Biodiversity & Conservation

Habitat bibliography

Aberkali, H.B. & Trueman, E.R., (1985). Effects of environmental stress on marine bivalve molluscs. Advances in Marine Biology, 22, 101-198.

Ambrose, W.G. Jr., (1993). Effects of predation and disturbance by ophiuroids on soft-bottom community structure in Oslofjord: results of a mesocosm study. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 97, 225-236.

Arntz, W.E. & Rumohr, H., (1986). Fluctuations of benthic macrofauna during succession and in an established community. Meeresforschung, 31, 97-114.

Barnes, R.S.K. & Hughes, R.N., (1992). An introduction to marine ecology. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Beaumont, A.R., Newman, P.B., Mills, D.K., Waldock, M.J., Miller, D. & Waite, M.E., (1989). Sandy-substrate microcosm studies on tributyl tin (TBT) toxicity to marine organisms. Scientia Marina, 53, 737-743.

Bergman, M.J.N. & van Santbrink, J.W., (2000). Fishing mortality of populations of megafauna in sandy sediments. In The effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats (ed. M.J. Kaiser & S.J de Groot), 49-68. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Beukema, J.J. & de Vlas, J., (1979). Population parameters of the lugworm, Arenicola marina, living on tidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 13, 331-353.

Boisson, F., Hartl, M.G.J., Fowler, S.W. & Amiard-triquet, C., (1998). Influence of chronic exposure to silver and mercury in the field on the bioaccumulation potential of the bivalve Macoma balthica. Marine Environmental Research, 45, 325-340.

Bonsdorff, E., (1984). Establishment, growth and dynamics of a Macoma balthica (L.) population. Limnologica (Berlin), 15, 403-405.

Bonsdorff, E., Norrko, A. & Boström, C., (1995). Recruitment and population maintenance of the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) - factors affecting settling success and early survival on shallow sandy bottoms. In Proceedings of the 28th European Marine Biology Symposium. Biology and ecology of shallow coastal waters (ed. A. Eleftheriou, A.D. Ansell and C.J. Smith). Olsen and Olsen.

Bradshaw, C., Veale, L.O., Hill, A.S. & Brand, A.R., (2000). The effects of scallop dredging on gravelly seabed communities. In: Effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats (ed. M.J. Kaiser & de S.J. Groot), pp. 83-104. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Brafield, A.E. & Newell, G.E., (1961). The behaviour of Macoma balthica (L.). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 41, 81-87.

Brousseau, D.J., (1978b). Population dynamics of the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria. Marine Biology, 50, 67-71.

Bryan, G.W. & Gibbs, P.E., (1991). Impact of low concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on marine organisms: a review. In: Metal ecotoxicology: concepts and applications (ed. M.C. Newman & A.W. McIntosh), pp. 323-361. Boston: Lewis Publishers Inc.

Bryan, G.W., (1984). Pollution due to heavy metals and their compounds. In Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive, Integrated Treatise on Life in the Oceans and Coastal Waters, vol. 5. Ocean Management, part 3, (ed. O. Kinne), pp.1289-1431. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Buchanan, J.B., (1966). The biology of Echinocardium cordatum (Echinodermata: Spatangoidea) from different habitats. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 46, 97-114.

Bull, K.R., Every, W.J., Freestone, P., Hall, J.R. & Osborn, D., (1983). Alkyl lead pollution and bird mortalities on the Mersey Estuary, UK. Environmental Pollution (A), 31, 239-259.

Cabioch, L. & Glaçon, R., (1975). Distribution des peuplements benthiques en Manche orientale, de la baie de Some au Pas-de-Calais. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences. Paris, 280, 491-494.

Caddy, J.F., (1967). Maturation of gametes and spawning in Macoma balthica (L.). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 45, 955-965.

Connor, D.W., Dalkin, M.J., Hill, T.O., Holt, R.H.F. & Sanderson, W.G., (1997a). Marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Vol. 2. Sublittoral biotopes. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 230, Version 97.06., Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 230, Version 97.06.

Crisp, D.J. (ed.), (1964). The effects of the severe winter of 1962-63 on marine life in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 165-210.

Crompton, T.R., (1997). Toxicants in the aqueous ecosystem. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Dauvin, J-C. & Gentil, F., (1989). Long-term changes in populations of subtidal bivalves (Abra alba and Abra prismatica) from the Bay of Morlaix (Western English Channel). Marine Biology, 103, 63-73.

Davies, C.E. & Moss, D., (1998). European Union Nature Information System (EUNIS) Habitat Classification. Report to European Topic Centre on Nature Conservation from the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire. [Final draft with further revisions to marine habitats.], Brussels: European Environment Agency.

de Groot, S.J. & Apeldoorn, J., (1971). Some experiments on the influence of the beam trawl on the bottom fauna. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (CM Papers and Reports) CM 1971/B:2, 5 pp. (mimeo).

Dewarumez, J-M., Davoult, D., Anorve, L.E.S. & Frontier, S., (1992). is the 'muddy heterogenous sediment assemblage' an ecotone between the pebbles community and the Abra alba community in the Southern Bight of the north Sea? Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 30, 229-238.

Dries, R.R. & Theede, H., (1974). Sauerstoffmangelresistenz mariner Bodenvertebraten aus der West-lichen Ostsee. Marine Biology, 25, 327-233.

Duineveld, G.C.A. & Jenness, M.I., (1984). Differences in growth rates of the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum as estimated by the parameters of the von Bertalanffy equation applied to skeletal rings. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 19, 64-72.

Elliot, M., Nedwell, S., Jones, N.V., Read, S.J., Cutts, N.D. & Hemingway, K.L., (1998). Intertidal sand and mudflats & subtidal mobile sandbanks (Vol. II). An overview of dynamic and sensitivity for conservation management of marine SACs. Prepared by the Scottish Association for Marine Science for the UK Marine SACs Project.

Emerson, C.W. & Grant, J., (1991). The control of soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria) recruitment on intertidal sandflats by bedload sediment transport. Limnology and Oceanography, 36, 1288-1300.

Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., (1996). A student's guide to the seashore. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Franzen, N.C.M., (1995). Shear wave detection by Macoma balthica.

Gilbert, M.A., (1978). Aspects of the reproductive cycle in Macoma balthica (Bivalvia). The Nautilus, 29, 21-24.

Gosselin, L.A. & Qian, P., (1997). Juvenile mortality in benthic marine invertebrates. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 146, 265-282.

Guenther, C.P., (1991). Settlement of Macoma balthica on an intertidal sandflat in the Wadden Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 76, 73-79.

Hall, S.J., (1994). Physical disturbance and marine benthic communities: life in unconsolidated sediments. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 32, 179-239.

Harvey, M. & Vincent, B., (1989). Spatial and temporal variations of the reproduction cycle and energy allocation of the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) on a tidal flat. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 129, 199-217.

Hylland, K., Sköld, M., Gunnarsson, J.S. & Skei, J., (1996). Interactions between eutrophication and contaminants. IV. Effects on sediment-dwelling organisms. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 33, 90-99.

JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), (1999). Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line],

Jones, N.S., (1950). Marine bottom communities. Biological Reviews, 25, 283-313.

Jorgensen, B.B., (1980). Seasonal oxygen depletion in the bottom waters of a Danish fjord and its effect on the benthic community. Oikos, 32, 68-76.

Kaiser, M.J. & Spencer, B.E., (1995). Survival of by-catch from a beam trawl. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 126, 31-38.

Lin, J. & Hines, A.H., (1994). Effects of suspended food availability on the feeding mode and burial depth of the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica. Oikos, 69, 28-36.

Lopez, G.R. & Levinton, J.S., (1987). Ecology of deposit-feeding animals in marine sediments. Quarterly Review of Biology, 62, 235-260.

Luoma, S.N., Cain, D.J., Ho, K. & Hutchinson, A., (1983). Variable tolerance to copper in two species from San Francisco Bay. Marine Environmental Research, 10, 209-222.

Möhlenberg, F. & Kiørboe, T., (1983). Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14, 57-60.

Mackie, A.S.Y., Oliver, P.G. & Rees, E.I.S., (1995). Benthic biodiversity in the southern Irish Sea. Studies in Marine Biodiversity and Systematics from the National Museum of Wales. BIOMOR Reports, no. 1.

Mattila, J., 'Olafsson E.B. & Johansson A., (1990). Predation effects of Crangon on benthic infauna on shallow sandy bottoms - an experimental study from southern Sweden. In Trophic relationships in the marine environment. Proceedings of the 24th European Marine Biological Symposium, (ed. M. Barnes & R.N. Gibson), pp 503-516. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.

McGreer, E.R., (1979). Sublethal effects of heavy metal contaminated sediments on the bivalve Macoma balthica(L.). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 10, 259-262.

Nichols, F.H., (1977). Dynamics and production of Pectinaria koreni (Malmgren) in Kiel Bay, West Germany. In Biology of benthic organisms, (eds. B.F. Keegan, P. O'Ceidigh & P.J.S. Boaden), pp. 453-463.

Nicolaidou, A., (1983). Life history and productivity of Pectinaria koreni Malmgren (Polychaeta). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 17, 31-43.

Nicolaidou, A., (1988). Notes on the behaviour of Pectinaria koreni. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 68, 55-59.

Nott, P.L., (1980). Reproduction in Abra alba (Wood) and Abra tenuis (Montagu) (Tellinacea: Scrobiculariidae) Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 60, 465-479.

Oertzen, J.A. Von., (1969). Erste Ergebrisse zur experimentellen ökologie von postglazialen Relikten (Bivalvia) der Ostsee. Limnologica (Berlin), 7, 129-137.

Pearson, T.H. & Rosenberg, R., (1978). Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 16, 229-311.

Petersen, C.G.J., (1918). The sea bottom and its production of fish food. A survey of the work done in connection with valuation of the Denmark waters from 1883-1917. Report of the Danish Biological Station, 25, 1-62.

Ratcliffe, P.J., Jones, N.V. & Walters, N.J., (1981). The survival of Macoma balthica (L.) in mobile sediments. In Feeding and survival strategies of estuarine organisms (ed. N.V. Jones and W.J. Wolff), pp. 91-108. Plenum Press.

Rauck, G., (1988). What influence have bottom trawls on the seafloor and bottom fauna? Informationen fur die Fischwirtschaft, Hamberg, 35, 104-106.

Rees, E.I.S., Nicholaidou, A. & Laskaridou, P., (1977). The effects of storms on the dynamics of shallow water benthic associations. In Proceedings of the 11th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Galway, Ireland, October 5-11, 1976. Biology of Benthic Organisms, (ed. B.F. Keegan, P.O Ceidigh & P.J.S. Boaden), pp. 465-474.

Rees, H.L. & Dare, P.J., (1993). Sources of mortality and associated life-cycle traits of selected benthic species: a review. MAFF Fisheries Research Data Report, no. 33., Lowestoft: MAFF Directorate of Fisheries Research.

Rhoads, D.C. & Young, D.K., (1970). The influence of deposit-feeding organisms on sediment stability and community trophic structure. Journal of Marine Research, 28, 150-178.

Rosenberg, R. & Loo, L., (1988). Marine eutrophication induced oxygen deficiency: effects on soft bottom fauna, western Sweden. Ophelia, 29, 213-225.

Sörlin, T., (1988). Floating behaviour in the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica (L.). Oecologia, 77, 273-277.

Salzwedel, H., (1979). Reproduction, growth, mortality and variations in abundance and biomass of Tellina fabula (Bivalvia) in the German Bight in 1975/1976. Veroffentlichungen des Instituts fur Meeresforschung in Bremerhaven, 18, 111-202.

Smith, J.E. (ed.), (1968). 'Torrey Canyon'. Pollution and marine life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stickle, W.B. & Diehl, W.J., (1987). Effects of salinity on echinoderms. In Echinoderm Studies, Vol. 2, (ed. M. Jangoux & J.M. Lawrence), pp. 235-285.

Strasser, M., (1999). Mya arenaria - an ancient invader of the North Sea coast. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 52, 309-324.

Stronkhorst, J., Hattum van, B. & Bowmer, T., (1999). Bioaccumulation and toxicity of tributyltin to a burrowing heart urchin and an amphipod in spiked, silty marine sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18, 2343-2351.

Tait, R.V. & Dipper, R.A., (1998). Elements of Marine Ecology. Reed Elsevier.

Thorson, G., (1957). Bottom communities (sublittoral or shallow shelf). Memoirs of the Geological Society of America, 67, 461-534.

Thrush, S.F., (1986). Community structure on the floor of a sea-lough: are large epibenthic predators important? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 104, 171-183.

Warwick, R.M. & Uncles, R.J., (1980). Distribution of benthic macrofauna associations in the Bristol Channel in relation to tidal stress. Marine Biology Progress Series, 3, 97-103.

Weigelt, M. & Rumohr, H., (1986). Effects of wide range oxygen depletion on benthic fauna and demersal fish in Kiel Bay. Meeresforschung, 31, 124-136.

Widdows, J., Brinsley, M.D., Salkeld, P.N. & Elliott, M., (1998). Use of annular flumes to determine the influence of current velocity and bivalves on material flux at the sediment-water interface. Estuaries, 21, 552-559.

Wilson, W.H., (1991). Competition and predation in marine soft sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 21, 221-241.

Wolff, W.J., (1968). The Echinodermata of the estuarine region of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt, with a list of species occurring in the coastal waters of the Netherlands. The Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 4, 59-85.

Ziegelmeier, E., (1978). Macrobenthos investigations in the eastern part of the German Bight from 1950 to 1974. Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Reunions. Commission Internationale pour l'Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Mediterranee. Paris, 172, 432-444.