Biodiversity & Conservation

Habitat bibliography

Alheit, J., (1978). Distribution of the polychaete genus Nephtys: a stratified random sampling survey. Kieler Meeresforschungen, 4, 61-67.

Arndt, C. & Schiedek, D., (1997). Nephtys hombergii, a free living predator in marine sediments: energy production under environmental stress. Marine Biology, 129, 643-540.

Barnes, R.S.K., (1994). The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Beaumont, A.R., Newman, P.B., Mills, D.K., Waldock, M.J., Miller, D. & Waite, M.E., (1989). Sandy-substrate microcosm studies on tributyl tin (TBT) toxicity to marine organisms. Scientia Marina, 53, 737-743.

Beukema, J.J., (1990). Expected effects of changes in winter temperatures on benthic animals living in soft sediments in coastal North Sea areas. In Expected effects of climatic change on marine coastal ecosystems (ed. J.J. Beukema, W.J. Wolff & J.J.W.M. Brouns), pp. 83-92. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publ.

Beukema, J.J., De Bruin, W. & Jansen, J.J.M., (1978). Biomass and species richness of the macrobenthic animals living on the tidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea: Long-term changes during a period of mild winters. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 12, 58-77.

Bhaud, M., (2000). Two contradictory elements determine invertebrate recruitment: dispersion of larvae and spatial restrictions on adults. Oceanologica Acta, 23, 409-422.

Boon, J.P., Zantvoort, M.B., Govaert, M.J.M.A. & Duinker, J.C ., (1985). Organochlorines in benthic polychaetes (Nephtys spp.) and sediments from the southern North Sea. Identification of individual PCB components. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 19, 93-109.

Boyden, C.R. & Russel, P.J.C., (1972). The distribution and habitat range of the brackish water cockle (Cardium (Cerastoderma) edule) in the British Isles. Journal of Animal Ecology, 41, 719-734.

Boyden, C.R., (1972). Behaviour, survival and respiration of the cockles Cerastoderma edule and C. glaucum in air. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 52, 661-680.

Brandt, G., Fleßner, J., Glaser, D. et al., (1995). Dokumentation zur hydrographischen Frühjahrs-Meßkampagne 1994 der ökosystemforschung Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer im Einzugsgebeit der otzmer Balje. Hyrographie Nr. 8, Nieders. Landesamt für ökologie - Forschungstelle Küste, Norderney.

Bryan, G.W. & Gibbs, P.E., (1983). Heavy metals from the Fal estuary, Cornwall: a study of long-term contamination by mining waste and its effects on estuarine organisms. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [Occasional Publication, no. 2.]

Bryan, G.W. & Gibbs, P.E., (1991). Impact of low concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on marine organisms: a review. In: Metal ecotoxicology: concepts and applications (ed. M.C. Newman & A.W. McIntosh), pp. 323-361. Boston: Lewis Publishers Inc.

Bryan, G.W., (1984). Pollution due to heavy metals and their compounds. In Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive, Integrated Treatise on Life in the Oceans and Coastal Waters, vol. 5. Ocean Management, part 3, (ed. O. Kinne), pp.1289-1431. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Carey, D.A., (1983). Particle resuspension in the benthic boundary layer induced by flow around polychaete tubes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 40 (Suppl. 1), 301-308.

Collier, L.M. & Pinn, E.H., (1998). An assessment of the acute impact of the sea lice treatment Ivermectin on a benthic community. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 230, 131-147.

Conan, G., (1982). The long-term effects of the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 297, 323-333.

Connor, D.W., Brazier, D.P., Hill, T.O., & Northen, K.O., (1997b). Marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Vol. 1. Littoral biotopes. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 229, Version 97.06., Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report No. 230, Version 97.06.

Cook, W., (1990). Studies on the effects of hydraulic dredging on cockle and other macroinvertebrate populations 1989-1990. North Western and North Wales Sea Fisheries Committee.

Cotter, A.J.R., Walker, P., Coates, P., Cook, W. & Dare, P.J., (1997). Trial of a tractor dredger for cockles in Burry Inlet, South Wales. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54, 72-83.

Crisp, D.J. (ed.), (1964). The effects of the severe winter of 1962-63 on marine life in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 165-210.

Dame, R.F.D., (1996). Ecology of Marine Bivalves: an Ecosystem Approach. New York: CRC Press Inc. [Marine Science Series.]

Dauvin, J.C., (2000). The muddy fine sand Abra alba - Melinna palmata community of the Bay of Morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 528-536.

Dauvin, J.C., (1985). Dynamics and production of a population of Venus ovata (Pennant) (Mollusca-Bivalvia) of Morlaix Bay (western English Channel). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 91, 109-123.

Dauvin, J.C., (1998). The fine sand Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36, 669-676.

Davies, C.E. & Moss, D., (1998). European Union Nature Information System (EUNIS) Habitat Classification. Report to European Topic Centre on Nature Conservation from the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire. [Final draft with further revisions to marine habitats.], Brussels: European Environment Agency.

Dittmann, S., (1999). Biotic interactions in a Lanice conchilega dominated tidal flat. In The Wadden Sea ecosystem, (ed. S. Dittmann), pp.153-162. Germany: Springer-Verlag.

Ducrotoy, C.R., Rybarczyk, H., Souprayen, J., Bachelet, G., Beukema, J.J., Desprez, M., Dõrjes, J., Essink, K., Guillou, J., Michaelis, H., Sylvand, B., Wilson, J.G., Elkaïm, B. & Ibanez, F., (1991). A comparison of the population dynamics of the cockle (Cerastoderma edule) in North-Western Europe. In Proceedings of the Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association Symposium, ECSA 19, 4-8 September 1989, University of Caen, France. Estuaries and Coasts: Spatial and Temporal Intercomparisons, pp. 173-184. Denmark: Olsen & Olsen.

Eckman, J.E., (1985). Flow perturbation by a protruding animal tube affects sediment bacterial recolonization. Journal of Marine Research, 43, 419-435.

Eckman, J.E., Nowell, A.R.M. & Jumars, P.A., (1981). Sediment destabilization of animal tubes. Journal of Marine Research, 39, 361-374.

Eleftheriou, A. & McIntyre, A.D., (1976). The intertidal fauna of sandy beaches-a survey of the Scottish coast.

Elliot, M., Nedwell, S., Jones, N.V., Read, S.J., Cutts, N.D. & Hemingway, K.L., (1998). Intertidal sand and mudflats & subtidal mobile sandbanks (Vol. II). An overview of dynamic and sensitivity for conservation management of marine SACs. Prepared by the Scottish Association for Marine Science for the UK Marine SACs Project.

Elliott, M., (1994). The analysis of macrobenthic community data. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 28, 62-64.

Elliott, M., (1998). Summary of effects of commercial fisheries on estuarine ecosystems: a European perspective. , Unpublished report to SCOR working group 105, Halifax NS, March 1998. P57.

Faubel, A., Hartig, E. & Thiel, H., (1983). On the ecology of the benthos of sublittoral sediments, Fladen Ground, North Sea. 1. Meiofauna standing stock and estimation of production. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, 36, 35-48.

Ferns, P.N., Rostron, D.M. & Siman, H.Y., (2000). Effects of mechanical cockle harvesting on intertidal communities. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 464-474.

Flach, E.C., (1996). The influence of the cockle, Cerastoderma edule, on the macrozoobenthic community of tidal flats of the Wadden Sea. Marine Biology, 17, 87-98.

Forster, S. & Graf, G., (1995). Impact of irrigation on oxygen flux into the sediment: intermittent pumping by Callianassa subterranea and "piston pumping" by Lanice conchilega. Marine Biology, 123, 335-346.

Franklin, A. & Pickett, G.D., (1978). Studies of the indirect effects of fishing on stocks of cockles, Cardium edule, in the Thames estuary and Wash. Fisheries Research, Technical Report, no. 42, MAFF, Lowestoft, pp. 9.

Gubbay, S., & Knapman, P.A., (1999). A review of the effects of fishing within UK European marine sites. English Nature. (UK Marine SACs Project, vol .12).

Hailey, N., (1995). Likely impacts of oil and gas activities on the marine environment and integration of environmental considerations in licensing policy. English Nature Research Report, no 145., Peterborough: English Nature.

Hall, S.J. & Harding, M.J.C., (1997). Physical disturbance and marine benthic communities: the effects of mechanical harvesting of cockles on non-target benthic infauna. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 497-517.

Hancock, D.A., (1967). Growth and mesh selection in the edible cockle (Cardium edule L.). Journal of Applied Ecology, 4, 137-157.

Harvey, M. & Bourget, E., (1995). Experimental evidence of passive accumulation of marine bivalve larvae on filamentous epibenthic structures. Limnology and Oceanography, 40, 94-104.

Hayward, P.J. (1994). Animals of sandy shores. Slough, England: The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd. [Naturalists' Handbook 21.]

Heuers, J., (1998). Ansiedlung, Dispersion, Rekrutierung und Störungen als strukturierende Faktoren benthischer Gemeinschaften im Eulitoral. Dissertation, Universität Bonn., Dissertation, Universit&aulm;t Bonn.

Heuers, J., Jaklin, S., Zülkhe, R., Dittmann, S., Günther, C-P., Hildenbrandt, H. & Grimm, V., (1998). A model on the distribution and abundance of the tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) in the intertidal of the Wadden Sea. Verhandlungen Ges Ökologie, 28, 207-215.

Hiscock, K., (1983). Water movement. In Sublittoral ecology. The ecology of shallow sublittoral benthos (ed. R. Earll & D.G. Erwin), pp. 58-96. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Jackson, M.J. & James, R., (1979). The influence of bait digging on cockle Cerastoderma edule, populations in north Norfolk. Journal of Applied Ecology, 16, 671-679.

Jennings, S. & Kaiser, M.J., (1998). The effects of fishing on marine ecosystems. Advances in Marine Biology, 34, 201-352.

JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), (1999). Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line],

Jones, C.G., Lawton, J.H. & Shackak, M., (1997). Positive and negative effects of organisms as ecosystem engineers. Ecology, 78, 1946-1957.

Jones, C.G., Lawton, J.H. & Shackak, M., (1994). Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos, 69, 373-386.

Kessler, M., (1963). Die Entwicklung von Lanice conchilega (Pallas) mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Lebensweise. Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 8, 425-476.

Kristensen, I., (1958). Differences in density and growth in a cockle population in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Archives Néerlandaises de Zoologie, 12, 351-453.

Kuhl, H., (1972). Hydrography and biology of the Elbe Estuary. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 10, 225-309.

McLusky, D.S., (1989). The Estuarine Ecosystem, 2nd ed. New York: Chapman & Hall.

McLusky, D.S., (1982). The impact of petrochemical effluent on the fauna of an intertidal estuarine mudflat. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 14, 489-499.

Moore, J., (1991). Studies on the Impact of Hydraulic Cockle Dredging on Intertidal Sediment Flat Communities. A report to the Nature Conservancy Council from the Field Studies Council Research Centre, Pembroke, Wales, FSC/RC/4/91.

Navarro, J.M. & Widdows, J., (1997). Feeding physiology of Cerastoderma edule in response to a wide range of seston concentrations. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 152, 175-186.

Niermann, U., (1996). Fluctuation and mass occurrence of Phoronis muelleri (Phoronidea) in the south-eastern North Sea during 1983-1988. Senckenbergiana Maritima, 28, 65-79.

Pearson, T.H. & Rosenberg, R., (1978). Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 16, 229-311.

Pickett, G.D., (1973). The impact of mechanised harvesting on the Thames estuary cockle fishery. MAFF Laboratory Leaflet, no. 29, Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft, pp. 9.

Picton, B.E. & Costello, M.J., (1998). BioMar biotope viewer: a guide to marine habitats, fauna and flora of Britain and Ireland. [CD-ROM] Environmental Sciences Unit, Trinity College, Dublin.,

Poggiale, J.C. & Dauvin, J.C., (2001). Long term dynamics of three benthic Ampelisca (Crustacea - Amphipoda) populations from the Bay of Morlaix (western English Channel) related to their disappearance after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 214, 201-209.

Rasmussen, E., (1973). Systematics and ecology of the Isefjord marine fauna (Denmark). Ophelia, 11, 1-507.

Richardson, C.A., Ibarrola, I. & Ingham, R.J., (1993b). Emergence pattern and spatial distribution of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 99, 71-81.

Russell, P.J.C. & Petersen, G.H., (1973). The use of ecological data in the elucidation of some shallow water European Cardium species. Malacologia, 14, 223-232.

Rygg, B., (1970). Studies on Cerastoderma edule (L.) and Cerastoderma glaucum (Poiret). Sarsia, 43, 65-80.

Savari, A., Lockwood, A.P.M. & Sheader, M., (1991a). Variation in the physiological state of the common cockle (Cerastoderma edule (L.)) in the laboratory and in Southampton Water. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 57, 33-34.

Savari, A., Lockwood, A.P.M. & Sheader, M., (1991b). Effects of season and size(age) on heavy metal concentration of the common cockle (Cerastoderma edule (L.)) from Southampton Water. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 57, 33-44.

Seed, R. & Brown, R.A., (1977). A comparison of the reproductive cycles of Modiolus modiolus (L.), Cerastoderma (=Cardium) edule (L.), and Mytilus edulis L. in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland. Oecologia, 30, 173-188.

SEEEC (Sea Empress Environmental Evaluation Committee), (1998). The environmental impact of the Sea Empress oil spill. Final Report of the Sea Empress Environmental Evaluation Committee, 135 pp., London: HMSO.

Sinderman, C.J., (1990). Principle diseases of marine fish and shellfish, 2nd edition, Volume 2. Diseases of marine shellfish. Academic Press, 521 pp.

Strasser, M. & Pielouth, U., (2001). Recolonization pattern of the polychaete Lanice conchilega on an intertidal sandflat following the severe winter of 1995/96. Helgoland Marine Research, 55, 176-181.

Suchanek, T.H., (1993). Oil impacts on marine invertebrate populations and communities. American Zoologist, 33, 510-523.

Tait, R.V. & Dipper, R.A., (1998). Elements of Marine Ecology. Reed Elsevier.

Theede, H., Ponat, A., Hiroki, K. & Schlieper, C., (1969). Studies on the resistance of marine bottom invertebrates to oxygen-deficiency and hydrogen sulphide. Marine Biology, 2, 325-337.

Vader, W.J.M., (1964). A preliminary investigation in to the reactions of the infauna of the tidal flats to tidal fluctuations in water level. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 2, 189-222.

Waldock, R., Rees, H.L., Matthiessen, P. & Pendle, M.A., (1999). Surveys of the benthic infauna of the Crouch Estuary (UK) in relation to TBT contamination. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 79, 225 - 232.

Wilson, J.G., (1993). Climate change and the future for the cockle Cerastoderma edule in Dublin Bay - an exercise in prediction modelling. In Biogeography of Ireland: past, present, and future, (ed. M.J. Costello & K.S. Kelly), pp. 140-149. Occasional publication of the Irish Biogeographical Society, no. 2. Dublin: Irish Biogeographical Society Ltd.

Wilson, J.G., (1983). The uptake and accumulation of Ni by Cerastoderma edule and its effect on mortality, body condition and respiration rate. Marine Environmental Research, 8, 129-148.

Wood, E.M., (1987). Subtidal Ecology. London: Edward Arnold.

Woodin, S.A., (1978). Refuges, disturbance and community structure: a marine soft bottom example. Ecology, 59, 274-284.

Yonow, N., (1989). Feeding observations on Acteon tornatilis (Linnaeus) (Opisthobranchia: Acteonidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 55, 97-102.

Zühlke, R., (2001). Polychaete tubes create ephemeral community patterns: Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) associations studied over six years. Journal of Sea Research, 46, 261-272.

Zühlke, R., Blome, D., van Bernem, K.H. & Dittmann, S., (1998). Effects of the tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega (Pallas) on benthic macrofauna and nematodes in an intertidal sandflat. Senckenbergiana Maritima, 29, 131-138.

Ziegelmeier, E., (1952). Beobachtungen über den Röhrenbauvon Lanice conchilega (Pallas) im Experiment und am natürlichen Standort. Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, IV. 107-129.