the Trondheim Fjord, Norway. Marine Biology, 160 (1), 139-153.

Brooke, S., Holmes, M. & Young, C., 2009. Sediment tolerance of two different morphotypes of the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa from the Gulf of Mexico. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 390, 137-144.

Brooks, R.A. & Bell, S.S., 2001. Mobile corridors in marine landscapes: enhancement of faunal exchange at seagrass/sand ecotones. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 264 (1), 67-84.

Broom, D.M., 1975. Aggregation behaviour of the brittle star Ophiothrix fragilis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 55, 191-197.

Broom, M.J., Davies, J., Hutchings, B. & Halcrow, W., 1991. Environmental assessment of the effects of polluting discharges: stage 1: developing a post-facto baseline. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 33, 71-87.

Brosnan, D.M., 1993. The effect of human trampling on biodiversity of rocky shores: monitoring and management strategies. Recent Advances in Marine Science and Technology, 1992, 333-341.

Brosnan, D.M. & Crumrine, L.L., 1992. Human impact and a management strategy for Yaquina Head Outstanding Natural Area (summary only). A report to the Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior, Salem, Oregon.

Brosnan, D.M. & Crumrine, L.L., 1994. Effects of human trampling on marine rocky shore communities. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 177, 79-97.

Brouardel, J., 1948. Etude du mode d'infestation des Patelles par Urceolaria patellae (Cuenot): influence de l'espece de Patelle. Bulletin du Laboratoire maritime de Dinard, 30, 1-6.

Brouseau, D.J. & Baglivo, J.A., 1991. Disease progression and mortality in neoplastic Mya arenaria in the field. Marine Biology, 110, 249-252.

Brousseau, D.J. & Baglivo, J.A., 1987. A comparative study of age and growth in Mya arenaria (soft shelled clam) from three populations in Long Island Sound. Journal of Shellfish Research, 6, 17-24.

Brousseau, D.J. & Goldberg, R., 2007. Effect of predation by the invasive crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus on recruiting barnacles Semibalanus balanoides in western Long Island Sound, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 339, 221-228.

Brousseau, D.J. & Goldberg, R., 2007. Effect of predation by the invasive crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus on recruiting barnacles Semibalanus balanoides in western Long Island Sound, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 339, 221-228.

Brousseau, D.J., 1987. A comparative study of the reproductive cycle of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria in Long Island Sound. Journal of Shellfish Research, 6, 7-15.

Brousseau, D.J., 1978a. Spawning cycles, fecundity, and recruitment in a population of soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria, from Cape Ann, Massachusetts. Fishery Bulletin. Fish and Wildlife Service. United States Department of the Interior, 76, 155-166.

Brousseau, D.J., 1978b. Population dynamics of the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria. Marine Biology, 50, 67-71.

Brousseau, D.J., Goldberg, R. & Garza, C., 2014. Impact of Predation by the Invasive Crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus on Survival of Juvenile Blue Mussels in Western Long Island Sound. Northeastern Naturalist, 21 (1), 119-133.

Broussseau, D.J., 1979. Analysis of growth rate in Mya arenaria using the von Bertalanffy equation. Marine Biology, 51, 221-227.

Brown, A.C., 1996. Behavioural plasticity as a key factor in the survival and evolution of the macrofauna on exposed sandy beaches. Revista Chilena De Historia Natural, 69, 469-474.

Brown, A.E., Burn, A.J., Hopkins, J.J. & Way, S.F., 1997. The habitats directive: selection of Special Areas of Conservation in the UK. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 270.

Brown, B. & Wilson, W.H., 1997. The role of commercial digging of mudflats as an agent for change of infaunal intertidal populations. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 218, 39-51.

Brown, C.G. & Bennett, D.B., 1980. Population and catch structure of the edible crab (Cancer pagurus) in the English Channel. Journal du Conseil, 39, 88-100.

Brown, C.J., Eaton, R.A. & Thorp, C.H. 2001. Effects of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative on early fouling community formation. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 1103-1113.

Brown, D.H., 1974. Field and laboratory studies on detergent damage to lichens at the Lizard, Cornwall. Cornish Studies, 2, 33-40.

Brown, G.H., 1981. The taxonomy of the British species of the genus Facelina Alder and Hancock (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 47(3), 334-336

Brown, J., Gowen, R. & McLusky, D., 1987. The effect of salmon farming on the benthos of a Scottish sea loch. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 109 (1), 39-51.

Brown, K.M. & Richardson, T.D., 1988. Foraging ecology of the southern oyster drill Thais haemastoma (Gray): constraints on prey choice. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 114 (2), 123-141.

Brown, P.J. & Taylor, R.B., 1999. Effects of trampling by humans on animals inhabiting coralline algal turf in the rocky intertidal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 235, 45-53.

Brown, R.A. & R. Seed., 1976. Modiolus modiolus (L.) - an autoecological study. In Proceedings of the 11th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Galway, 5-11 October, 1976. Biology of Benthic Organisms (ed. B.F. Keegan, P.O. Ceidigh & Boaden, P.J.S.), pp. 93-100.

Brown, R.A., 1984. Geographical variation in the reproduction of the horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 64, 751-770.

Brown, R.A., 1990. Strangford Lough. The wildlife of an Irish sea lough. The Institute of Irish Studies, Queens University of Belfast.

Brown, R.J., Conradi, M. & Depledge, M.H., 1999. Long-term exposure to 4-nonylphenol affects sexual differentiation and growth of the amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766). Science of the Total Environment, 233, 77-88.

Brown, V., Davies, S. & Synnot, R., 1990. Long-term monitoring of the effects of treated sewage effluent on the intertidal macroalgal community near Cape Schanck, Victoria, Australia. Botanica Marina, 33 (1), 85-98.

Browne, M.A., Dissanayake, A., Galloway, T.S., Lowe, D.M. & Thompson, R.C., 2008. Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.). Environmental Science & Technology, 42 (13), 5026-5031.

Browne, M.A., Underwood, A.J., Chapman, M.G., Williams, R., Thompson, R.C. & van Franeker, J.A., 2015. Linking effects of anthropogenic debris to ecological impacts. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282 (1807), 20142929.

Browne, Mark A., Niven, Stewart J., Galloway, Tamara S., Rowland, Steve J. & Thompson, Richard C., 2013. Microplastic Moves Pollutants and Additives to Worms, Reducing Functions Linked to Health and Biodiversity. Current Biology, 23(23), 2388-2392.

Bruce, J.R., Colman, J.S. & Jones, N.S., 1963. Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

Brun, E., 1969. Aggregation of Ophiothrix fragilis (Abildgaard)(Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Nytt Magasin Zoologi, 17 (2), 153-160.

Brun, E., 1976. Ecology and taxonomic position of Henricia oculata Pennant. Thalassia Jugoslavica 12, 51-64.

Brunetti, R., 1987. Species of Clavelina in the Mediterranean Sea. Annales de l'Institut Oceanographique, Paris, 63, 101-118.

Brunton, C.H.C. & Curry, G.B., 1979. British Brachiopods. London: Academic Press. [Synopses of the British Fauna, no. 17.]

Brusca, R.C. & Brusca, G.J., 1979. Invertebrates. USA: Sinaeur Associates.

Brussaard, C.P.D., 2004. Viral Control of Phytoplankton Populations — a Review. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 51(2), 125-138.

Bruyns, W.F.J.M., 1971. Field guide of whales and dolphins. Amsterdam: Publishing Company Tors.

Bryan G.W. & Hummerstone, L.G., 1971. Adaptation of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor to estuarine sediments containing high concentrations of heavy metals. I. General observations and adaption to copper. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 51, 845-863

Bryan, G.W. & Gibbs, P.E., 1983. Heavy metals from the Fal estuary, Cornwall: a study of long-term contamination by mining waste and its effects on estuarine organisms. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [Occasional Publication, no. 2.]

Bryan, G.W. & Gibbs, P.E., 1991. Impact of low concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on marine organisms: a review. In: Metal ecotoxicology: concepts and applications (ed. M.C. Newman & A.W. McIntosh), pp. 323-361. Boston: Lewis Publishers Inc.

Bryan, G.W. & Hummerstone, L.G., 1971. Adaptation of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor to estuarine sediments containing high concentrations of heavy metals. I. General observations and adaption to copper. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 51, 845-863.

Bryan G.W. & Hummerstone, L.G., 1971. Adaptation of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor to estuarine sediments containing high concentrations of heavy metals. I. General observations and adaption to copper. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 51, 845-863.

Bryan, G.W. & Langston, W.J., 1992. Bioavailability, accumulation and effects of heavy metals in sediments with special reference to UK estuaries: a review. Environmental Pollution, 76, 89-131.

Bryan, G.W., 1968. The effect of oil-spill removers ('detergents') on the gastropod Nucella lapillus on a rocky shore and in the laboratory. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 49, 1067-1092.

Bryan, G.W., 1971. The effects of heavy metals (other than mercury) on marine and estuarine organisms. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (Series B), 177, 389-410.

Bryan, G.W., 1969. The absorption of zinc and other metals by the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 49, 225-243.

Bryan, G.W., 1984. Pollution due to heavy metals and their compounds. In Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive, Integrated Treatise on Life in the Oceans and Coastal Waters, vol. 5. Ocean Management, part 3, (ed. O. Kinne), pp.1289-1431. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bryan, G.W., Gibbs, P.E., Hummerstone, L.G. & Burt, G.R., 1987. Copper, Zinc, and organotin as long-term factors governing the distribution of organisms in the Fal estuary in southwest England. Estuaries, 10, 208-219.

Bryan, G.W., Gibbs, P.E., Hummerstone, L.G. & Burt, G.R., 1986. The decline of the gastropod Nucella lapillus around south west England : evidence for the effect of tri-butyl tin from anti-fouling paints. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 66, 611-640.

Bryan, G.W., Langston, W.J., Hummerstone, L.G., Burt, G.R. & Ho, Y.B., 1983. An assessment of the gastropod Littorina littorea (L.) as an indicator of heavy metal contamination in United Kingdom estuaries. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 63, 327-345.

Bryant, A.D. & Hartnoll, R.G., 1995. Reproductive investment in two spider crabs with different strategies. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 188, 261-275.

Bryant, J.A & Stewart, N.F., 2002. Order Charales. In: John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. (Eds.) The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bryant, V., McLusky, D.S., Roddie, K. & Newbery, D.M., 1984. Effect of temperature and salinity on the toxicity of chromium to three estuarine invertebrates (Corophium volutator, Macoma balthica, Nereis diversicolor). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 20, 137-149.

Bryant, V., Newbery, D.M., McLusky, D.S. & Campbell, R., 1985. Effect of temperature and salinity on the toxicity of arsenic to three estuarine invertebrates (Corophium volutator, Macoma balthica, Tubifex costatus). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 24, 129-137.

Bryant, V., Newbery, D.M., McLusky, D.S. & Campbell, R., 1985a. Effect of temperature and salinity on the toxicity of nickel and zinc to two estuarine invertebrates (Corophium volutator, Macoma balthica). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 24, 139-153.

Bryars, S. & Neverauskas, V., 2004. Natural recolonisation of seagrasses at a disused sewage sludge outfall. Aquatic Botany, 80 (4), 283-289.

BSBI, 2000. Botanical Society of the British Isles database. [On-line] http://www.bsbi.org.uk, 2001-10-26

BSC (Black sea Commission), 2008. State of the Environment of the Black Sea (2001 - 2006/7), (ed Temel Oguz). Publications of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (BSC) 2008-3, Istanbul, Turkey, 448 pp. Avaialable from http://www.blacksea-commission.org/_publ-SOE2009.asp

Buchanan, J.B. & Hedley, R.H., 1960. A contribution to the biology of Astrorhiza limicola (Foraminifera). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 39, 549-60.

Buchanan, J.B. & Moore, J.B., 1986. A broad review of variability and persistence in the Northumberland benthic fauna - 1971-85. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 66, 641-657.

Buchanan, J.B. & Warwick, R.M., 1974. An estimate of benthic macrofaunal production in the offshore mud of the Northumberland coast. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 54, 197-222.

Buchanan, J.B., 1966. The biology of Echinocardium cordatum (Echinodermata: Spatangoidea) from different habitats. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 46, 97-114.

Buchanan, J.B., 1964. A comparative study of some of the features of the biology of Amphiura filiformis and Amphiura chiajei (Ophiuroidea) considered in relation to their distribution. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 44, 565-576.

Buchanan, J.B., 1963. The biology of Calocaris macandreae ( Crustacea: Thalassinidea). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 43, 729-747.

Buchanan, J.B., 1974. A study of long term population stability in a benthic crustacean. Proceedings of the Challenger Society, 4, 252-253.

Buchanan, J.B., 1963(b). The bottom fauna communities and their sediment relationships off the coast of Northumberland. Oikos, 14, 154-175.

Buchanan, J.B., 1965. Silt transportation and the distribution of macrobenthic animals off the Northumberland coast. Report of the Challenger Society, 3, 45.

Buchanan, J.B., 1967. Dispersion and demography of some infaunal echinoderm populations. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 20, 1-11.

Buchsbaum, R.N., Short, F.T. & Cheney, D.P., 1990. Phenolic-nitrogen interactions in eelgrass Zostera marina: possible implications for disease resistance. Aquatic Botany, 37, 291-297.

Buck, B.H. & Buchholz, C.M., 2005. Response of offshore cultivated Laminaria saccharina to hydrodynamic forcing in the North Sea. Aquaculture, 250 (3-4), 674-691.

Bücking, J., 1998. Investigations on the feeding habits of the rocky shore mite Hyadesia fusca (Acari: Astigmata: Hyadesiidae): diet range, food preference, food quality, and the implications for distribution patterns. Helgolander Meersuntersuchungen, 52, 159-177.

Bucklin, A., 1987. Growth and asexual reproduction of the sea anemone Metridium: comparative laboratory studies of three species. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 110, 41-52.

Bucklin, A., 1982. The annual cycle of sexual reproduction in the sea anemone Metridium senile. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 60, 3241-3248.

Bucklin, A., 1985. Biochemical genetic variation, growth and regeneration of the sea anemone, Metridium, of British shores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 65, 141-157.

Bucklin, A., 1987b. Adaptive advantages of patterns of growth and asexual reproduction of the sea anemone Metridium senile (L.) in intertidal and submerged populations. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 10, 225-243.

Budd, G.C. 2008. Alcyonium digitatum Dead man's fingers. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1187

Budd, G., 2004. Brissopsis lyrifera. Spiny mudlark. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. , Plymouth Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.

Budd, G., 2006. Amphiura chiajei. A brittlestar. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.

Budd, G.C. 2007. Abra alba White furrow shell. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1722

Budd, G.C. & Rayment, W.J., 2001. Macoma balthica Baltic tellin. Marine Life Information Network Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews [on-line], Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1465

Buerkle, U., 1977. Detection of trawling noise by Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Marine Behaviour and Physiology, 4, 233-242.

Buffet, P.-E., Poirier, L., Zalouk-Vergnoux, A., Lopes, C., Amiard, J.-C., Gaudin, P., Risso-de Faverney, C., Guibbolini, M., Gilliland, D., Perrein-Ettajani, H., Valsami-Jones, E. & Mouneyrac, C., 2014. Biochemical and behavioural responses of the marine polychaete Hediste diversicolor to cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs): Waterborne and dietary exposure. Chemosphere, 100, 63-70.

Buffet, P.-E., Tankoua, O.F., Pan, J.-F., Berhanu, D., Herrenknecht, C., Poirier, L., Amiard-Triquet, C., Amiard, J.-C., Berard, J.-B., Risso, C., Guibbolini, M., Romeo, M., Reip, P., Valsami-Jones, E. & Mouneyrac, C., 2011. Behavioural and biochemical responses of two marine invertebrates Scrobicularia plana and Hediste diversicolor to copper oxide nanoparticles. Chemosphere, 84 (1), 166-174.

Buhl-Mortensen, L. & Mortensen, P.B., 2005. Distribution and diversity of species associated with deep-sea gorgonian corals off Atlantic Canada. Cold-water corals and ecosystems: Springer, pp. 849-879.

Buhl-Mortensen, L., Ellingsen, K.E., Buhl-Mortensen, P., Skaar, K.L. & Gonzalez-Mirelis, G., 2016. Trawling disturbance on megabenthos and sediment in the Barents Sea: chronic effects on density, diversity, and composition. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 73, 98-114.

Buhl‐Mortensen, L., Vanreusel, A., Gooday, A.J., Levin, L.A., Priede, I.G., Buhl‐Mortensen, P., Gheerardyn, H., King, N.J. & Raes, M., 2010. Biological structures as a source of habitat heterogeneity and biodiversity on the deep ocean margins. Marine Ecology, 31 (1), 21-50.

Buhr, K. & Winter, J., 1976. Distribution and maintenance of a Lanice conchilega association in the Weser estuary (FRG), with special reference to the suspension-feeding behaviour of Lanice conchilega Proceedings of the Eleventh European Symposium of Marine Biology, University College, Galway, pp. 5-11.

Buhr, K-J., 1976. Suspension-feeding and assimilation efficiency in Lanice conchilega. Marine Biology, 38, 373-383.

Buhr, K.-J., 1981. Effects of the cold winter 1978/79 on the macrobenthos of the Lanice-association in the Weser Estuary. Veroffentlichungen des Instituts fur Meeresforschung in Bremerhaven, 19, 115-131.

Buhr, K.J., 1981. Effects of the cold winter 1978/79 on the macrobenthos of the Lanice-association in the Weser Estuary. ​Veroffentlichungen des Instituts fur Meeresforschung in Bremerhaven, 19, 115–131.

Buhr, K.J. & Winter, J.E., 1977. Distribution and maintenance of a Lanice conchilega association in the Weser estuary (FRG), with special reference to the suspension-feeding behaviour of Lanice conchilega. In Proceedings of the Eleventh European Symposium of Marine Biology, University College, Galway, 5-11 October 1976. Biology of Benthic Organisms (ed. B.F. Keegan, P.O. Ceidigh & P.J.S. Boaden), pp. 101-113. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Buhs, F., & Reise, K. 1997. Epibenthic fauna dredged from tidal channels in the Wadden Sea of Schleswig-Holstein: spatial patterns and a long-term decline. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 51: 343-59

Bull, H.O., 1939. The growth of Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) under aquarium conditions. Report of the Dove Marine Laboratory, Series 6, 39-41.

Bull, H.O., 1939b. The Anthozoa of the Cullercoats District. Report of the Dove Marine Laboratory, 3rd Series, 6, 29.

Bull, K.R., Every, W.J., Freestone, P., Hall, J.R. & Osborn, D., 1983. Alkyl lead pollution and bird mortalities on the Mersey Estuary, UK. Environmental Pollution (A), 31, 239-259.

Bullard, S.A. & Overstreet, R.M., 2002. Potential pathological effects of blood flukes (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) on pen-reared marine fishes. Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, 414, 16.

Bulleri, F. & Airoldi, L., 2005. Artificial marine structures facilitate the spread of a non‐indigenous green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides, in the north Adriatic Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42 (6), 1063-1072.

Bulleri, F. & Benedetti-Cecchi, L., 2008. Facilitation of the introduced green alga Caulerpa racemosa by resident algal turfs: experimental evaluation of underlying mechanisms. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 364, 77-86.

Bulleri, F., Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Acunto, S., Cinelli, F. & Hawkins, S.J., 2002. The influence of canopy algae on vertical patterns of distribution of low-shore assemblages on rocky coasts in the northwest Mediterranean. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 267 (1), 89-106.

Bullimore, B., 1985. An investigation into the effects of scallop dredging within the Skomer Marine Reserve. Report to the Nature Conservancy Council by the Skomer Marine Reserve Subtidal Monitoring Project, S.M.R.S.M.P. Report, no 3., Nature Conservancy Council.

Bulnheim, H.P., 1984. Physiological responses of various Gammarus species to environmental stress. Limnologica (Berlin), 15, 461-467.

Bulycheva, A.I., 1957. Morskie bloxi morej SSSR i sopredel'nyx vod (Amphipoda-Talitroidea). Fauna SSSR, 65, 1-185.

Bunker, F., 1986. Survey of the Broad sea fan Eunicella verrucosa around Skomer Marine Reserve in 1985 and a review of its importance (together with notes on some other species of interest and data concerning previously unsurveyed or poorly documented areas). Volume I. Report to the NCC by the Field Studies Council.

Bunker, F., Maggs, C., Brodie, J. & Bunker, A., 2012. Seasearch Guide to Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. Marine Conservation Society, Ross-on-Wye.

Bunker, F., Perrins, J., Maggs, C.A. & Bunker, A., 2003. British Isles Seaweed Images. [On-line] http://www.weedseen.co.uk/, 2004-01-23

Burdin, K.S. & Bird, K.T., 1994. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae. Botanica Marina, 37, 467-470.

Burdon, D., Callaway, R., Elliott, M., Smith, T. & Wither, A., 2014. Mass mortalities in bivalve populations: A review of the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule (L.). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 150, 271-280.

Burdon, D., Dawes, O., Eades, R., Leighton, A., Musk, M. & Thompson, S.2009. BEEMS WP6 Intertidal Studies; Hinkley Survey-Report to Cefas. Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Studies, University of Hull.

Burger, J., 1994. Before and after an oil spill Rutgers University Press New Brunswick, New Jersey

Burkholder, J.M., Gasgow Jr., H.B. & Cooke, J.E., 1994. Comparative effects of water-column nitrate enrichment on eelgrass Zostera marina, shoalgrass Halodule wrightii, and wigeongrass Ruppia maritima. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 105, 121-138.

Burkholder, J.M., Mason, K.M. & Glasgow, H.B. Jr., 1992. Water-column nitrate enrichment promotes decline of eelgrass Zostera marina: evidence from seasonal mesocosm experiments. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 81, 163-178.

Burnell, G.M., Barnett, M., O'Caroll, T. & Roantree, V., 1991. Scallop spat collection and on-growing trials in south-west Ireland. Actes de Colloques. Institutes Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), 17, 139-144.

Burridge, L.E. & Haya, K., 1993. The lethality of Ivermectin, a potential agent for treatment of salmonids against sea lice, to the shrimp Crangon septemspinosa. Aquaculture, 117, 9-14.

Burrows, E.M. & Lodge, S.M., 1950. Note on the inter-relationships of Patella, Balanus and Fucus on a semi-exposed coast. Report of the Marine Biological Station, Port Erin, 62, 30-34.

Burrows, E.M. & Lodge, S.M., 1951. Autecology and the species problem in Fucus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 30, 161-176.

Burrows, E.M. & Pybus, C., 1971. Laminaria saccharina and marine pollution in North-East England. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2, 53-56.

Burrows, E.M., 1971. Assessment of pollution effects by the use of algae. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 177, 295-306.

Burrows, E.M., 1958. Sublittoral algal population in Port Erin Bay, Isle of Man. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 37, 687-703.

Burrows, E.M., 1991. Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 2. Chlorophyta. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Burrows, E.M., 1964. Ecological experiments with Fucus. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 4, 166 - 170.

Burrows, E.M., 1959. Growth form and environment in Enteromorpha. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 56, 204-206.

Burrows, M.T. & Hughes, R.N., 1989. Natural foraging of the dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus (Linnaeus); the weather and whether to feed. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 55 (2), 285-295.

Burrows, M.T., 1988. The comparative biology of Chthamalus Stellatus (Poli) and Chthamalus montagui Southward. PhD thesis, University of Manchester. 318pp.,

Burrows, M.T., Harvey, R. & Robb, L., 2008. Wave exposure indices from digital coastlines and the prediction of rocky shore community structure. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 353, 1.

Burrows, M.T., Hawkins, S.J. & Southward, A.J., 1992. A comparison of reproduction in co-occurring chthamalid barnacles, Chthamalus stellatus (Poli) and Chthamalus montagui Southward. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 160, 229-249.

Burrows, M.T., Hawkins, S.J. & Southward, A.J., 1999. Larval development of the intertidal barnacles Chthamalus stellatus and Chthamalus montagui. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 79, 93-101.

Burrows, M.T., Smale, D., O’Connor, N., Rein, H.V. & Moore, P., 2014. Marine Strategy Framework Directive Indicators for UK Kelp Habitats Part 1: Developing proposals for potential indicators. Joint Nature Conservation Comittee,  Peterborough. Report no. 525.

Burt, G.R., Bryan, G.W., Langston, W.J. & Hummerstone, l.G., 1992. Mapping the distribution of metal contamination in United Kingdom estuaries. Final report on DoE Contract PECD 7/7/280., Plymouth UK Plymouth Marine Laboratory.

Burton, M., 1959. Spongia. Zoology Iceland, 2, 1-71.

Burton, M., 1963. A revision of the classification of the calcareous sponges. With a catalogue of the specimens in the British Museum (Natural History). London: British Museum (Natural History).

Burton, P.J.K., 1961. The Brent goose and its winter food supply in Essex. Wildfowl, 12, 104-112.

Buschbaum, C. & Saier, B., 2001. Growth of the mussel Mytilus edulis L. in the Wadden Sea affected by tidal emergence and barnacle epibionts. Journal of Sea Research, 45, 27-36

Buschbaum, C., Buschbaum, G., Schrey, I. & Thieltges, D., 2007. Shell boring polychaetes affect gastropod shell strength and crab predation. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 329, 123-130.

Bushnell, J.H. & Rao, K.S., 1974. Dormant or quiescent stages and structures among the ectoprocta: physical and chemical factors affecting viability and germination of statoblasts. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 93, 524-543.

Bussell, J. A., Gidman, E. A., Causton, D. R., Gwynn-Jones, D., Malham, S. K., Jones, M. L. M., Reynolds, B. & Seed. R., 2008. Changes in the immune response and metabolic fingerprint of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus) in response to lowered salinity and physical stress.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 358,  78-85.

Bustamante, M., Tajadura-Martín, F.J. & Saiz-Salinas, J.I., 2010. Temporal and spatial variability on rocky intertidal macrofaunal assemblages affected by an oil spill (Basque coast, northern Spain). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 90 (07), 1305-1317.

Bustard, R., 1972. Sea turtles, their natural history and conservation. London: Collins.

Butcher, R., 1934. Zostera. Report on the present condition of eel grass on the coasts of England, based on a survey during August to October, 1933. Journal du Conseil, 9 (1), 49-65.

Butcher, R.W., 1941. Zostera: report on the present conditions of eelgrass on the coasts of England, based on a survey during August to October, 1933. The International Wildfowl Inquiry, 1, 49-65.

Butler, A.J., 1987. Ecology of Pinna bicolor Gmelin (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in Gulf St Vincent, South Australia: density, reproductive cycle, recruitment, growth and mortality at three sites. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 38, 743-769.

Butler, A.J., Vicente, N. & de Gaulejac, B., 1993. Ecology of the pteroid bivalves Pinna bicolor Gmelin and Pinna nobilis Linnaeus. Marine Life, 3, 37-45.

Butler, P.G., Richardson, C.A., Scourse, J.D., Wanamaker, A.D., Shammon, T.M. & Bennell, J.D., 2010. Marine climate in the Irish Sea: analysis of a 489-year marine master chronology derived from growth increments in the shell of the clam Arctica islandica. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29 (13-14), 1614-1632.

Butler, P.G., Wanamaker Jr, A.D., Scourse, J.D., Richardson, C.A. & Reynolds, D.J., 2013. Variability of marine climate on the North Icelandic Shelf in a 1357-year proxy archive based on growth increments in the bivalve Arctica islandica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 373, 141-151.

Butler, R., Roddie, B.D. & Mainstone, C.P., 1990. The effects of sewage sludge on two life-history stages of Mytilus edulis. Chemistry and Ecology, 4, 211-219.

Butman, C.A., 1987. Larval settlement of soft-sediment invertebrates: the spatial scales of pattern explained by active habitat selection and the emerging role of hydrodynamical processes. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 25, 113-165.

Butman, C.A., Grassle, J.P. & Buskey, E.D., 1998. Horizontal swimming and gravitational sinking of Capitella sp. I (Annelida: Polychaeta) larvae: implications for settlement. Ophelia, 29, 43-57.

Butterworth, K.G., Grieshaber, M.K. & Taylor, A.C., 2004. Sulphide detoxification in the bivalve, Arctica islandica (L.) from two different habitats. Ophelia, 58 (2), 101-113.

Buxton, C.D., Newell, R.C. & Field, J.G., 1981. Response-surface analysis of the combined effects of exposure and acclimation temperatures on filtration, oxygen consumption and scope for growth in the oyster Ostrea edulis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 6, 73-82.

Buzas, M.A., 1978. Foraminifera as prey for benthic deposit feeders: results of predator exclusion experiments. Journal of Marine Research, 36, 617-625

Byren, B.A. & Davies, B.R., 1986. The influence of invertebrates on the breakdown of Potamogeton pectinatus L. in a coastal marina (Zandvlei, South Africa). Hydrobiologia, 137, 141-151.

Byrne, M., 1990. Annual reproductive cycles of the commercial sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from an exposed intertidal and a sheltered subtidal habitat on the west coast of Ireland. Marine Biology, 104 (2), 275-289.

Bøhle, B. 1983. Avoidance of petroleum hydrocarbons by the cod (Gadus morhua). Fisk Dir. Skr. Ser. Hav Unders, 18, 97-112.