Biodiversity & Conservation

MarLIN Glossary

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F

Facies
Biological - a geographical variant of a marine community, or a variant which includes a conspicuous or abundant species not present in the main community (based on Hiscock & Connor , 1991, from Cotton, 1912).

Factor
Environmental - a component of the physical, chemical, ecological or human environment that may be influenced by natural events or anthropogenic activity (Tyler-Walters & Jackson, 1999).

Falcate
Bent or curved like a sickle; hooked (OED, 1990).

Fauna
1) The animal life of a given region, habitat or geological period; 2) A descriptive catalogue of the above (from Lincoln et al., 1998).

Fecundity
The potential reproductive capacity of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs) or asexual propagules.

Fetch
The distance across water over which the wind blows from a particular direction uninterrupted by land.

Fiard
See 'fjard'.

Filiform
Filamentous slender and thread-like (Kozloff, 1996).

Filter-feed
See 'suspension-feeders'.

Filter-feeder
See 'suspension-feeder' .

Finlet
A small flattened appendage predominantly used for balance by fish species (OED, 2005).

Fiord
See 'fjord'.

Firth
In Scotland - a lengthy estuary or arm of the sea (from Stiegeler, 1976).

Fission
Form of asexual multiplication involving division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals (Barnes et al. , 1993).

Fissure
A crack in a hard substratum > 10 mm wide at its entrance, with the depth being greater than the width at the entrance (cf. 'crevice').

Fjard
A series of shallow basins connected to the sea via shallow and often intertidal sills. Fjards are found in areas of low-lying ground which have been subject to glacial roughening. They have a highly irregular outline, no main channel and lack the high relief and U-shaped cross-section of fjordic inlets. (See Earll & Pagett, 1984 and Howson, Connor & Holt, 1994 for discussion and classification of types.)

Fjord
A long, narrow-sided inlet of the sea having a shallow entrance sill. Fjords are glacially over-deepened and may have a series of sills and basins, often having deep water at the head. They are commonly surrounded by high ground and in cross-section, have a deep 'U'-shape. (See Earll & Pagett, 1984 and Howson, Connor & Holt, 1994 for discussion and classification of types.)

Flabellate
Shaped like a fan, fanlike (Brusca, 1980).

Flaccid
Soft, limp, flabby (Brusca , 1980).

FLEMMS
Acronym to denote the descriptive features used to identify fish species where : F = Fins; L = Lateral line; E = Eyes; M = Markings (inc. appendages); M = Mouth (inc. barbels); and S = Size.

Flood Tide
Incoming or rising tide.

Flora
1) The plants or plant life of a particular region, habitat or geological period. 2) A descriptive catalogue of the above. (from Lincoln et al. , 1998).

Foliose
Bearing leaves or leaf-like structures; having the appearance of a leaf.

Foramen
In brachiopods (Brachiopoda), the hole in the posterior of the dorsal valve through which the pedicle passes (Stachowitsch, 1992).

Foreshore
The part of the intertidal zone that lies between normal high- and low-water marks (from Allaby & Allaby, 1990). In English law, the landward limit has been defined as the line of medium high tides between the springs and the neaps, while the seaward limit is assumed to be the low-water line of ordinary tides (from Dowrick, 1977).

Fragility
In conservation assessment - the degree of sensitivity of habitats, communities and species to environmental change (Ratcliffe, 1977) (cf. sensitivity).

Frond
Leaf-like structure formed by the fusion of the stem and foliage in flowerless plants (OED, 1990). In seaweeds a term applied to that part of the thallus other than the attachment structure (Fletcher, 1987).

Funnel-shaped
In the shape of a funnel.

Fusiform
Streamlined and 'torpedo' shaped, or spindle shaped and tapering at both ends.

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Glossary references