Containing calcium carbonate; chalky. Of organisms - a species which accumulates calcium carbonate in its tissues.
Club-shaped sensory projections on antennules and antennae, in some gammaridean amphipods; not found outside Gammaridea
A distinct, often bulbous, roughened area of skin (OED, 2008).
Enlarged or swollen at the apex, with a 'head', clubbed. (Prescott , 1969).
The bulbous main hard body of organisms such as goose barnacles (OED, 2005).
Of bivalve mollusc shells - projections about the middle of the shell hinge, but not always, diverging from the beaks (Tebble, 1976).
Crustacean shell feature, typically a ridge on the surface of the exoskeleton. In barnacles the carina is the posterior compartmental plate.
A predator which feeds on animals
An early life-cycle phase of marine algae (Lincoln et al., 1998).
A small fleshy outgrowth or appendage (OED, 1990).
Of fish - downward-running: spending most of their life in rivers and migrating downstream to the sea in order to breed (e.g. eels) (cf. 'anadromous').
'Catworm' or 'Cat worm' is the common name for polychaete worms belonging to the Family Nephtyidae, e.g. Nephtys hombergii.
Refering to the tail (OED, 2008).
A ridge either side of the caudal fin base. It is used for stability in some shark species (Lincoln et al., 1998)
Plural of 'caudal keel'.
The base of the caudal fin (OED, 2008).
A hollow normally eroded in a cliff, with the penetration being greater than the width at the entrance (based on Sunamura, 1992). Caves can also be formed by boulders. Not defined for the EC Habitats Directive, 'Submerged or partially submerged sea caves' (European Commission, 1995) but the UK interpretation considers them to take the form of tunnels or caverns, with one or more entrances, in which vertical and overhanging rock surfaces form the principal marine habitat.
Seas to the south of Ireland and west of Cornwall (south-west England).
Of Crinoidea (crinoids); the largest of the ossicles of the calyx of a feather-star, to which the cirri are joined (adapted from Southward & Campbell, 2006).
Dorsal processes in some shell-less opistobranch molluscs, containing branches of the digestive tract. The cerata are often brightly coloured and bear defensive organs, either glandular in nature, or formed of batteries of stinging cells derived from their cnidarian prey e.g. hydroids, soft corals and sea anemones (based on Thompson & Brown, 1976 and Picton & Morrow, 1994).
(or setae) Chitinous bristles found in oligochaete annelids and especially in polychaete annelids.
A soft fine-grained sedimentary rock, normally white, consisting almost entirely of calcium carbonate.
1) Of characters - a distinguishing feature, the distinctive state or expression of a character (based on Lincoln et al., 1998). 2) Of species - special to or especially abundant in a particular situation or biotope. Characteristic species should be immediately conspicuous and easily identified (based on Hiscock & Connor, 1991).
Set reference point on charts for water depth in relation to tides. On metric charts for which the UK Hydrographic Office is the charting authority, chart datum is a level as close as possible to Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT), the lowest predictable tide under average meteorological conditions (from Ministry of Defence, 1987). This is not the same as Ordnance Datum, the fixed reference point for heights and contours shown on Ordnance Survey maps, which is based on mean sea level (MSL) as recorded at Newlyn (Cornwall) over a seven-year period from 1915 to 1921.
Appendage where the terminal segment (dactyl) forms a movable finger that moves against an immovable finger on the subterminal segment (propodus) (Ruppert & Barnes, 1996). [chela&topic=Additional_images">View image]
Plural of 'chela'.
In Pycnogonida, the first and anteriormost appendage, conisisting of one or two segments and the chela (Stachowitsch, 1992).
The claw-bearing appendages of decapod crustaceans (see 'chela').
An organism that derives energy from endogenous light independent chemical reactions (Lincoln et al., 1998).
A synthetic organic compound containing chlorine, highly toxic and the base for many pesticides. Includes PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls).
Organelles present in seaweeds and plants containing chlorophyll and involved in photosynthesis (OED, 2008)
The pit or protection (of the shell hinge) to which the internal ligament is attached (Tebble, 1976).
One of numerous small pores on the column of anemones, occasionally on papillae and arranged in rows, through which acontia may be discharged (Stachowitsch, 1992).
Slender hair-like filaments opften used during feeding (OED, 2005)
1) taxonomy - the placing of animals and plants in a series of increasingly specialized groups because of similarities in structure, origins etc., that indicate a common relationship (from Makin, 1991). 2) biotopes - the process of identifying distinctive and recurrent groupings of species with their associated habitat and describing them within a structured framework.
Latticed (Holmes, 1979).
1) Sediment particles less than 0.004 mm in size (Wentworth, 1922). 2) A soft very fine-grained sedimentary rock composed primarily of clay-sized particles.
Any slope, usually of bedrock but can be clay, steeper than 45°.
The totality of the weather conditions at a certain location over a certain period (conventionally 30 years) (from Baretta-Bekker et al., 1992).
An assemblage of organisms derived by asexual or vegetative multiplication from a single original parent - generally assumed to be genetically identical (from Lincoln et al., 1998).
A compartment of coastline, divided from neighbouring sections of coast in terms of longshore drift, current flow, and wave convergence and divergence (based on Motyka & Brampton, 1993).
The space in which terrestrial environments influence marine (or lacustrine) environments and vice versa. The coastal zone is of variable width and may also change in time. Delimitation of zonal boundaries is not normally possible; more often such limits are marked by an environmental gradient or transition. At any one locality the coastal zone may be characterized according to physical, biological or cultural criteria, which need not, and rarely do, coincide (based on Carter, 1988).
A rock particle defined in two categories based on Wentworth (1922): large (128-256 mm); small (64-128 mm) (from Hiscock, 1990).
Common tissue mass connecting individual polyps, consisting mainly of mesoglea, and forming the main supporting structure of an anthozoan colony (Manuel, 1988).
The tube of living tissue of a hydroid, situated within the outer skeleton or perisarc (see perisarc) (Cornelius, 1995).
Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding (Barnes et al., 1993).
The process of establishing populations of one or more species in an area or environment where the species involved were not present before (from Baretta-Bekker et al., 1992).
1) A group of organisms of the same species living connected together in a common mass (Fitter & Manuel, 1986.) (cf. 'aggregation'). 2) A group of organisms connected by behavioural or sociological factors (e.g. seabird colony, seal colony).
Symbiosis (q.v.) in which one species derives benefit from a common food supply, whilst the other species is not adversely affected (Lincoln et al., 1998).
A group of organisms occurring in a particular environment, presumably interacting with each other and with the environment, and identifiable by means of ecological survey from other groups (from Mills, 1969; see Hiscock & Connor, 1991 for discussion) .
Curving inwards (OED, 2005).
A feeling of reliance or certainty (Thompson, 1995).
Belonging to the same genus, a congener (Lincoln et al., 1998).
Cone shaped e.g. limpet -shaped, patelliform (adapted from Stachowitsch, 1992).
"The regulation of human use of the global ecosystem to sustain its diversity of content indefinitely" (Nature Conservancy Council, 1984).
Belonging to the same species (Lincoln et al., 1998).
"An increase of background concentration of a chemical or radionuclide" (from Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection - GESAMP, 1995).
The seabed adjacent to a continent to depths of around 200 metres, or where the continental slope drops steeply to the ocean floor. Defined in law as "the sea bed and subsoil of the submarine areas adjacent to the coast...to a depth of 200 metres"; the legal landward limit is set at the outer limit of territorial waters (q.v.) (Geneva Conference on the Law of the Sea, Convention on the Continental Shelf, 1958).
Intricately folded, coiled or twisted (OED, 2008).
Relating to, or resembling, coral, especially any calcareous red alga impregnated with calcium carbonate.
Relating to the outer layer of an organism or organ (Abercrombie et al., 1973).
Of worldwide distribution (Brusca, 1980).
In amphipod crustaceans a coxa is a hard ventral extension to thoracic segments, usually seven are found (Hayward & Ryland, 1995).
Having a round-toothed or scalloped edge (OED, 2005).
Having a finely scalloped or notched outline or edge (OED, 2005).
A narrow crack in a hard substratum <10 mm wide at its entrance, with the penetration being greater than the width at the entrance. Crevices often support a distinct community of species. Cf. 'fissure'.
IUCN Red List categories - a taxon is Critically endangered when it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 1994) (cf. 'Extinct', 'Endangered', 'Vulnerable').
Forming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995).
1) An animal which lives in hidden places, such as crevices, caves or beneath stones. 2) An organism whose appearance or colouration makes it difficult to see or recognise.
A mass of broken stones, shells and gravel which forms the basis of an oyster bed (from Makins, 1991).
The Cumacea are a distinctive group of crustaceans with an inflated carapace, giving them the appearance of tadpoles (adapted from Hayward et al., 1996).
Belonging to the Order Cumacea.
Horizontal movement of water in response to meteorological, oceanographical and topographical factors (see also 'tidal stream') (from Ministry of Defence, 1987); a steady flow in a particular direction. 'Current' refers to residual flow after any tidal element (i.e. tidal streams) has been removed.
Prokaryotic like bacteria, lacking a cell nucleus, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria, but with the ability to photosynthesize. Also termed Cyanophyta.
With straight sides and a circular section (Thompson, 1995).
A gonimocarp (collection of filaments of diploid cells that produce carpospores) enclosed within an envelope of tissue (pericarp) (Hoek van den et al., 1995).
- Abercrombie, M., Hickman, C.J., & Johnson, M.L., 1973. A dictionary of biology (6th edn.). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd.
- Allaby, A. & Allaby, M., ed., 1990. Concise Oxford dictionary of earth sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Anon., 1994. Biodiversity. The UK action plan. London: HMSO, for Department of the Environment. (Cm. 2428.)
- Ardizzone, G.D., Catandella, S. & Rossi, R., 1988. Management of coastal lagoon fisheries and aquaculture in Italy. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, no. 295. Rome.
- Baretta-Bekker, J.G., Duursma, E.K. & Kuipers, B.R. (ed.), 1992. Encyclopaedia of Marine Sciences. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
- Barnes, R.S.K., Calow, P. & Olive P.J.W., 1993. The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
- Bold, H.C., 1977. The Plant Kingdom (4th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
- Brusca, R.C., 1980. Common intertidal invertebrates of the Gulf of California. University of Arizona Press.
- Cain, S.A., 1939. The climax and its complexities. American Midland Naturalist, 21, 147-181.
- Carriker, M.R., 1967. Ecology of estuarine benthic invertebrates: a perspective. In: Estuaries, (ed. G.H. Lauff.) pp 442-487. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science. [AAAS Publication, No. 83.]
- Carter, R.W.G., 1988. Coastal environments: an introduction to the physical, ecological and cultural systems of coastlines. London: Academic Press.
- Chambers, W., & Chambers, R., 1971. Chambers dictionary of science and technology. London: Chambers.
- Charton, B.& Tietjen, J., 1989. Seas and oceans: Collins reference dictionary. Glasgow: Collins.
- Commission of the European Communities. 1991. CORINE biotopes. 1st ed. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, for Commission of the European Communities.
- Connell, J.H.& Sousa, W.P., 1983. On the evidence needed to judge ecological stability or persistence. American Naturalist, 121, 789-824.
- Connor, D.W. & Hiscock, K., 1996. Data collection methods. In Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods (ed. K. Hiscock), pp. 51-65. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom, MNCR Series].
- Connor, D.W., Brazier, D.P., Hill, T.O.& Northen, K.O., 1997(a). Marine Nature Conservation Review: marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Volume 1. Littoral biotopes. Version 97.06. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report, no. 229.
- Connor, D.W., Dalkin, M.J., Hill, T.O., Holt, R.H.F. & Sanderson, W.G., 1997(b). Marine Nature Conservation Review: marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Volume 2. Sub-littoral biotopes. Version 97.06. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report, no. 230.
- Considine, D.M. (ed.), 1976. Van Nostrand’s scientific encyclopaedia, 5th ed. New York: Von Nostrand Reinhold Co.
- Cooke, A. & McMath, M., 2000. SENSMAP: Development of a protocol for assessing and mapping the sensitivity of marine species and benthos to maritime activities. Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, CCW Marine Report: 98/6/1, (2000, Working draft).
- Cornelius, P.F.S., 1995. North-West European Thecate Hydroids and their Medusae. Part 2. Sertulariidae to Campanulariidae. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. R.S.K. Barnes & J.H. Crothers), The Linnean Society of London. Shrewsbury: Field Studies Council.[Synopses of the British Fauna no. 50]
- Cotton, A.D., 1912. Marine algae. Clare Island Survey. Part 15. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 31, 1-178.
- Dando, M. & Burchett, M., 1996. SEALIFE. A complete Guide to the Marine Environment. East Sussex: Pica press.
- Davies, J., Bennett, T.L., Covey, R., & Mills, D.J.L., 1990. A catalogue of coastal SSSI's with additional notes from published marine biological information. Volume 1. England. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 1022. [Marine Nature Conservation Review Report, no. MNCR/OR/2.]
- Dobson, F.S., 2000. Lichens: an illustrated guide to the British and Irish species. Slough: The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd.
- Dooley, D. & Kirkpatrick, N., 1993. Environmental glossary. Letherhead: Pira International.
- Dowrick, F.E., 1977. Submarine areas around Great Britain. Public Law, Spring 1977 10-28.
- Earll, R.C., 1992. The Seasearch habitat guide - an identification guide to the main habitats found in the shallow seas around the British Isles. Ross-on-Wye: Marine Conservation Society.
- Earll, R.C. & Pagett, R.M., 1984. A classification and catalogue of the sea lochs of the Western Isles. Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 525.
- Ekman, S., 1953. Zoogeography of the sea. 1st ed. London: Sidgwick & Jackson.
- Eurpean Commission, 1995. Interpretation manualof European Union Habitats. Version EUR12. Brussels; European Commission Directorate General XI.
- Fairbridge, R.W., 1980. The estuary: its definition and geodynmic cycles. In Chemistry and biogeochemistry of estuaries (ed. E. Olausson & I. Cato), 1-35. New York: John Wiley.
- Fitter, R. & Manuel, R., 1986. Collins field guide to freshwater life of Britain and north west Europe. London: Collins.
- Fletcher, R.L., 1987. Seaweeds of the British Isles vol. 3. Fucophyceae (Phaeophyceae) Part 1. London: British Museum (Natural History).
- Gaston, K.J., 1994. Rarity. (Population and Community Biology Series, No.13). London, Chapman & Hall.
- GESAMP, 1995. Biological indicators and their use in the measurement of the condition of the marine environment. (IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection, GESAMP Reports and Studies No. 55.
- Glémarec, M., 1973. The benthic communities of the European North Atlantic continental shelf. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 11, 263-289.
- Graham, A., 1988. Molluscs: prosobranchs and pyramellid gastropods (2nd ed.). Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. D.M. Kermack & R.S.K. Barnes), The Linnean Society of London. Leiden: E.J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 2]
- Green, E.P. and Short, F.T. (2003). World Atlas of Seagrasses. Prepared by the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.
- Hansom, J.D., 1988. Coasts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Cambridge Topics in Geography: second series].
- Hawkins, S.J. & Jones, H.D., 1992. Rocky shores. (Marine Field Course Guide, No. 1). London: IMMEL Publishing, for Marine Conservation Society.
- Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S., 1998. Cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Part 1. Aeteoidea - Cribrilinoidea. Synopses of the British Fauna, New Series, 10, 2nd ed. (ed. R.S.K. Barnes & J.H. Crothers), 366p. Shrewsbury: Field Studies Council.
- Hiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
- Hiscock, K., 1990. Marine Nature Conservation Review: methods. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, No. 1072. (Marine Nature Conservation Review Report, No. MNCR/OR/5.).
- Hiscock, K., 1985. Aspects of the ecology of rocky sublittoral areas. In The ecology of rocky coasts: essays presented to J.R. Lewis D.Sc, (ed. P.G. Moore & R. Seed), pp 290-328. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
- Hiscock, K. & Connor, D.W., 1991. Benthic marine habitats and communities in Great Britain: the development of an MNCR classification. Joint Nature Conservation Committee Peterborough, JNCC Report, No. 6. (Marine Nature Conservation Review Report, No. MNCR/OR/14.).
- Hiscock, K. & Mitchell, R., 1989. Practical methods of field assessment and conservation evaluation of nearshore/estuarine areas. In Developments in estuarine and coastal study techniques. EBSA 17th Symposium, (ed. J. McManus & M. Elliott), pp 53-55. Fredensborg: Olsen, & Olsen, for Estuarine & Brackish Water Sciences Association.
- Hoek van den, C., Mann, D.G. & Jahns, H.M., 1995. Algae: an introduction to phycology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Holme, N.A. & MacIntyre, A.D., ed., 1984. Methods for the study of marine benthos 2nd edn. Oxfrod: Blackwell Scientific Publications, for International Biological Programee. [IBP Hanbook, no. 16].
- Holmes, S., 1979. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. London: Hendersons.
- Howson, C.M., Connor, D.W. & Holt, R.H.F., 1994. The Scottish sealochs - an account of surveys undertaken for the Marine Nature Conservation Review. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, JNCC Report, no. 164. [Marine Nature Conservation Report no. MNCR/SR/27].
- IMO, 1991. Guidelines for the designation of Special Areas and the identification of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas, International Maritime Organization (IMO) Assembly Resolution A.720(17) 6 November 1991, para. 3.1.2. London: International Maritime Organization.
- International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. Gland: Switzerland.
- Kozloff, E.N., 1996. Marine invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
- Lambert, S.J., 2007. The Environmental Range and Tolerance Limits of British Stoneworts (Charophytes). University of East Anglia
- Landres, P.B., Verner, J. & Thomas, J.W., 1988. Ecological uses of vertebrate indicator species: a critique. Conservation Biology, 2, 316-328.
- Lewis, J.R., 1964. The ecology of rocky shores. London: English Universities Press.
- Lincoln, R.J., & Boxshall, G.A., 1987. The Cambridge illustrated dictionary of natural history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Lincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
- Long, S.P. & Mason, C.F., 1983. Saltmarsh ecology. Glasgow: Blackie. [Tertiary Level Biology Series]
- Makins, M. ed., 1991. Collins English dictionary. 3rd ed. Glasgow, Harper Collins.
- Manuel, R.L., 1988. British Anthozoa. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. D.M. Kermack & R.S.K. Barnes), The Linnean Society of London. Avon: The Bath Press. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 18.]
- McLeod, C.R., 1996. Glossary of marine ecological terms, acronyms and abbreviations used in MNCR work. In Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods, (ed. K. Hiscock), Appendix 1, pp. 93-110. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom, MNCR Series].
- McLusky, D.S., 1993. Marine and estuarine gradients - an overview. In Proceedings of the 21st Symposium of the Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association, Gent, 9-14 September 1991. Marine and estuarine gradients (ECSA 21), (ed. P. Meire & M. Vincx). Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology, 27, 2-4, 489-493.
- Mills, D.J.L., 1991. Benthic maine ecosystems in Great Britain: a review of current knowledge. Cardigan Bay, north Wales, Liverpool Bay and the Solway (MNCR Coastal sectors 10 and 11). Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 1174. [Marine Nature Conservation Review Rport no. MNCR/OR/10].
- Mills, E.L., 1969. The community concept in marine zoology, with comments on continua and instability in some marine communities: a review. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 26, 1415-1428.
- Ministry of Defence, 1987. Admiralty manual of navigation. Volume 1: general navigation, coastal navigation and pilotage. 3rd ed. London: HMSO, for Ministry of Defence, Directorate of Naval Warfare.
- Motyka, J.M. & Brampton, A.H., 1993. Coastal management. Mapping of littoral cells. Unpublished report to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Report no. SR 328.
- Nature Conservancy Council. 1984. Nature conservation in Great Britain. Shrewsbury: Nature Conservancy Council.
- OED (2nd edn revised), 2005. Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- OED, 1990. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Pethick, J., 1984. An introduction to coastal geomorphology. London: Edward Arnold.
- Picton, B. E. & Morrow, C.C., 1994. A Field Guide to the Nudibranchs of the British Isles. London: Immel Publishing Ltd.
- Pimm, S.L., 1984. The complexity and stability of ecosystems. Nature. 307, 321-326.
- Prescott, G.W., 1969. The algae: a review. Sunbury-upon-Thames: T. Nelson and Sons Ltd.
- Preston, C.D., 1995. Pondweeds of Great Britain and Ireland. London: Botanical Society of the British Isles. [B.S.B.I. Handbook no. 8.]
- Pritchard, D., 1993. Strategic Environmental Assessment. RSPB Conservation Review, 7, 52-55.
- Pritchard, D.W., 1967. What is an estuary: physical viewpoint. In Estuaries (ed. G.H. Lauf), 3-5. Washington; American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS Publication, no. 83].
- Raffaelli, D. & Hawkins, S., 1996. Intertidal ecology. London: Chapman & Hall.
- Ratcliffe, D.A. (ed.), 1977. A nature conservation review. The selection of biological sites of national importance to nature conservation in Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press for Nature Conservancy Council and the Natural Environment Research Council.
- Richards, A., Bunker, F., & Foster-Smith, R., 1995. Handbook for marine intertidal phase 1 habitat mapping - version 3.95. Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, Natural Sciences Report, no. 95/96/1.
- Ritchie, W., Smith, J.S. & Rose, N., 1978. Beaches of north-east Scotland. Perth: Countryside Commission for Scotland.
- Rouse, G.W. & Pleijel, F., 2001. Polychaetes. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Rowell, T.A., 1994. Ecological indicators for nature conservation monitoring. Joint Nature Conservation, Peterborough, Committee. JNCC Report, no. 196 (Contractor: Dr T. A. Rowell, Llanybydder, Dyfed.).
- Ruppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
- Sanderson, W., 1996. Rarity of marine benthic species in Great Britain: development and application of assessment criteria. Aquatic Conservation, 6, 245-256.
- Scott, W. & Palmer, R., 1987. The flowering plants and ferns of the Shetland Islands. Lerwick: Shetland Times Ltd.
- Smith, B.S., 1980. The estuarine mud snail, Nassarius obsoletus: abnormalities in the reproductive system. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 46, 247-256.
- Smith, S.M., 1987. Obs in northwest Scotland and the Hebrides. Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 801.
- Sneddon, P. & Randall, R.E., 1993. Vegetated shingle structures of Great Britain. Main Report. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Commitee.
- Southward, E.C. & Campbell, A.C., 2006. Echinoderms. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. J.H. Crothers & P.J. Hayward), The Linnean Society of London. Avon: The Bath Press. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 56.]
- Stachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Steigeler, S.E. ed., 1976. Dictionary of earth sciences. London: Macmillan.
- Stewart, N.F., 2004. Important stonewort areas: an assessment of the best areas for stoneworts in the United Kingdom (summary). Plantlife International, 14.
- Stewart, N.F. & Church, J.M., 1992. Red data books of Britain and Ireland-Stoneworts. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.
- Sunamura, T., 1992. Geomorphology of rocky coasts. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons [Coastal Morphology and Research Series].
- Tebble, N., 1976. British Bivalve Seashells: A Handbook for Identification, 2nd ed. Edinburgh: British Museum (Natural History), Her Majesty's Stationary Office.
- Thompson, D., (ed.) 1995. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. 9th ed. London: Oxford University Press.
- Thompson, T. E. & Brown, G. H., 1976. British Opisthobranch Molluscs. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. D.M. Kermack & R.S.K. Barnes), The Linnean Society of London. London: Academic Press. [Synopses of the British Fauna, no. 8.]
- Treweek, J., 1996. Ecology and environmental impact assessment. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 191-199.
- Tyler-Walters, H. & Jackson, A., 1999. Assessing seabed species and ecosystems sensitivities. Rationale and user guide. Report to the Department of the Environment Transport and the Regions from the Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN), Marine Biological Association of the UK, Plymouth. [MarLIN Report, no.4.]
- UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), 1985. The International System of Units (SI) in Oceanography. Report of IAPSO working group on symbols, units and nomenclature in physical oceanography (SUN). IAPSO Publication Scientifique, no. 32, UNESCO technical papers in marine science, no. 45.
- Wentworth, C.K., 1922. A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments. Journal of Geology, 30, 377-392.
- Woodward, H.B., 1912. The geology of soils and substrata, with special reference to agriculture, estates, and sanitation London: Edward Arnold
- World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our common future: the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (the ‘Brundtland Commission’). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- WWF, 1994. Implementing the precautionary approach in international fisheries management. Marine Update no. 54. Godalming: WWF.