Biodiversity & Conservation

Habitat bibliography

Ambrose, W.G. Jr., (1993). Effects of predation and disturbance by ophiuroids on soft-bottom community structure in Oslofjord: results of a mesocosm study. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 97, 225-236.

Armonies, W. & Reise, K., (1999). On the population development of the introduced razor clam Ensis americanus near the island of Sylt (North Sea). Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 52, 291-300.

Bergman, M.J.N. & Hup, M., (1992). Direct effects of beam trawling on macro-fauna in a sandy sediment in the southern North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 49, 5-11.

Bergman, M.J.N. & van Santbrink, J.W., (2000). Fishing mortality of populations of megafauna in sandy sediments. In The effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats (ed. M.J. Kaiser & S.J de Groot), 49-68. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Beukema, J.J., (1990). Expected effects of changes in winter temperatures on benthic animals living in soft sediments in coastal North Sea areas. In Expected effects of climatic change on marine coastal ecosystems (ed. J.J. Beukema, W.J. Wolff & J.J.W.M. Brouns), pp. 83-92. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publ.

Beukema, J.J., (1995). Long-term effects of mechanical harvesting of lugworms Arenicola marina on the zoobenthic community of a tidal flat in the Wadden Sea. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 33, 219-227.

Bradshaw, C., Veale, L.O., Hill, A.S. & Brand, A.R., (2000). The effects of scallop dredging on gravelly seabed communities. In: Effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats (ed. M.J. Kaiser & de S.J. Groot), pp. 83-104. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Bradshaw, C., Veale, L.O., Hill, A.S. & Brand, A.R., (2002). The role of scallop-dredge disturbance in long-term changes in Irish Sea benthic communities: a re-analysis of an historical dataset. Journal of Sea Research, 47, 161-184.

Bryan, G.W., (1984). Pollution due to heavy metals and their compounds. In Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive, Integrated Treatise on Life in the Oceans and Coastal Waters, vol. 5. Ocean Management, part 3, (ed. O. Kinne), pp.1289-1431. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Buchanan, J.B., (1966). The biology of Echinocardium cordatum (Echinodermata: Spatangoidea) from different habitats. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 46, 97-114.

Buchanan, J.B., (1967). Dispersion and demography of some infaunal echinoderm populations. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 20, 1-11.

Connor, D.W., Dalkin, M.J., Hill, T.O., Holt, R.H.F. & Sanderson, W.G., (1997a). Marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Vol. 2. Sublittoral biotopes. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 230, Version 97.06., Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 230, Version 97.06.

Coulon, P. & Jangoux, M., (1987). Gregarine species (Apicomplexa) parasitic in the burrowing echinoid Echinocardium cordatum: occurrence and host reaction. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 2, 135-145.

Crisp, D.J. (ed.), (1964). The effects of the severe winter of 1962-63 on marine life in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 165-210.

de Groot, S.J. & Apeldoorn, J., (1971). Some experiments on the influence of the beam trawl on the bottom fauna. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (CM Papers and Reports) CM 1971/B:2, 5 pp. (mimeo).

Diaz, R.J. & Rosenberg, R., (1995). Marine benthic hypoxia: a review of its ecological effects and the behavioural responses of benthic macrofauna. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 33, 245-303.

Dolphin, T.J., Hume, T.M. & Parnell, K.E., (1995). Oceanographic processes and sediment mixing on a sand flat in an enclosed sea, Manukau Harbour, New Zealand. Marine Geology, 128, 169-181.

Eagle, R.A., (1975). Natural fluctuations in a soft bottom benthic community. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 55, 865-878.

Eleftheriou, A. & Robertson, M.R., (1992). The effects of experimental scallop dredging on the fauna and physical environment of a shallow sandy community. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 30, 289-299.

Emerson, C.W. & Grant, J., (1991). The control of soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria) recruitment on intertidal sandflats by bedload sediment transport. Limnology and Oceanography, 36, 1288-1300.

Eno, N.C., Clark, R.A. & Sanderson, W.G. (ed.) (1997). Non-native marine species in British waters: a review and directory. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., (1996). A student's guide to the seashore. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fowler, S.L., (1999). Guidelines for managing the collection of bait and other shoreline animals within UK European marine sites. Natura 2000 report prepared by the Nature Conservation Bureau Ltd. for the UK Marine SACs Project, 132 pp., Peterborough: English Nature (UK Marine SACs Project).,

Graham, M., (1955). Effects of trawling on animals on the sea bed. Deep-Sea Research, 3 (Suppl.), 1-6.

Gray, J.S., (1974). Animal-sediment relationships. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 12, 223-261.

Hall, S.J., (1994). Physical disturbance and marine benthic communities: life in unconsolidated sediments. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 32, 179-239.

Henderson, S.M. & Richardson, C.A., (1994). A comparison of the age, growth rate and burrowing behaviour of the razor clams ,Ensis siliqua and Ensis ensis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 74, 939-954.

Houghton, R.G., Williams, T. & Blacker, R.W., (1971). Some effects of double beam trawling. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea CM 1971/B:5, 12 pp. (mimeo)., International Council for the Exploration of the Sea CM 1971/B:5, 12 pp. (mimeo).

JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), (1999). Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line],

Kaiser, M.J. & Spencer, B.E., (1995). Survival of by-catch from a beam trawl. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 126, 31-38.

Kashenko, S.D., (1994). Larval development of the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum feeding on different macroalgae. Biologiya Morya, 20, 385-389.

Lawrence, J.M., (1996). Mass mortality of echinoderms from abiotic factors. In Echinoderm Studies Vol. 5 (ed. M. Jangoux & J.M. Lawrence), pp. 103-137. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

Newton, L.C. & McKenzie, J.D., (1995). Echinoderms and oil pollution: a potential stress assay using bacterial symbionts. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31, 453-456.

Niermann, U., (1997). Macrobenthos of the south-eastern North Sea during 1983-1988. Berichte der Biologischen Anstalt Helgoland, 13, 144pp.

Pearson, T.H. & Rosenberg, R., (1978). Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 16, 229-311.

Peterson, C.H., (1977). Competitive organisation of the soft bottom macrobenthic communities of southern California lagoons. Marine Biology, 43, 343-359.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J. & Hughes, R.N. (1998). The responses of benthic scavengers to fishing disturbance by towed gears in different habitats. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 224, 73-89.

Rauck, G., (1988). What influence have bottom trawls on the seafloor and bottom fauna? Informationen fur die Fischwirtschaft, Hamberg, 35, 104-106.

Rees, E.I.S., Nicholaidou, A. & Laskaridou, P., (1977). The effects of storms on the dynamics of shallow water benthic associations. In Proceedings of the 11th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Galway, Ireland, October 5-11, 1976. Biology of Benthic Organisms, (ed. B.F. Keegan, P.O Ceidigh & P.J.S. Boaden), pp. 465-474.

Rhoads, D.C. & Young, D.K., (1970). The influence of deposit-feeding organisms on sediment stability and community trophic structure. Journal of Marine Research, 28, 150-178.

Sanders, H.L., (1978). Florida oil spill impact on the Buzzards Bay benthic fauna: West Falmouth. Journal of the Fisheries Board of Canada, 35, 717-730.

Sheppard, C.R.C. & Bellamy, D.J., (1974). Pollution of the Mediterranean around Naples. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 5, 42-44.

Smith, J.E. (ed.), (1968). 'Torrey Canyon'. Pollution and marine life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Southward, A.J. & Southward, E.C., (1978). Recolonisation of rocky shores in Cornwall after use of toxic dispersants to clean up the Torrey Canyon spill. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 35, 682-706.

Suchanek, T.H., (1993). Oil impacts on marine invertebrate populations and communities. American Zoologist, 33, 510-523.

Wilson, W.H., (1991). Competition and predation in marine soft sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 21, 221-241.