A life strategy optimally geared to living in a stable habitat with a high level of interspecific competition. Parental care is facilitated by low fecundity (small litters of large size offspring), by longevity and size. K-strategists are unlikely to be well adapted to recover from population densities significantly below their equilibrium level and may become extinct if depressed to such low levels (from Baretta-Bekker et al., 1992). Cf. r-strategy.
A group of large brown algae of the Order Laminariales, common in the sublittoral fringe and infralittoral zone (q.v.).
A belt of the upper infralittoral (q.v.) subzone on hard substrata, dominated by Laminariales sufficiently dense to form an almost continuous canopy.
A belt of the lower infralittoral (q.v.) subzone on hard substrata, which has scattered Laminariales whose fronds do not meet to form a dense canopy.
A species which, through its predatory activities (for instance, grazing by sea urchins) or by mediating competition between prey species (for instance, by eating sea urchins), maintains community composition and structure. Removal of a keystone species leads to rapid, cascading changes in the structure they support (based on Raffaelli & Hawkins, 1996). The term is also applied here to species which provide a distinctive habitat (for instance a bed of the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus, or kelp plants Laminaria hyperborea) and whose loss would therefore lead to the disappearance of the associated community.
A unit of speed used in navigation, being one nautical mile (q.v.) per hour, equating to approximately 0.5 metres per second.
- Abercrombie, M., Hickman, C.J., & Johnson, M.L., 1973. A dictionary of biology (6th edn.). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd.
- Allaby, A. & Allaby, M., ed., 1990. Concise Oxford dictionary of earth sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Anon., 1994. Biodiversity. The UK action plan. London: HMSO, for Department of the Environment. (Cm. 2428.)
- Ardizzone, G.D., Catandella, S. & Rossi, R., 1988. Management of coastal lagoon fisheries and aquaculture in Italy. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, no. 295. Rome.
- Baretta-Bekker, J.G., Duursma, E.K. & Kuipers, B.R. (ed.), 1992. Encyclopaedia of Marine Sciences. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
- Barnes, R.S.K., Calow, P. & Olive P.J.W., 1993. The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
- Bold, H.C., 1977. The Plant Kingdom (4th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
- Brusca, R.C., 1980. Common intertidal invertebrates of the Gulf of California. University of Arizona Press.
- Cain, S.A., 1939. The climax and its complexities. American Midland Naturalist, 21, 147-181.
- Carriker, M.R., 1967. Ecology of estuarine benthic invertebrates: a perspective. In: Estuaries, (ed. G.H. Lauff.) pp 442-487. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science. [AAAS Publication, No. 83.]
- Carter, R.W.G., 1988. Coastal environments: an introduction to the physical, ecological and cultural systems of coastlines. London: Academic Press.
- Chambers, W., & Chambers, R., 1971. Chambers dictionary of science and technology. London: Chambers.
- Charton, B.& Tietjen, J., 1989. Seas and oceans: Collins reference dictionary. Glasgow: Collins.
- Commission of the European Communities. 1991. CORINE biotopes. 1st ed. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, for Commission of the European Communities.
- Connell, J.H.& Sousa, W.P., 1983. On the evidence needed to judge ecological stability or persistence. American Naturalist, 121, 789-824.
- Connor, D.W. & Hiscock, K., 1996. Data collection methods. In Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods (ed. K. Hiscock), pp. 51-65. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom, MNCR Series].
- Connor, D.W., Brazier, D.P., Hill, T.O.& Northen, K.O., 1997(a). Marine Nature Conservation Review: marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Volume 1. Littoral biotopes. Version 97.06. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report, no. 229.
- Connor, D.W., Dalkin, M.J., Hill, T.O., Holt, R.H.F. & Sanderson, W.G., 1997(b). Marine Nature Conservation Review: marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Volume 2. Sub-littoral biotopes. Version 97.06. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report, no. 230.
- Considine, D.M. (ed.), 1976. Van Nostrand’s scientific encyclopaedia, 5th ed. New York: Von Nostrand Reinhold Co.
- Cooke, A. & McMath, M., 2000. SENSMAP: Development of a protocol for assessing and mapping the sensitivity of marine species and benthos to maritime activities. Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, CCW Marine Report: 98/6/1, (2000, Working draft).
- Cornelius, P.F.S., 1995. North-West European Thecate Hydroids and their Medusae. Part 2. Sertulariidae to Campanulariidae. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. R.S.K. Barnes & J.H. Crothers), The Linnean Society of London. Shrewsbury: Field Studies Council.[Synopses of the British Fauna no. 50]
- Cotton, A.D., 1912. Marine algae. Clare Island Survey. Part 15. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 31, 1-178.
- Dando, M. & Burchett, M., 1996. SEALIFE. A complete Guide to the Marine Environment. East Sussex: Pica press.
- Davies, J., Bennett, T.L., Covey, R., & Mills, D.J.L., 1990. A catalogue of coastal SSSI's with additional notes from published marine biological information. Volume 1. England. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 1022. [Marine Nature Conservation Review Report, no. MNCR/OR/2.]
- Dobson, F.S., 2000. Lichens: an illustrated guide to the British and Irish species. Slough: The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd.
- Dooley, D. & Kirkpatrick, N., 1993. Environmental glossary. Letherhead: Pira International.
- Dowrick, F.E., 1977. Submarine areas around Great Britain. Public Law, Spring 1977 10-28.
- Earll, R.C., 1992. The Seasearch habitat guide - an identification guide to the main habitats found in the shallow seas around the British Isles. Ross-on-Wye: Marine Conservation Society.
- Earll, R.C. & Pagett, R.M., 1984. A classification and catalogue of the sea lochs of the Western Isles. Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 525.
- Ekman, S., 1953. Zoogeography of the sea. 1st ed. London: Sidgwick & Jackson.
- Eurpean Commission, 1995. Interpretation manualof European Union Habitats. Version EUR12. Brussels; European Commission Directorate General XI.
- Fairbridge, R.W., 1980. The estuary: its definition and geodynmic cycles. In Chemistry and biogeochemistry of estuaries (ed. E. Olausson & I. Cato), 1-35. New York: John Wiley.
- Fitter, R. & Manuel, R., 1986. Collins field guide to freshwater life of Britain and north west Europe. London: Collins.
- Fletcher, R.L., 1987. Seaweeds of the British Isles vol. 3. Fucophyceae (Phaeophyceae) Part 1. London: British Museum (Natural History).
- Gaston, K.J., 1994. Rarity. (Population and Community Biology Series, No.13). London, Chapman & Hall.
- GESAMP, 1995. Biological indicators and their use in the measurement of the condition of the marine environment. (IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection, GESAMP Reports and Studies No. 55.
- Glémarec, M., 1973. The benthic communities of the European North Atlantic continental shelf. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 11, 263-289.
- Graham, A., 1988. Molluscs: prosobranchs and pyramellid gastropods (2nd ed.). Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. D.M. Kermack & R.S.K. Barnes), The Linnean Society of London. Leiden: E.J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 2]
- Green, E.P. and Short, F.T. (2003). World Atlas of Seagrasses. Prepared by the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.
- Hansom, J.D., 1988. Coasts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Cambridge Topics in Geography: second series].
- Hawkins, S.J. & Jones, H.D., 1992. Rocky shores. (Marine Field Course Guide, No. 1). London: IMMEL Publishing, for Marine Conservation Society.
- Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S., 1998. Cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Part 1. Aeteoidea - Cribrilinoidea. Synopses of the British Fauna, New Series, 10, 2nd ed. (ed. R.S.K. Barnes & J.H. Crothers), 366p. Shrewsbury: Field Studies Council.
- Hiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
- Hiscock, K., 1990. Marine Nature Conservation Review: methods. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, No. 1072. (Marine Nature Conservation Review Report, No. MNCR/OR/5.).
- Hiscock, K., 1985. Aspects of the ecology of rocky sublittoral areas. In The ecology of rocky coasts: essays presented to J.R. Lewis D.Sc, (ed. P.G. Moore & R. Seed), pp 290-328. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
- Hiscock, K. & Connor, D.W., 1991. Benthic marine habitats and communities in Great Britain: the development of an MNCR classification. Joint Nature Conservation Committee Peterborough, JNCC Report, No. 6. (Marine Nature Conservation Review Report, No. MNCR/OR/14.).
- Hiscock, K. & Mitchell, R., 1989. Practical methods of field assessment and conservation evaluation of nearshore/estuarine areas. In Developments in estuarine and coastal study techniques. EBSA 17th Symposium, (ed. J. McManus & M. Elliott), pp 53-55. Fredensborg: Olsen, & Olsen, for Estuarine & Brackish Water Sciences Association.
- Hoek van den, C., Mann, D.G. & Jahns, H.M., 1995. Algae: an introduction to phycology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Holme, N.A. & MacIntyre, A.D., ed., 1984. Methods for the study of marine benthos 2nd edn. Oxfrod: Blackwell Scientific Publications, for International Biological Programee. [IBP Hanbook, no. 16].
- Holmes, S., 1979. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. London: Hendersons.
- Howson, C.M., Connor, D.W. & Holt, R.H.F., 1994. The Scottish sealochs - an account of surveys undertaken for the Marine Nature Conservation Review. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, JNCC Report, no. 164. [Marine Nature Conservation Report no. MNCR/SR/27].
- IMO, 1991. Guidelines for the designation of Special Areas and the identification of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas, International Maritime Organization (IMO) Assembly Resolution A.720(17) 6 November 1991, para. 3.1.2. London: International Maritime Organization.
- International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. Gland: Switzerland.
- Kozloff, E.N., 1996. Marine invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
- Lambert, S.J., 2007. The Environmental Range and Tolerance Limits of British Stoneworts (Charophytes). University of East Anglia
- Landres, P.B., Verner, J. & Thomas, J.W., 1988. Ecological uses of vertebrate indicator species: a critique. Conservation Biology, 2, 316-328.
- Lewis, J.R., 1964. The ecology of rocky shores. London: English Universities Press.
- Lincoln, R.J., & Boxshall, G.A., 1987. The Cambridge illustrated dictionary of natural history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Lincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
- Long, S.P. & Mason, C.F., 1983. Saltmarsh ecology. Glasgow: Blackie. [Tertiary Level Biology Series]
- Makins, M. ed., 1991. Collins English dictionary. 3rd ed. Glasgow, Harper Collins.
- Manuel, R.L., 1988. British Anthozoa. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. D.M. Kermack & R.S.K. Barnes), The Linnean Society of London. Avon: The Bath Press. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 18.]
- McLeod, C.R., 1996. Glossary of marine ecological terms, acronyms and abbreviations used in MNCR work. In Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods, (ed. K. Hiscock), Appendix 1, pp. 93-110. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom, MNCR Series].
- McLusky, D.S., 1993. Marine and estuarine gradients - an overview. In Proceedings of the 21st Symposium of the Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association, Gent, 9-14 September 1991. Marine and estuarine gradients (ECSA 21), (ed. P. Meire & M. Vincx). Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology, 27, 2-4, 489-493.
- Mills, D.J.L., 1991. Benthic maine ecosystems in Great Britain: a review of current knowledge. Cardigan Bay, north Wales, Liverpool Bay and the Solway (MNCR Coastal sectors 10 and 11). Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 1174. [Marine Nature Conservation Review Rport no. MNCR/OR/10].
- Mills, E.L., 1969. The community concept in marine zoology, with comments on continua and instability in some marine communities: a review. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 26, 1415-1428.
- Ministry of Defence, 1987. Admiralty manual of navigation. Volume 1: general navigation, coastal navigation and pilotage. 3rd ed. London: HMSO, for Ministry of Defence, Directorate of Naval Warfare.
- Motyka, J.M. & Brampton, A.H., 1993. Coastal management. Mapping of littoral cells. Unpublished report to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Report no. SR 328.
- Nature Conservancy Council. 1984. Nature conservation in Great Britain. Shrewsbury: Nature Conservancy Council.
- OED (2nd edn revised), 2005. Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- OED, 1990. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Pethick, J., 1984. An introduction to coastal geomorphology. London: Edward Arnold.
- Picton, B. E. & Morrow, C.C., 1994. A Field Guide to the Nudibranchs of the British Isles. London: Immel Publishing Ltd.
- Pimm, S.L., 1984. The complexity and stability of ecosystems. Nature. 307, 321-326.
- Prescott, G.W., 1969. The algae: a review. Sunbury-upon-Thames: T. Nelson and Sons Ltd.
- Preston, C.D., 1995. Pondweeds of Great Britain and Ireland. London: Botanical Society of the British Isles. [B.S.B.I. Handbook no. 8.]
- Pritchard, D., 1993. Strategic Environmental Assessment. RSPB Conservation Review, 7, 52-55.
- Pritchard, D.W., 1967. What is an estuary: physical viewpoint. In Estuaries (ed. G.H. Lauf), 3-5. Washington; American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS Publication, no. 83].
- Raffaelli, D. & Hawkins, S., 1996. Intertidal ecology. London: Chapman & Hall.
- Ratcliffe, D.A. (ed.), 1977. A nature conservation review. The selection of biological sites of national importance to nature conservation in Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press for Nature Conservancy Council and the Natural Environment Research Council.
- Richards, A., Bunker, F., & Foster-Smith, R., 1995. Handbook for marine intertidal phase 1 habitat mapping - version 3.95. Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, Natural Sciences Report, no. 95/96/1.
- Ritchie, W., Smith, J.S. & Rose, N., 1978. Beaches of north-east Scotland. Perth: Countryside Commission for Scotland.
- Rouse, G.W. & Pleijel, F., 2001. Polychaetes. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Rowell, T.A., 1994. Ecological indicators for nature conservation monitoring. Joint Nature Conservation, Peterborough, Committee. JNCC Report, no. 196 (Contractor: Dr T. A. Rowell, Llanybydder, Dyfed.).
- Ruppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
- Sanderson, W., 1996. Rarity of marine benthic species in Great Britain: development and application of assessment criteria. Aquatic Conservation, 6, 245-256.
- Scott, W. & Palmer, R., 1987. The flowering plants and ferns of the Shetland Islands. Lerwick: Shetland Times Ltd.
- Smith, B.S., 1980. The estuarine mud snail, Nassarius obsoletus: abnormalities in the reproductive system. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 46, 247-256.
- Smith, S.M., 1987. Obs in northwest Scotland and the Hebrides. Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 801.
- Sneddon, P. & Randall, R.E., 1993. Vegetated shingle structures of Great Britain. Main Report. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Commitee.
- Southward, E.C. & Campbell, A.C., 2006. Echinoderms. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. J.H. Crothers & P.J. Hayward), The Linnean Society of London. Avon: The Bath Press. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 56.]
- Stachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Steigeler, S.E. ed., 1976. Dictionary of earth sciences. London: Macmillan.
- Stewart, N.F., 2004. Important stonewort areas: an assessment of the best areas for stoneworts in the United Kingdom (summary). Plantlife International, 14.
- Stewart, N.F. & Church, J.M., 1992. Red data books of Britain and Ireland-Stoneworts. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.
- Sunamura, T., 1992. Geomorphology of rocky coasts. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons [Coastal Morphology and Research Series].
- Tebble, N., 1976. British Bivalve Seashells: A Handbook for Identification, 2nd ed. Edinburgh: British Museum (Natural History), Her Majesty's Stationary Office.
- Thompson, D., (ed.) 1995. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. 9th ed. London: Oxford University Press.
- Thompson, T. E. & Brown, G. H., 1976. British Opisthobranch Molluscs. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. D.M. Kermack & R.S.K. Barnes), The Linnean Society of London. London: Academic Press. [Synopses of the British Fauna, no. 8.]
- Treweek, J., 1996. Ecology and environmental impact assessment. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 191-199.
- Tyler-Walters, H. & Jackson, A., 1999. Assessing seabed species and ecosystems sensitivities. Rationale and user guide. Report to the Department of the Environment Transport and the Regions from the Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN), Marine Biological Association of the UK, Plymouth. [MarLIN Report, no.4.]
- UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), 1985. The International System of Units (SI) in Oceanography. Report of IAPSO working group on symbols, units and nomenclature in physical oceanography (SUN). IAPSO Publication Scientifique, no. 32, UNESCO technical papers in marine science, no. 45.
- Wentworth, C.K., 1922. A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments. Journal of Geology, 30, 377-392.
- Woodward, H.B., 1912. The geology of soils and substrata, with special reference to agriculture, estates, and sanitation London: Edward Arnold
- World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our common future: the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (the ‘Brundtland Commission’). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- WWF, 1994. Implementing the precautionary approach in international fisheries management. Marine Update no. 54. Godalming: WWF.