Biodiversity & Conservation

Habitat bibliography

Anger, K., (1975a). Quantitative studies on indicator species and communities. Merentutkimuslaitoksen Julkaisau. Helsinki, 239, 116-122.

Anger, K., (1975b). On the influence of sewage pollution on inshore benthic communities in the south of Kiel Bay. Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 27, 408-438.

Anonymous, (1999iii). UK Biodiversity Group: tranche 2 action plans: volume V- maritime species and habitats. , English Nature, Peterborough, UK.

Barnes, R.S.K. & Hughes, R.N., (1992). An introduction to marine ecology. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Barnes, R.S.K., (1994). The brackish-water fauna of northwestern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bartels-Hardege, H.D. & Zeeck, E., (1990). Reproductive behaviour of Nereis diversicolor (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Biology, 106, 409-412.

Beasley, T.M. & Fowler, S.W., (1976). Plutonium and Americium: uptake from contaminated sediments by the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Marine Biology, 38, 95-100.

Beaumont, A.R., Newman, P.B., Mills, D.K., Waldock, M.J., Miller, D. & Waite, M.E., (1989). Sandy-substrate microcosm studies on tributyl tin (TBT) toxicity to marine organisms. Scientia Marina, 53, 737-743.

Beukema, J.J. & de Vlas, J., (1979). Population parameters of the lugworm, Arenicola marina, living on tidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 13, 331-353.

Beukema, J.J., (1995). Long-term effects of mechanical harvesting of lugworms Arenicola marina on the zoobenthic community of a tidal flat in the Wadden Sea. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 33, 219-227.

Boisson, F., Hartl, M.G.J., Fowler, S.W. & Amiard-triquet, C., (1998). Influence of chronic exposure to silver and mercury in the field on the bioaccumulation potential of the bivalve Macoma balthica. Marine Environmental Research, 45, 325-340.

Bonsdorff, E., (1984). Establishment, growth and dynamics of a Macoma balthica (L.) population. Limnologica (Berlin), 15, 403-405.

Bonsdorff, E., Norrko, A. & Boström, C., (1995). Recruitment and population maintenance of the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) - factors affecting settling success and early survival on shallow sandy bottoms. In Proceedings of the 28th European Marine Biology Symposium. Biology and ecology of shallow coastal waters (ed. A. Eleftheriou, A.D. Ansell and C.J. Smith). Olsen and Olsen.

Brafield, A.E. & Newell, G.E., (1961). The behaviour of Macoma balthica (L.). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 41, 81-87.

Brafield, A.E., (1963). The effects of oxygen deficiency on the behaviour of Macoma balthica. Animal Behaviour, 11, 245-346.

Bryan, G.W. & Gibbs, P.E., (1983). Heavy metals from the Fal estuary, Cornwall: a study of long-term contamination by mining waste and its effects on estuarine organisms. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [Occasional Publication, no. 2.]

Bryan, G.W. & Gibbs, P.E., (1991). Impact of low concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on marine organisms: a review. In: Metal ecotoxicology: concepts and applications (ed. M.C. Newman & A.W. McIntosh), pp. 323-361. Boston: Lewis Publishers Inc.

Bryan, G.W., (1984). Pollution due to heavy metals and their compounds. In Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive, Integrated Treatise on Life in the Oceans and Coastal Waters, vol. 5. Ocean Management, part 3, (ed. O. Kinne), pp.1289-1431. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Caddy, J.F., (1967). Maturation of gametes and spawning in Macoma balthica (L.). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 45, 955-965.

Clay, E., (1967c). Literature survey of the common fauna of estuaries, 1. Cirratulus cirratusO.F. Müller. Imperial Chemical Industries Limited, Brixham Laboratory, PVM45/A/374.

Collier, L.M. & Pinn, E.H., (1998). An assessment of the acute impact of the sea lice treatment Ivermectin on a benthic community. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 230, 131-147.

Connor, D.W., Brazier, D.P., Hill, T.O., & Northen, K.O., (1997b). Marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Vol. 1. Littoral biotopes. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 229, Version 97.06., Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report No. 230, Version 97.06.

Cotter, A.J.R., Walker, P., Coates, P., Cook, W. & Dare, P.J., (1997). Trial of a tractor dredger for cockles in Burry Inlet, South Wales. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54, 72-83.

Crisp, D.J. (ed.), (1964). The effects of the severe winter of 1962-63 on marine life in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 165-210.

Davey, J.T. & George, C.L., (1986). Specific interactions in soft sediments: factors in the distribution of Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor in the Tamar Estuary. Ophelia, 26, 151-164.

Davies, I.M, Gillibrand, P.A., McHenery, J.G. & Rae, G.H., (1998). Environmental risk of Ivermectin to sediment dwelling organisms. Aquaculture, 163, 29-46.

de Wilde, P.A.W., (1975). Influence of temperature on behaviour, energy metabolism and growth of Macoma balthica (L.). In Ninth European Marine Biology Symposium (ed. H. Barnes), pp.239-256. Aberdeen University Press.

Dow, R.C., (1978). Size-selective mortalities of clams in an oil spill site. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 9, 45-48.

Dries, R.R. & Theede, H., (1974). Sauerstoffmangelresistenz mariner Bodenvertebraten aus der West-lichen Ostsee. Marine Biology, 25, 327-233.

Duinker, J.C., Hillebrand, M.T.J. & Boon, J.P., (1983). Organochlorines in benthic invertebrates and sediments from the Dutch Wadden Sea; identification of individual PCB components. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 17, 19-38.

Emerson, C.W. & Grant, J., (1991). The control of soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria) recruitment on intertidal sandflats by bedload sediment transport. Limnology and Oceanography, 36, 1288-1300.

Farke, H., (1979). Population dynamics, reproduction and early development of Tharyx marioni (Polychaeta, Cirratulidae) on tidal flats of the German Bight. Veroffentlichungen des Instituts fur Meeresforschung in Bremerhaven, 18, 69-99.

Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., (1996). A student's guide to the seashore. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Flach, E.C., (1992). Disturbance of benthic infauna by sediment-reworking activities of the lugworm Arenicola marina. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 30, 81-89.

Franzen, N.C.M., (1995). Shear wave detection by Macoma balthica.

Germain, P., Miramand, P. & Masson, M., (1984). Experimental study of long-lived radionuclide transfers (americium, plutonium, technetium) between labelled sediments and annelidae (Nereis diversicolor, Arenicola marina). In International symposium on the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment, (ed. A.Cigna & C. Myttenaere), pp. 327-341. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Gibbs, P.E., (1971). Reproductive cycles in four polychaete species belonging to the family Cirratulidae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 51, 745-769.

Gilbert, M.A., (1978). Aspects of the reproductive cycle in Macoma balthica (Bivalvia). The Nautilus, 29, 21-24.

Goss-Custard, J.D., Jones, R.E. & Newberry, P.E., (1989). The ecology of the Wash. 1. Distribution and diet of wading birds (Charadrii). Journal of Applied Ecology, 14, 681-700.

Grant, J. & Thorpe, B., (1991). Effects of suspended sediment on growth, respiration, and excretion of the soft shelled clam (Mya arenaria). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 48, 1285-1292.

Green, J., (1968). The biology of estuarine animals. Sidgwick and Jackson, London.

Guenther, C.P., (1991). Settlement of Macoma balthica on an intertidal sandflat in the Wadden Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 76, 73-79.

Hall, S.J. & Harding, M.J.C., (1997). Physical disturbance and marine benthic communities: the effects of mechanical harvesting of cockles on non-target benthic infauna. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 497-517.

Hall, S.J., (1994). Physical disturbance and marine benthic communities: life in unconsolidated sediments. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 32, 179-239.

Harvey, M. & Vincent, B., (1989). Spatial and temporal variations of the reproduction cycle and energy allocation of the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) on a tidal flat. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 129, 199-217.

Hayward, P.J. (1994). Animals of sandy shores. Slough, England: The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd. [Naturalists' Handbook 21.]

Hiscock, K., (1983). Water movement. In Sublittoral ecology. The ecology of shallow sublittoral benthos (ed. R. Earll & D.G. Erwin), pp. 58-96. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hutchins, D.A., Stupakoff, I., Hook, S., Luoma, S.N. & Fisher, N.S., (1998). Effects of Arctic temperatures on distribution and retention of the nuclear waste radionuclides 241Am, 57Co and 137Cs in the bioindicator bivalve Macoma balthica. Marine Environmental Research, 45, 17-28.

JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), (1999). Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line],

Johnston, R., (1984). Oil Pollution and its management. In Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive, Integrated Treatise on Life in the Oceans and Coastal Waters vol. 5. Ocean Management, part 3 (ed. O. Kinne), pp.1433-1582. New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Landner, I., Nilsson, K. & Rossenburg, R., (1977). Assessment of industrial pollution by means of benthic macrofauna surveys along the Swedish Baltic coast. Vatten, 33, 324-379.

Levell, D., (1976). The effect of Kuwait Crude Oil and the Dispersant BP 1100X on the lugworm, Arenicola marina L. In Proceedings of an Institute of Petroleum / Field Studies Council meeting, Aviemore, Scotland, 21-23 April 1975. Marine Ecology and Oil Pollution (ed. J.M. Baker), pp. 131-185. Barking, England: Applied Science Publishers Ltd.

Luoma, S.N., Cain, D.J., Ho, K. & Hutchinson, A., (1983). Variable tolerance to copper in two species from San Francisco Bay. Marine Environmental Research, 10, 209-222.

Mölsa, H., Hakkila, S. & Puhakka, M., (1986). Reproductive success of Macoma balthica in relation to environmental stability. Ophelia, Supplement 4, 167-178.

Madsen, P.B. & Jensen, K., (1987). Population dynamics of Macoma balthica in the Danish Wadden Sea in an organically enriched area. Ophelia, 27, 197-208.

McGreer, E.R., (1979). Sublethal effects of heavy metal contaminated sediments on the bivalve Macoma balthica(L.). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 10, 259-262.

McLusky, D.S. & Elliott, M., (1981). The feeding and survival strategies of estuarine molluscs. In Feeding and survival strategies of estuarine organisms (ed. N.V. Jones & W.J. Wolff). Plenum Press.

McLusky, D.S.& Allan, D.G., (1976). Aspects of the biology of Macoma balthica (L.) from the estuarine Firth of Forth. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 42, 31-45.

McLusky, D.S., (1989). The Estuarine Ecosystem, 2nd ed. New York: Chapman & Hall.

Meire, P.M., (1993). The impact of bird predation on marine and estuarine bivalve populations: a selective review of patterns and underlying causes. In Bivalve filter feeders in estuarine and coastal ecosystem processes (ed. R.F. Dame). NATO ASI Series, Springer Verlag.

Navarro, J.M. & Widdows, J., (1997). Feeding physiology of Cerastoderma edule in response to a wide range of seston concentrations. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 152, 175-186.

Nielsen, A.M., Eriksen, N.T., Iversen, J.J.L. & Riisgård, H.U., (1995). Feeding, growth and respiration in the polychaetes Nereis diversicolor (facultative filter-feeder) and Nereis virens (omnivorous) - a comparative study. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 125, 149-158.

Norkko, A. & Bonsdorff, E., (1996). Population responses of coastal zoobenthos to stress induced by drifting algal mats. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 140, 141-151.

Oertzen, J.A. Von., (1969). Erste Ergebrisse zur experimentellen ökologie von postglazialen Relikten (Bivalvia) der Ostsee. Limnologica (Berlin), 7, 129-137.

Olafsson, E.B. & Persson, L.E., (1986). The interaction between Nereis diversicolor (Muller) and Corophium volutator (Pallas) as a structuring force in a shallow brackish sediment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 103, 103-117.

Ozoh, P.T.E. & Jones, N.N., (1990). Capacity adaptation of Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor embryogenesis to salinity, temperature and copper. Marine Environmental Research, 29, 227-243.

Pearson, T.H. & Rosenberg, R., (1978). Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 16, 229-311.

Pekkarinen, M., (1983). Seasonal changes in condition and biochemical constituents in the soft parts of Macoma balthica (Lamellibranchiata) in the Trarminne brackish water area (Baltic Sea). Annales Zoologici Fennici, 20, 311-322.

Pickett, G.D., (1973). The impact of mechanised harvesting on the Thames estuary cockle fishery. MAFF Laboratory Leaflet, no. 29, Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft, pp. 9.

Picton, B.E. & Costello, M.J., (1998). BioMar biotope viewer: a guide to marine habitats, fauna and flora of Britain and Ireland. [CD-ROM] Environmental Sciences Unit, Trinity College, Dublin.,

Pihl, L., (1985). Food selection and consumption of mobile epibenthic fauna in shallow marine areas. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 22, 169-179.

Pilington, M.C., (1971). The veliger stage of Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant). Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 39, 281-287.

Porcet-Henner, E. & Dugimont, T., (1992). Adaptability of the coccidian Coelotropha to parasitism. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 16, 263-274.

Ratcliffe, P.J., Jones, N.V. & Walters, N.J., (1981). The survival of Macoma balthica (L.) in mobile sediments. In Feeding and survival strategies of estuarine organisms (ed. N.V. Jones and W.J. Wolff), pp. 91-108. Plenum Press.

Reise, K., (1985). Tidal flat ecology. An experimental approach to species interactions. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Riisgård, H.U., (1994). Filter-feeding in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor: a review. Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology, 28, 453-458.

Rygg, B., (1970). Studies on Cerastoderma edule (L.) and Cerastoderma glaucum (Poiret). Sarsia, 43, 65-80.

Sörlin, T., (1988). Floating behaviour in the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica (L.). Oecologia, 77, 273-277.

Sanders, H.L., (1978). Florida oil spill impact on the Buzzards Bay benthic fauna: West Falmouth. Journal of the Fisheries Board of Canada, 35, 717-730.

SEEEC (Sea Empress Environmental Evaluation Committee), (1998). The environmental impact of the Sea Empress oil spill. Final Report of the Sea Empress Environmental Evaluation Committee, 135 pp., London: HMSO.

Smaal, A.C., Vonck, A.P.M.A. & Bakker, M., (1997). Seasonal variation in physiological energetics of Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule of different size classes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 77, 817-838.

Smith, J.E., (1955). Salinity variation in interstitial water of sand at Kames Bay, Millport, with reference to the distribution of Nereis diversicolor Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 34, 33-46.

Smith, J.E., (1964). On the early development of Nereis diversicolor in different salinities. Journal of Morphology, 114, 437-464.

Sommer, A., Klein, B. & Pörtner, H.O., (1997). Temperature induced anaerobiosis in two population of the polychaete worm Arenicola marina (L.). Journal of Comparative Physiology, series B, 167, 25-35.

Stekoll, M.S., Clement, L.E. & Shaw, D.G., (1980). Sublethal effects of chronic oil exposure on the intertidal clam Macoma balthica. Marine Biology, 57, 51-60.

Strömgren, T., (1980b). The effect of lead, cadmium and mercury on the increase in length of five intertidal Fucales. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 43, 107-119.

Strömgren, T., (1979a). The effect of copper on the increase in length of Ascophyllum nodosum. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 37, 153-159.

Suchanek, T.H., (1993). Oil impacts on marine invertebrate populations and communities. American Zoologist, 33, 510-523.

Swennen, C. & Ching, H.L., (1974). Observations on the trematode Parvatrema affininis, causative agent of crawling tracks of Macoma balthica. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 8, 108-115.

Tamaki, A., (1987). Comparison of resistivity to transport by wave action in several polychaete species on an intertidal sand flat. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 37, 181-189.

Theede, H., (1984). Physiological approaches to environmental problems of the Baltic. Limnologica (Berlin), 15, 443-458.

Theede, H., Ponat, A., Hiroki, K. & Schlieper, C., (1969). Studies on the resistance of marine bottom invertebrates to oxygen-deficiency and hydrogen sulphide. Marine Biology, 2, 325-337.

Vismann, B., (1990). Sulphide detoxification and tolerance in Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor and Nereis (Neanthes) virens (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 59, 229-238.

Widdows, J., Brinsley, M.D., Salkeld, P.N. & Elliott, M., (1998). Use of annular flumes to determine the influence of current velocity and bivalves on material flux at the sediment-water interface. Estuaries, 21, 552-559.

Wilson, J.G., (1981). Temperature tolerance of circatidal bivalves in relation to their distribution. Journal of Thermal Biology, 6, 279-286.

Zebe, E. & Schiedek, D., (1996). The lugworm Arenicola marina: a model of physiological adaptation to life in intertidal sediments. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 50, 37-68.

Zwarts, L. & Esselink, P., (1989). Versatility of male curlews Numenius arquata preying upon Nereis diversicolor: deploying contrasting capture modes dependent on prey availability. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 56, 255-269.