Biodiversity & Conservation

Habitat bibliography

Please choose a habitat from our habitats lists or view all references related to species.

LR.SLR.F.Asc
Ascophyllum nodosum on very sheltered mid eulittoral rock

CR.SCR.BrAs.NeoPro
Neocrania anomala and Protanthea simplex on very sheltered circalittoral rock

SS.IGS.Mrl.Lgla
Lithothamnion glaciale maerl beds in tide-swept variable salinity infralittoral gravel

CR.C.Cv
Caves and overhangs (deep)

LR.MLR.Eph.Rho
Rhodothamniella floridula on sand-scoured lower eulittoral rock

LS.LGS.S.BarSnd
Barren coarse sand shores

LS.LMS.MS
Muddy sand shores

LS.LMU.Sm
Saltmarsh

IR.MIR.KR.Ldig.Pid
Laminaria digitata and piddocks on sublittoral fringe soft rock

IR.SIR.EstFa.CorEle
Cordylophora caspia and Electra crustulenta on reduced salinity infralittoral rock

SS.IMU.EstMu.CapTub
Capitella capitata and Tubificoides spp. in reduced salinity infralittoral muddy sediment

LR.MLR.BF
Barnacles and fucoids (moderately exposed shores)

SS.IMU.EstMu.LimTtub
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Tubifex tubifex and Gammarus spp. in low salinity infralittoral muddy sediment

SS.IMX.EstMx.MytV
Mytilus edulis beds in variable salinity infralittoral mixed sediment

LR.LR.Ov.RhoCv
Rhodothamniella floridula in upper littoral fringe soft rock caves

SS.CMS._.Ser
Serpula vermicularis reefs on very sheltered circalittoral muddy sand

LR.SLR.F.Fserr.T
Fucus serratus, sponges and ascidians on tide-swept lower eulittoral rock

IR.EIR.KFaR.LhypFa
Laminaria hyperborea forest with a faunal cushion (sponges and polyclinids) and foliose red seaweeds on very exposed infralittoral rock

CR.ECR.BS.HbowEud
Halichondria bowerbanki, Eudendrium arbusculum and Eucratea loricata on reduced salinity tide-swept circalittoral mixed substrata

LR.MLR.MF.MytFves
Mytilus edulis and Fucus vesiculosus on moderately exposed mid eulittoral rock

SS.IGS.EstGS.NeoGam
Neomysis integer and Gammarus spp. in low salinity infralittoral mobile sand

SS.IMX.EstMx.CreAph
Crepidula fornicata and Aphelochaeta marioni in variable salinity infralittoral mixed sediment

LR.LR.Rkp.H
Hydroids, ephemeral seaweeds and Littorina littorea in shallow eulittoral mixed substrata pools

SS.IMX.KSwMx.LsacX
Laminaria saccharina, Chorda filum and filamentous red seaweeds on sheltered infralittoral sediment

SS.CMS._.AbrNucCor
Abra alba, Nucula nitida and Corbula gibba in circalittoral muddy sand or slightly mixed sediment

SS.CGS._.Ven
Venerid bivalves in circalittoral coarse sand or gravel

SS.IGS.Mrl.Phy.HEc
Phymatolithon calcareum maerl beds with hydroids and echinoderms in deeper infralittoral clean gravel or coarse sand

IR.EIR.KFaR.FoR
Foliose red seaweeds on exposed or moderately exposed lower infralittoral rock

SS.CMS._.VirOph
Virgularia mirabilis and Ophiura spp. on circalittoral sandy or shelly mud

SS.IMX.Oy.Ost
Ostrea edulis beds on shallow sublittoral muddy sediment

COS.COS.AmpPar
Ampharete falcata turf with Parvicardium ovale on cohesive muddy very fine sand near margins of deep stratified seas

CR.MCR.XFa.ErSEun
Erect sponges, Eunicella verrucosa and Pentapora foliacea on slightly tide-swept moderately exposed circalittoral rock

SS.IGS.FaG.HalEdw
Halcampa chrysanthellum and Edwardsia timida on sublittoral clean stone gravel

IR.SIR.EstFa.HarCon
Hartlaubella gelatinosa and Conopeum reticulum on low salinity infralittoral mixed substrata

CR.MCR.M.Mus
Musculus discors beds on moderately exposed circalittoral rock

CR.SCR.BrAs.SubSoAs
Suberites spp. and other sponges with solitary ascidians on very sheltered circalittoral rock

LR.MLR.MytPid
Mytilus edulis and piddocks on eulittoral firm clay

LR.L.YG
Yellow and grey lichens on supralittoral rock

LR.SLR.F.Asc.T
Ascophyllum nodosum, sponges and ascidians on tide-swept mid eulittoral rock

LR.MLR.Eph.Ent
Enteromorpha spp. on freshwater-influenced or unstable upper eulittoral rock

CR.C.FaV.Bug
Bugula spp. and other bryozoans on vertical moderately exposed circalittoral rock

SS.IMS.FaMS.Cap
Capitella capitata in enriched sublittoral muddy sediments

SS.IMU.MarMu.AreSyn
Arenicola marina and synaptid holothurians in extremely shallow soft mud

SS.IMX.FaMx.Lim
Limaria hians beds in tide-swept sublittoral muddy mixed sediment

SS.IMX.EstMx.PolMtru
Polydora ciliata, Mya truncata and solitary ascidians in variable salinity infralittoral mixed sediment

SS.IGS.FaS.Lcon
Dense Lanice conchilega and other polychaetes in tide-swept infralittoral sand

LR.L.Chr
Chrysophyceae on vertical upper littoral fringe soft rock

SS.IMS.FaMS.EcorEns
Echinocardium cordatum and Ensis sp. in lower shore or shallow sublittoral muddy fine sand

LR.ELR.FR.Coff
Corallina officinalis on very exposed lower eulittoral rock

SS.CMU._.SpMeg
Seapens and burrowing megafauna in circalittoral soft mud

SS.IMU.MarMu.TubeAP
Semi-permanent tube-building amphipods and polychaetes in sublittoral mud or muddy sand

CR.MCR.M.ModT
Modiolus modiolus beds with hydroids and red seaweeds on tide-swept circalittoral mixed substrata

LR.SLR.FX.AscX.mac
Ascophyllum nodosum ecad. mackaii beds on extremely sheltered mid eulittoral mixed substrata

SS.CMU._.BriAchi
Brissopsis lyrifera and Amphiura chiajei in circalittoral mud

SS.IGS.FaS.FabMag
Fabulina fabula and Magelona mirabilis with venerid bivalves in infralittoral compacted fine sand

IR.MIR.SedK.SabKR
Sabellaria spinulosa with kelp and red seaweeds on sand-influenced infralittoral rock

LS.LGS.Sh.Pec
Pectenogammarus planicrurus in mid shore well-sorted gravel or coarse sand

CR.MCR.SfR.Pid
Piddocks with a sparse associated fauna in upward-facing circalittoral very soft chalk or clay

SS.IGS.FaS.NcirBat
Nephtys cirrosa and Bathyporeia spp. in infralittoral sand

SS.IMX.KSwMx.FiG
Filamentous green seaweeds on low salinity infralittoral mixed sediment or rock

IR.EIR.KFaR.Ala
Alaria esculenta on sublittoral fringe bedrock

IR.EIR.KFaR.LhypR
Laminaria hyperborea with dense foliose red seaweeds on exposed infralittoral rock

SS.IMS.FaMS.MacAbr
Macoma balthica and Abra alba in infralittoral muddy sand or mud

LS.LGS.S.Tal
Talitrid amphipods in decomposing seaweed on the strand-line

CR.ECR.EFa.PomByC
Pomatoceros triqueter, Balanus crenatus and bryozoan crusts on mobile circalittoral cobbles and pebbles

SS.CMU._.Beg
Beggiatoa spp. on anoxic sublittoral mud

SS.IMU.EstMu.PolVS
Polydora ciliata in variable salinity infralittoral firm mud or clay

LS.LGS.S.Lan
Dense Lanice conchilega in tide-swept lower shore sand

LR.ELR.MB.BPat.Fvesl
Barnacles, Patella spp. and Fucus vesiculosus f. linearis on exposed eulittoral rock

SS.IMU.EstMu.AphTub
Aphelochaeta marioni and Tubificoides spp. in variable salinity infralittoral mud

SS.IMU.MarMu.PhiVir
Philine aperta and Virgularia mirabilis in soft stable infralittoral mud

LR.ELR.MB.MytB
Mytilus edulis and barnacles on very exposed eulittoral rock

CR.MCR.M.MytHAs
Mytilus edulis beds with hydroids and ascidians on tide-swept moderately exposed circalittoral rock

LS.LMU.SMu.HedMac
Hediste diversicolor and Macoma balthica in sandy mud shores

COS.COS.ForThy
Foramaniferans and Thyasira sp. in deep circalittoral soft mud

LR.SLR.FX.FserX.T
Fucus serratus with sponges, ascidians and red seaweeds on tide-swept lower eulittoral mixed substrata

IR.MIR.SedK.PolAhn
Polyides rotundus, Ahnfeltia plicata and Chondrus crispus on sand-covered infralittoral rock

LR.ELR.FR.Fdis
Fucus distichus subsp. anceps and Fucus spiralis f. nana on extremely exposed upper eulittoral rock

IR.EIR.KFaR.LsacSac
Laminaria saccharina and/or Saccorhiza polyschides on exposed infralittoral rock

LR.LR.Rkp.Cor
Corallina officinalis and coralline crusts in shallow eulittoral rockpools

LR.LR.Ov
Overhangs and caves

LR.LR.Rkp.G
Green seaweeds (Enteromorpha spp. and Cladophora spp.) in upper shore rockpools

CR.MCR.SfR.Pol
Polydora sp. tubes on upward-facing circalittoral soft rock

SS.IMS.Sgr.Zmar
Zostera marina/angustifolia beds in lower shore or infralittoral clean or muddy sand

IR.MIR.SedK.HalXK
Halidrys siliquosa and mixed kelps on tide-swept infralittoral rock with coarse sediment

IR.SIR.EstFa.MytT
Mytilus edulis beds on reduced salinity tide-swept infralittoral rock

SS.IMS.Sgr.Rup
Ruppia maritima in reduced salinity infralittoral muddy sand

LR.SLR.FX.FcerX
Fucus ceranoides on reduced salinity eulittoral mixed substrata

IR.MIR.KR.Ldig.T
Laminaria digitata, ascidians and bryozoans on tide-swept sublittoral fringe rock

COS.COS.Sty
Styela gelatinosa and other solitary ascidians on sheltered deep circalittoral muddy sediment

LR.LR.Rkp.FK
Fucoids and kelps in deep eulittoral rockpools

CR.MCR.ByH.Urt
Urticina felina on sand-affected circalittoral rock

COR.COR.Lop
Lophelia reefs

IR.MIR.KR.Ldig.Ldig
Laminaria digitata on moderately exposed sublittoral fringe rock

SS.IMU.Ang.S4
Phragmites australis swamp and reed beds

CR.SCR.BrAs.AntAsH
Antedon spp., solitary ascidians and fine hydroids on sheltered circalittoral rock

IR.SIR.Lag.PolFur
Polyides rotundus and/or Furcellaria lumbricalis on reduced salinity infralittoral rock

LS.LMS.ZOS.Znol
Zostera noltii beds in upper to mid shore muddy sand

SS.IMU.Ang.A12
Potamogeton pectinatus community

SS.IMU.MarMu.Ocn
Ocnus planci aggregations on sheltered sublittoral muddy sediment

LR.LR.Rkp.SwSed
Seaweeds in sediment (sand or gravel)-floored eulittoral rockpools

IR.SIR.Lag.AscSAs
Ascophyllum nodosum with epiphytic sponges and ascidians on variable salinity infralittoral rock

LR.SLR.FX.FvesX
Fucus vesiculosus on mid eulittoral mixed substrata

IR.MIR.GzK.LhypGz.Ft
Grazed Laminaria hyperborea forest with coralline crusts on upper infralittoral rock

IR.SIR.K.LsacRS
Laminaria saccharina on reduced or low salinity infralittoral rock

CR.MCR.As.MolPol.Sab
Dense ascidians, bryozoans and hydroids on a crust of Sabellaria spinulosa on tide-swept circalittoral rock

LS.LMU.Sm.SM13
Puccinellia maritima

LR.MLR.Sab.Salv
Sabellaria alveolata reefs on sand-abraded eulittoral rock

SS.IMX.FaMx.VsenMtru
Venerupis senegalensis and Mya truncata in lower shore or infralittoral muddy gravel

IR.SIR.Lag.FChoG
Mixed fucoids, Chorda filum and green seaweeds on reduced salinity infralittoral rock

IR.SIR.K.Lsac.Pk
Laminaria saccharina park on very sheltered lower infralittoral rock

LR.ELR.FR.Him
Himanthalia elongata and red seaweeds on exposed lower eulittoral rock

IR.MIR.SedK.LsacChoR
Laminaria saccharina, Chorda filum and dense red seaweeds on shallow unstable infralittoral boulders and cobbles

SS.CMS._.AfilEcor
Amphiura filiformis and Echinocardium cordatum in circalittoral clean or slightly muddy sand

LR.MLR.R.RPid
Ceramium sp. and piddocks on eulittoral fossilised peat

LR.MLR.BF.Fser.Fser.Bo
Fucus serratus and under-boulder fauna on lower eulittoral boulders