Biodiversity & Conservation

MarLIN Glossary

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a

Abiotic
Devoid of life.

Aboral
Opposite the end/side on which the mouth is located (Kozloff, 1996).

Abundance Scale
A modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk (OED, 2008).

Abyssal
Refering to the deepest part of the ocean, below about 2000 m (OED, 2008).

Accretion
Build up or accumulation of sediment.

Acontia
Plural of 'acontium'.

Acontium
Thread-like nematocyst bearing organ attached to lower end of a mesentery or septal filament in the gastrovascular cavity in some Actinaria (Anemones). The acontia my be protruded through perforations (cinclides) of the body wall (adapted from Manuel, 1988 and Stachowitsch, 1992).

Adambulacral Plates
Of Echinodermata (echinoderms); a series of calcareous plates on either side of the ambulacral furrow (Southward & Campbell, 2006).

Adambulacral Spines
Of Echinodermata (echinoderms); spines on adambulacral plates (Southward & Campbell, 2006).

Aggregation
Organisms (usually referring to of the same species) living closely together, but not physically connected (cf. 'colony').

Algal Gravel
See 'maerl'.

Algal Mat
A dense mass of green or other algae (e.g. Enteromorpha spp., Ulva spp.) which blankets the substratum in a littoral or shallow-water environment, often in areas of freshwater influence or where eutrophication occurs.

Alien Species
A non-established introduced species (q.v.), which is incapable of establishing self-sustaining or self-propagating populations in the new area without human interference (cf. 'introduced species'; 'non-native').

Allochthonous
Exogenous, originating outside and transported into a given system or area (Lincoln et al., 1998).

Ambulacra
Plural of 'ambulacrum'.

Ambulacral
Adjective of 'ambulacrum'.

Ambulacral Furrow
Of Echinodermata (echinoderms); groove or furrow in the oral side of the arm holding the tube feet (Southward & Campbell, 2006).

Ambulacral Furrows
Plural of 'ambulacral furrow'.

Ambulacrum
Of Echinodermata (echinoderms); radially arranged regions of the body of Echinoderms that bear the tube feet (Southward & Campbell, 2006).

Amphidromic Point
The central point of a cyclonic tidal system, at which the vertical astronomical tidal range is nil, or very small, increasing progressively with increasing distance from this central point (from Ministry of Defence, 1987.)

Amphipod
A crustacean belonging the Order Amphipoda (cf. Amphipoda).

Amphipoda
An group of crustaceans recognized by their laterally compressed bodies, lack of a carapace, and numerous, differently modified legs (Hayward et al., 1996).

Anadromous
Of fish - upward-running: spending part of their life in the sea and migrating up rivers in order to breed (e.g. salmon) (cf. 'catadromous').

Anaerobic
An environment in which the partial pressure of oxygen is significantly below normal atmospheric levels; deoxygenated (Lincoln et al., 1998).

Anal
Relating to or near the anus, or the posterior opening of the alimentary canal (Abercrombie et al., 1973).

Androdieocious
Reproductive strategy in which individuals are either strictly males or hermaphrodites.

Anisogamous
Having flagellate gametes of different size, shape or behaviour (from Bold, 1977 and Lincoln et al., 1998).

Annulated
Where the external surface is divided into a chain of rings or 'annuli' by furrows giving the appearance of segments (Barnes et al., 1993).

Anoxic
Devoid of oxygen.

Antenna
Second and typically longer of a pair of antennae, sensory appendages originating on the head of Crustacea.

Antennule
First and typically shorter of a pair of antennae, sensory appendages originating on the head of Crustacea.

Anthropogenic
Produced by human activity.

Aquaculture
The cultivation of aquatic organisms by human effort for commercial purposes. For the cultivation of marine organisms in seawater, the term 'mariculture' is also used. (Based on Baretta-Bekker et al., 1992).

Arborescent
Having the shape or characteristics of a tree.

Arbuscular
Having the shape or characteristics of a tree.

Arctic
Referring to a biogeographical region centred north of the British Isles and influencing the extreme north of the British Isles.

Areolate
Marked by or consisting of areolae, small areas, islands or circular spots of tissue. Used to describe the thallus of lichens (adapted from Dobson, 2000).

Aristotle's Lantern
The mouthparts of sea urchins. A complex chewing apparatus made up of five calcareous teeth or jaws used at scraping food from the substratum.

Articulate
Jointed, arthrous (Holmes, 1979).

Ascus
Sac-like hydrostatic organ in ascophoran Cheilostomatida Bryozoa. Also termed the 'compensation sac' (Hayward & Ryland, 1998).

Assemblage
A generic term used chiefly by some British marine ecologists which does not assume interdependence within a community or association, but appears to have the same broad definition as 'community' (based on Hiscock & Connor, 1991).

Assessment
1) The evaluation of marine natural heritage importance through an orderly process of gathering information about biotopes and species in an area and comparing their attributes by a standard protocol (as in 'conservation assessment'). 2) The evaluation of the likely impact of a development on the environment (as in 'Environmental Impact Assessment').

Association
A term used by botanists to refer to an assemblage of plants with a definite floristic composition, considered by many workers to be synonymous or very similar to the zoological concept of 'community' (from Hiscock & Connor, 1991).

Astronomical Tide
The periodic rise and fall of the ocean water masses, produced by gravitational effects of the moon and sun on the earth (from Lincoln & Boxshall 1987). Cf. lunar tide

Attribute
A characteristic of a habitat, biotope, community or population of a species which most economically provides an indication of the condition of the interest feature to which it applies (CSMR).

Autecology
The ecology of individual organisms or species (Lincoln et al., 1998) (cf. 'synecology').

Autochthonous
Produced within the given habitat, community or system (Lincoln et al., 1998), often used to describe organic matter produced in situ (cf. 'endogenous', 'allochthonous').

Autotrophic
Self-feeding, producing organic matter through photosynthesis (Prescott, 1969).

Autozooid
Feeding zooid in Bryozoa (cf. 'zooid') (Hayward & Ryland, 1998).

Avicularia
Plural of 'avicularium'.

Avicularium
Specialized zooid in Cheilostomatida Bryozoa, with reduced polypide but strong muscles which operate a mandible-like operculum (Hayward & Ryland, 1998).

Azoic
Devoid of animal life.

Azooxanthellate
An organism without 'zooxanthellae'

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Glossary references