Biodiversity & Conservation

Habitat bibliography

Ankley, G.T., Erickson, R.J., Sheedy, B.R., Kosian, P.A., Mattson, V.R. & Cox, J.S., (1997). Evaluation of models for predicting the phototoxic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Aquatic Toxicology, 37, 37-50.

Apt, K.E., (1988). Etiology and development of hyperplasia induced by Streblonema sp. (Phaeophyta) on members of the Laminariales (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology, 24, 28-34.

Austin, A.P., (1960b). Observations on the growth, fruiting and longevity of Furcellaria fastigiata (L.) Lamouroux. Hydrobiologia, 15, 193-207.

Axelsson, B. & Axelsson, L., (1987). A rapid and reliable method to quantify environmental effects on Laminaria based on measurements of ion leakage. Botanica Marina, 30, 55-61.

Bamber, R.N. & Irving, P.W., (1993). The Corallina run-offs of Bridgewater Bay. Porcupine Newsletter, 5, 190-197.

Bird, C.J., Saunders, G.W. & McLachlan, J., (1991). Biology of Furcellaria lumbricalis (Hudson) Lamouroux (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales), a commercial carrageenophyte. Journal of Applied Phycology, 3, 61-82.

Birkett, D.A., Maggs, C.A., Dring, M.J. & Boaden, P.J.S., (1998b). Infralittoral reef biotopes with kelp species: an overview of dynamic and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Natura 2000 report prepared by Scottish Association of Marine Science (SAMS) for the UK Marine SACs Project., Scottish Association for Marine Science. (UK Marine SACs Project, vol V.).,

Boalch, G.T. & Jephson, N.A., (1981). A re-examination of the seaweeds on Colman's traverses at Wembury. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium, 8, 290-293.

Boalch, G.T., Holme, N.A., Jephson, N.A. & Sidwell, J.M.C., (1974). A resurvey of Colman's intertidal traverses at Wembury, South Devon. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 5, 551-553.

Bokn, T., (1985). Effects of diesel oil on commercial benthic algae in Norway. In Proceedings of 1985 Oil Spill Conference, (ed. American Petroleum Institute), pp. 491-496. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute.

Boney, A.D., (1971). Sub-lethal effects of mercury on marine algae. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2, 69-71.

Bowling, J.W., Leversee, G.J., Landrum, P.F. & Giesy, J.P., (1983). Acute mortality of anthracene-contaminated fish exposed to sunlight. Aquatic Toxicology, 3, 79-90.

Brawley, S.H., (1992b). Mesoherbivores. In Plant-animal interactions in the marine benthos (ed. D.M John, S.J. Hawkins & J.H. Price), pp. 235-263. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [Systematics Association Special Volume, no. 46.]

Britton-Simmons, K.H., (2004). Direct and indirect effects of the introduced alga Sargassum muticum on bethic, subtidal communities of Washington State, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 277, 61-78.

Brosnan, D.M. & Crumrine, L.L., (1994). Effects of human trampling on marine rocky shore communities. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 177, 79-97.

Brown, P.J. & Taylor, R.B., (1999). Effects of trampling by humans on animals inhabiting coralline algal turf in the rocky intertidal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 235, 45-53.

Bryan, G.W., (1984). Pollution due to heavy metals and their compounds. In Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive, Integrated Treatise on Life in the Oceans and Coastal Waters, vol. 5. Ocean Management, part 3, (ed. O. Kinne), pp.1289-1431. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bryan, G.W., (1969). The absorption of zinc and other metals by the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 49, 225-243.

Burdin, K.S. & Bird, K.T., (1994). Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae. Botanica Marina, 37, 467-470.

Burrows, E.M., (1991). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 2. Chlorophyta. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Chapman, A.R.O. & Johnson, C.R., (1990). Disturbance and organization of macroalgal assemblages in the Northwest Atlantic. Hydrobiologia, 192, 77-121.

Chapman, A.R.O., (1981). Stability of sea urchin dominated barren grounds following destructive grazing of kelp in St. Margaret's Bay, Eastern Canada. Marine Biology, 62, 307-311.

Chapman, A.R.O., (1990). Effects of grazing, canopy cover and substratum type on the abundances of common species of seaweeds inhabiting littoral fringe rock pools. Botanica Marina, 33, 319-326.

Chia, F.S. & Spaulding, J.G., (1972). Development and juvenile growth of the sea anemone Tealia crassicornis. Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 142, 206-218.

Cole, S., Codling, I.D., Parr, W. & Zabel, T., (1999). Guidelines for managing water quality impacts within UK European Marine sites. Natura 2000 report prepared for the UK Marine SACs Project. 441 pp., Swindon: Water Research Council on behalf of EN, SNH, CCW, JNCC, SAMS and EHS. [UK Marine SACs Project.],

Connor, D.W., Brazier, D.P., Hill, T.O., & Northen, K.O., (1997b). Marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Vol. 1. Littoral biotopes. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 229, Version 97.06., Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report No. 230, Version 97.06.

Crisp, D.J. (ed.), (1964). The effects of the severe winter of 1962-63 on marine life in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 165-210.

Crump, R.G. & Emson, R.H., (1997). Observations on the effects of the Sea Empress pollution incident on the seastars of tide pools at West Angle, Pembrokeshire. Sea Empress Environmental Evaluation Committee (SEEEC), 6 pp.

Daly, M.A. & Mathieson, A.C., (1977). The effects of sand movement on intertidal seaweeds and selected invertebrates at Bound Rock, New Hampshire, USA. Marine Biology, 43, 45-55.

Daniel, M.J. & Boyden, C.R., (1975). Diurnal variations in physico-chemical conditions within intertidal rockpools. Field Studies, 4, 161-176.

Dawes, C.J., McCoy, E.D. & Heck, K.L., (1991). The tropical western Atlantic including the Caribbean Sea. In Intertidal and Littoral Ecosystems, (ed. A.C. Mathieson & P.H. Nienhuis), pp. 215-234. Amsterdam: Elsevier. [Ecosystems of the World no. 24].

Dethier, M.N., (1984). Disturbance and recovery in intertidal pools: maintenance of mosaic patterns. Ecological Monographs, 54, 99-118.

Dickinson, C.I., (1963). British seaweeds. London & Frome: Butler & Tanner Ltd.

Dixon, P.S. & Irvine, L.M., (1977). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1 Rhodophyta. Part 1 Introduction, Nemaliales, Gigartinales. London: British Museum (Natural History) London.

Ebere, A.G. & Akintonwa, A., (1992). Acute toxicity of pesticides to Gobius sp., Palaemonetes africanus, and Desmocaris trispimosa. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 49, 588-592.

Edyvean, R.G.J. & Ford, H., (1984). Population biology of the crustose red alga Lithophyllum incrustans Phil. 3. The effects of local environmental variables. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 23, 365-374.

Ellertsdottir, E. & Peters, A.F., (1997). High prevalence of infection by endophytic brown algae in populations of Laminaria spp. (Phaeophyceae). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 146, 135-143.

Eno, N.C., Clark, R.A. & Sanderson, W.G. (ed.) (1997). Non-native marine species in British waters: a review and directory. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Fairweather, P.G., (1987). Experiments on the interaction between predation and the availability of different prey on rocky shores. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 154, 29-75.

Feare, C.J., (1970b). Aspects of the ecology of an exposed shore population of dogwhelks Nucella lapillus. Oecologia, 5, 1-18.

Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., (1996). A student's guide to the seashore. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fletcher, R.L. & Callow, M.E., (1992). The settlement, attachment and establishment of marine algal spores. British Phycological Journal, 27, 303-329.

Floc'h, J. H. & Diouris, M., (1980). Initial effects of Amoco Cadiz oil on intertidal algae. Ambio, 9, 284-286.

Ganning, B & Wulff, F., (1970). Measurements of community metabolism in some Baltic brackish water rockpools by means of diel oxygen curves. Oikos, 21, 292-298.

Ganning, B., (1971). Studies on chemical, physical and biological conditions in Swedish rockpool ecosystems. Ophelia, 9, 51-105.

Gerard, V.A., (1988). Ecotypic differentiation in light-related traits of the kelp Laminaria saccharina. Marine Biology, 97, 25-36.

GESAMP (IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution), (1993). Impact of oil and related chemicals and wastes on the marine environment. GESAMP Report and Studies, no. 50., London: International Maritime Organization.

Gordon, D.P., (1972). Biological relationships of an intertidal bryozoan population. Journal of Natural History, 6, 503-514.

Goss-Custard, S., Jones, J., Kitching, J.A. & Norton, T.A., (1979). Tide pools of Carrigathorna and Barloge Creek. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Series B: Biological Sciences, 287, 1-44.

Guiry, M.D. & Blunden, G., (1991). Seaweed Resources in Europe: Uses and Potential. Chicester: John Wiley & Sons.

Harlin, M.M., & Lindbergh, J.M., (1977). Selection of substrata by seaweed: optimal surface relief. Marine Biology, 40, 33-40.

Hawkins, S.J. & Harkin, E., (1985). Preliminary canopy removal experiments in algal dominated communities low on the shore and in the shallow subtidal on the Isle of Man. Botanica Marina, 28, 223-30.

Hawkins, S.J. & Southward, A.J., (1992). The Torrey Canyon oil spill: recovery of rocky shore communities. In Restoring the Nations Marine Environment, (ed. G.W. Thorpe), Chapter 13, pp. 583-631. Maryland, USA: Maryland Sea Grant College.

Hawkins, S.J., Hartnoll, R.G., Kain, J.M. & Norton, T.A., (1992). Plant-animal interactions on hard substrata in the north-east Atlantic. In Plant-animal interactions in the marine benthos (ed. D.M. John, S.J. Hawkins & J.H. Price), pp. 1-32. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [Systematics Association Special Volume, no. 46.]

Hicks, G.R.F., (1985). Meiofauna associated with rocky shore algae. In The Ecology of Rocky Coasts: essays presented to J.R. Lewis, D.Sc., (ed. P.G. Moore & R. Seed, ed.). pp. 36-56. London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.

Hill, S., Burrows, S.J. & Hawkins, S.J., (1998). Intertidal Reef Biotopes (Volume VI). An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine Special Areas of Conservation. Oban: Scottish Association for Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project)., Scottish Association for Marine Science (UK Marine SACs Project).

Hoare, R. & Hiscock, K., (1974). An ecological survey of the rocky coast adjacent to the effluent of a bromine extraction plant. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 2, 329-348.

Holt, T.J., Hartnoll, R.G. & Hawkins, S.J., (1997). The sensitivity and vulnerability to man-induced change of selected communities: intertidal brown algal shrubs, Zostera beds and Sabellaria spinulosa reefs. English Nature, Peterborough, English Nature Research Report No. 234.

Holt, T.J., Jones, D.R., Hawkins, S.J. & Hartnoll, R.G., (1995). The sensitivity of marine communities to man induced change - a scoping report. Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, Contract Science Report, no. 65.

Hong, J. & Reish, D.J., (1987). Acute toxicity of cadmium to eight species of marine amphipod and isopod crustaceans from southern California. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 39, 884-888.

Hopkin, R. & Kain, J.M., (1978). The effects of some pollutants on the survival, growth and respiration of Laminaria hyperborea. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 7, 531-553.

Huggett, J. & Griffiths, C.L., (1986). Some relationships between elevation, physico-chemical variables and biota of intertidal rockpools. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 29, 198-197.

Irvine, L. M. & Chamberlain, Y. M., (1994). Seaweeds of the British Isles, vol. 1. Rhodophyta, Part 2B Corallinales, Hildenbrandiales. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), (1999). Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line],

Kain, J.M., (1979). A view of the genus Laminaria. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 17, 101-161.

Kain, J.M., (1975). Algal recolonization of some cleared subtidal areas. Journal of Ecology, 63, 739-765.

Kautsky, H., (1992). The impact of pulp-mill effluents on phytobenthic communities in the Baltic Sea. Ambio, 21, 308-313.

Kinne, O. (ed.), (1980). Diseases of marine animals. vol. 1. General aspects. Protozoa to Gastropoda. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Knight, M. & Parke, M., (1950). A biological study of Fucus vesiculosus L. and Fucus serratus L. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 29, 439-514.

Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Joosten, A.M.T. & van den Hoek, C., (1989). Zonation patterns in intertidal pools and their possible causes: a multivariate approach. Botanica Marina, 32, 9-26.

Lüning, K. & Dring, M.J., (1975). Reproduction, growth and photosynthesis of gametophytes of Laminaria saccharina grown in blue and red light. Marine Biology, 29, 195-200.

Lee, R.E., (1971). Systemic viral material in the cells of the freshwater alga Sirodotia tenuissima (Holden) Skuja. Journal of Cell Science, 8, 623-631.

Lewis, J.R., (1964). The Ecology of Rocky Shores. London: English Universities Press.

Little, C. & Kitching, J.A., (1996). The Biology of Rocky Shores. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Littler, M.M., & Kauker, B.J., (1984). Heterotrichy and survival strategies in the red alga Corallina officinalis L. Botanica Marina, 27, 37-44.

Lubchenco, J., (1978). Plant species diversity in a marine intertidal community, importance of herbivore food preference and algal competitive abilities. American Naturalist, 112, 23-39.

Maggs, C.A. & Hommersand, M.H., (1993). Seaweeds of the British Isles: Volume 1 Rhodophycota Part 3A Ceramiales. London: Natural History Museum, Her Majesty's Stationary Office.

Maggs, C.A. & Pueschel, C.M., (1989). Morphology and development of Ahnfeltia plicata (Rhodophyta) : proposal of Ahnfeltiales ord. nov. Journal of Phycology, 25, 333-351.

Mathieson, A.C. & Burns, R.L., (1971). Ecological studies of economic red algae. 1. Photosynthesis and respiration of Chondrus crispus (Stackhouse) and Gigartina stellata (Stackhouse) Batters. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 7, 197-206.

Metaxas, A. & Scheibling, R.E., (1993). Community structure and organization of tidepools. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 98, 187-198.

Metaxas, A., Hunt, H.L., & Scheibling, R.E., (1994). Spatial and temporal variability of macrobenthic communities in tidepools on a rocky shore in Nova Scotia, Canada. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 105, 89-103.

Minchinton, T.E., Schiebling, R.E. & Hunt, H.L., (1997). Recovery of an intertidal assemblage following a rare occurrence of scouring by sea ice in Nova Scotia, Canada. Botanica Marina, 40, 139-148.

Moore, J., Taylor, P. & Hiscock, K., (1995). Rocky shore monitoring programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 103B, 181-200.

Morris, S. & Taylor, A.C. (1983). Diurnal and seasonal variations in physico-chemical conditions within intertidal rock pools. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 17, 339-355.

Moss, B. & Sheader, A., (1973). The effect of light and temperature upon the germination and growth of Halidrys siliquosa (L.) Lyngb. (Phaeophyceae, Fucales). Phycologia, 12, 63-68.

Moss, B.L., (1982). The control of epiphytes by Halidrys siliquosa (L.) Lyngb. (Phaeophyta; Cystoceiraceae). Phycologia, 21, 185-198.

Mueller, D., (1979). Sublethal and lethal effects of copper, cadmium and lead to organisms representative for the intertidal flats at the outer Elbe Estuary. Archiv fur hydrobiologie, supplement 43, 2-3, 289-346.

Naylor, E. & Slinn, D.J., (1958). Observations on the ecology of some brackish water organisms in pools at Scarlett Point, Isle of Man. Journal of Animal Ecology, 27, 15-25.

Norton, T.A., (1992). Dispersal by macroalgae. British Phycological Journal, 27, 293-301.

O'Brien, P.J. & Dixon, P.S., (1976). Effects of oils and oil components on algae: a review. British Phycological Journal, 11, 115-142.

Oertzen, J.-A., Wulf, D. & Bruegmann, L., (1988). Ecotoxicological effects of two mercury compounds on Neomysis integer (Leach) and Pomatoschistus microps (Kroyer). Kieler Meeresforschungen Sonderheft, 6, 414-123.

Parker, T., Johnson, C. & Chapman, A.R.O., (1993). Gammarid amphipods and littorinid snails have significant but different effects on algal succession in littoral fringe tidepools. Ophelia, 38, 69-88.

Peckol, P., Levings, S.C. & Garrity, S.D., (1990). Kelp response following the World Prodigy oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 21, 473-476.

Peters, A.F. & Schaffelke, B., (1996). Streblonema (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) infection in the kelp Laminaria saccharina in the western Baltic. Hydrobiologia, 326/327, 111-116.

Pybus, C., (1977). The ecology of Chondrus crispus and Gigartina stellata (Rhodophyta) in Galway Bay. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 609-628.

Pyefinch, K. A., (1943). The intertidal ecology of Bardsey Island, North Wales, with special reference to the recolonization of rock surfaces, and the rock pool environment. Journal of Animal Ecology, 12, 82-108.

Raffaelli, D. & Hawkins, S., (1999). Intertidal Ecology 2nd edn.. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Read, P.A., Anderson, K.J., Matthews, J.E., Watson, P.G., Halliday, M.C. & Shiells, G.M., (1983). Effects of pollution on the benthos of the Firth of Forth. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14, 12-16.

Rostron, D.M. & Bunker, F. St P.D., (1997). An assessment of sublittoral epibenthic communities and species following the Sea Empress oil spill. A report to the Countryside Council for Wales from Marine Seen & Sub-Sea Survey., Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, CCW Sea Empress Contact Science, no. 177.

Scanlan, C.M. & Wilkinson, M., (1987). The use of seaweeds in biocide toxicity testing. Part 1. The sensitivity of different stages in the life-history of Fucus and of other algae, to certain biocides. Marine Environmental Research, 21, 11-29.

Schiel, D.R. & Taylor, D.I., (1999). Effects of trampling on a rocky intertidal algal assemblage in southern New Zealand. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 235, 213-235.

Scrosati, R., Garbary, D.J. & McLachlan, J., (1994). Reproductive ecology of Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) from Nova Scotia, Canada. Botanica Marina, 37, 293-300.

Seapy , R.R. & Littler, M.M., (1982). Population and Species Diversity Fluctuations in a Rocky Intertidal Community Relative to Severe Aerial Exposure and Sediment Burial. Marine Biology, 71, 87-96.

Sebens, K.P., (1986). Spatial relationships among encrusting marine organisms in the New England subtidal zone. Ecological Monographs, 56, 73-96.

Sebens, K.P., (1985). Community ecology of vertical rock walls in the Gulf of Maine: small-scale processes and alternative community states. In The Ecology of Rocky Coasts: essays presented to J.R. Lewis, D.Sc., (ed. P.G. Moore & R. Seed), pp. 346-371. London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.

Smith, J.E. (ed.), (1968). 'Torrey Canyon'. Pollution and marine life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Solé-Cava, A.M., Thorpe, J.P. & Todd, C.D., (1994). High genetic similarity between geographically distant populations in a sea anemone with low dispersal capabilities. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 74, 895-902.

Sousa, W.P., Schroeter, S.C. & Daines, S.D., (1981). Latitudinal variation in intertidal algal community structure: the influence of grazing and vegetative propagation. Oecologia, 48, 297-307.

Southward, A.J. & Southward, E.C., (1978). Recolonisation of rocky shores in Cornwall after use of toxic dispersants to clean up the Torrey Canyon spill. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 35, 682-706.

Stæhr, P.A., Pedersen, M.F., Thomsen, M.S., Wernberg, T. & Krause-Jensen, D., (2000). Invasion of Sargassum muticum in Limfjorden (Denmark) and its possible impact of the indigenous macroalgal community. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 207, 79-88.

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Strömgren, T., (1980a). The effect of dissolved copper on the increase in length of four species of intertidal fucoid algae. Marine Environmental Research, 3, 5-13.

Strömgren, T., (1980b). The effect of lead, cadmium and mercury on the increase in length of five intertidal Fucales. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 43, 107-119.

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Thompson, R.S. & Burrows, E.M., (1984). The toxicity of copper, zinc and mercury to the brown macroalga Laminaria saccharina. In Ecotoxicological testing for the marine environment (ed. G. Persoone, E. Jaspers, & C. Claus), Vol. 2, pp. 259-269. Ghent: Laboratory for biological research in aquatic pollution, State University of Ghent.

Vadas, R.L., Johnson, S. & Norton, T.A., (1992). Recruitment and mortality of early post-settlement stages of benthic algae. British Phycological Journal, 27, 331-351.

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Wolfe, J.M. & Harlin, M.M., (1988b). Tidepools in Southern Rhode Island, U.S.A. II. Species diversity and similarity analysis of macroalgal communities. Botanica Marina, 31, 537-546.

Workman, C., (1983). Comparisons of energy partitioning in contrasting age-structured populations of the limpet Patella vulgata L. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 68, 81-103.