Biodiversity & Conservation

Habitat bibliography

Birkett, D.A., Maggs, C.A., Dring, M.J. & Boaden, P.J.S., (1998b). Infralittoral reef biotopes with kelp species: an overview of dynamic and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Natura 2000 report prepared by Scottish Association of Marine Science (SAMS) for the UK Marine SACs Project., Scottish Association for Marine Science. (UK Marine SACs Project, vol V.).,

Bishop, G.M. & Earll, R., (1984). Studies on the populations of Echinus esculentus at the St. Abbs and Skomer Voluntary Marine Nature Reserves. Progress in Underwater Science, 9, 53-66.

Boolootian, R.A. (ed.), (1966). Physiology of Echinodermata. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bower, S.M., (1996). Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish: Bald-sea-urchin Disease. [on-line]. SeaLane Diseases of Shellfish., 2000-04-19 00:00:00

Bryan, G.W., (1984). Pollution due to heavy metals and their compounds. In Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive, Integrated Treatise on Life in the Oceans and Coastal Waters, vol. 5. Ocean Management, part 3, (ed. O. Kinne), pp.1289-1431. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Cole, S., Codling, I.D., Parr, W. & Zabel, T., (1999). Guidelines for managing water quality impacts within UK European Marine sites. Natura 2000 report prepared for the UK Marine SACs Project. 441 pp., Swindon: Water Research Council on behalf of EN, SNH, CCW, JNCC, SAMS and EHS. [UK Marine SACs Project.],

Comely, C.A. & Ansell, A.D., (1988). Invertebrate associates of the sea urchin Echinus esculentus L. from the Scottish west coast. Ophelia, 28, 111-137.

Connor, D.W., Dalkin, M.J., Hill, T.O., Holt, R.H.F. & Sanderson, W.G., (1997a). Marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Vol. 2. Sublittoral biotopes. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 230, Version 97.06., Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 230, Version 97.06.

Crisp, D.J. (ed.), (1964). The effects of the severe winter of 1962-63 on marine life in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 165-210.

Dickinson, C.I., (1963). British seaweeds. London & Frome: Butler & Tanner Ltd.

Dieck, tom. I., (1993). Temperature tolerance and survival in darkness of kelp gametophytes (Laminariales: Phaeophyta) - ecological and biogeographical implications. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 100, 253-264.

Dyrynda, P.E.J. & Ryland, J.S., (1982). Reproductive strategies and life histories in the cheilostome marine bryozoans Chartella papyracea and Bugula flabellata. Marine Biology, 71, 241-256.

Edwards, A., (1980). Ecological studies of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea and its associated fauna in south-west Ireland. Ophelia, 9, 47-60.

Edyvean, R.G.J. & Ford, H., (1984). Population biology of the crustose red alga Lithophyllum incrustans Phil. 3. The effects of local environmental variables. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 23, 365-374.

Eggleston, D., (1972a). Patterns of reproduction in marine Ectoprocta off the Isle of Man. Journal of Natural History, 6, 31-38.

Elner, R.W. & Vadas, R.L., (1990). Inference in ecology: the sea urchin phenomenon in the northwest Atlantic. American Naturalist, 136, 108-125.

Erwin, D.G., Picton, B.E., Connor, D.W., Howson, C.M., Gilleece, P. & Bogues, M.J., (1990). Inshore Marine Life of Northern Ireland. Report of a survey carried out by the diving team of the Botany and Zoology Department of the Ulster Museum in fulfilment of a contract with Conservation Branch of the Department of the Environment (N.I.)., Ulster Museum, Belfast: HMSO.

Fletcher, R.L. & Callow, M.E., (1992). The settlement, attachment and establishment of marine algal spores. British Phycological Journal, 27, 303-329.

Fletcher, R.L., (1996). The occurrence of 'green tides' - a review. In Marine Benthic Vegetation. Recent changes and the Effects of Eutrophication (ed. W. Schramm & P.H. Nienhuis). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. [Ecological Studies, vol. 123].

Gili, J-M. & Hughes, R.G., (1995). The ecology of marine benthic hydroids. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 33, 351-426.

Gommez, J.L.C. & Miguez-Rodriguez, L.J., (1999). Effects of oil pollution on skeleton and tissues of Echinus esculentus L. 1758 (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) in a population of A Coruna Bay, Galicia, Spain. In Echinoderm Research 1998. Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Echinoderms, Milan, 7-12 September 1998, (ed. M.D.C. Carnevali & F. Bonasoro) pp. 439-447. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

Gordon, D.P., (1972). Biological relationships of an intertidal bryozoan population. Journal of Natural History, 6, 503-514.

Griffiths, A.B., Dennis, R. & Potts, G.W., (1979). Mortality associated with a phytoplankton bloom off Penzance in Mount's Bay. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 59, 515-528.

Hammer, L., (1972). Anaerobiosis in marine algae and marine phanerograms. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Seaweed Symposium, Sapporo, Japan, August 8-12, 1971 (ed. K. Nisizawa, S. Arasaki, Chihara, M., Hirose, H., Nakamura V., Tsuchiya, Y.), pp. 414-419. Tokyo: Tokyo University Press.

Hartnoll, R.G., (1975). The annual cycle of Alcyonium digitatum. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 3, 71-78

Hartnoll, R.G., (1998). Volume VIII. Circalittoral faunal turf biotopes: An overview of dynamics and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Scottish Association of Marine Sciences, Oban, Scotland. [UK Marine SAC Project. Natura 2000 reports.]

Hartnoll, R.G., (1983). Substratum. In Sublittoral ecology. The ecology of the shallow sublittoral benthos (ed. R. Earll & D.G. Erwin), pp. 97-124. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hayward, P.J. (1988). Animals on seaweed. Richmond, Surrey: Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd. [Naturalists Handbooks 9].

Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (1998). Cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Part 1. Aeteoidea - Cribrilinoidea. Shrewsbury: Field Studies Council. [Synopses of the British Fauna, no. 10. (2nd edition)]

Hill, A.S., Brand, A.R., Veale, L.O. & Hawkins, S.J., (1997). Assessment of the effects of scallop dredging on benthic communities. Final Report to MAFF, Contract CSA 2332, Liverpool: University of Liverpool

Hiscock, K. & Mitchell, R., (1980). The Description and Classification of Sublittoral Epibenthic Ecosystems. In The Shore Environment, Vol. 2, Ecosystems, (ed. J.H. Price, D.E.G. Irvine, & W.F. Farnham), 323-370. London and New York: Academic Press. [Systematics Association Special Volume no. 17(b)].

Hiscock, K., (1983). Water movement. In Sublittoral ecology. The ecology of shallow sublittoral benthos (ed. R. Earll & D.G. Erwin), pp. 58-96. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hiscock, K., (1994). Marine communities at Lundy - origins, longevity and change. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 51, 183-188.

Hiscock, S., (1986c). Skomer Marine Nature Reserve subtidal monitoring project. Algal results. August 1984 to February 1986. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, CSD Report no. 620., Peterborough, Nature Conservancy Council. (CSD Report No. 620.)

Holt, T.J., Jones, D.R., Hawkins, S.J. & Hartnoll, R.G., (1995). The sensitivity of marine communities to man induced change - a scoping report. Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, Contract Science Report, no. 65.

Hopkin, R. & Kain, J.M., (1978). The effects of some pollutants on the survival, growth and respiration of Laminaria hyperborea. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 7, 531-553.

Hughes, R.G., (1977). Aspects of the biology and life-history of Nemertesia antennina (L.) (Hydrozoa: Plumulariidae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 641-657.

Irvine, L. M. & Chamberlain, Y. M., (1994). Seaweeds of the British Isles, vol. 1. Rhodophyta, Part 2B Corallinales, Hildenbrandiales. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), (1999). Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line],

Jones, D.J., (1971). Ecological studies on macro-invertebrate communities associated with polluted kelp forest in the North Sea. Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meersuntersuchungen, 22, 417-431.

Jones, N.S. & Kain, J.M., (1967). Subtidal algal recolonisation following removal of Echinus. Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 15, 460-466.

Kain, J.M. & Svendsen, P., (1969). A note on the behaviour of Patina pellucida in Britain and Norway. Sarsia, 38, 25-30.

Kain, J.M., (1979). A view of the genus Laminaria. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 17, 101-161.

Kain, J.M., (1975). Algal recolonization of some cleared subtidal areas. Journal of Ecology, 63, 739-765.

Kain, J.M., & Norton, T.A., (1990). Marine Ecology. In Biology of the Red Algae, (ed. K.M. Cole & Sheath, R.G.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kain, J.M., Drew, E.A. & Jupp, B.P., (1975). Light and the ecology of Laminaria hyperborea II. In Proceedings of the Sixteenth Symposium of the British Ecological Society, 26-28 March 1974. Light as an Ecological Factor: II (ed. G.C. Evans, R. Bainbridge & O. Rackham), pp. 63-92. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Lewis, G.A. & Nichols, D., (1979a). Colonization of an artificial reef by the sea-urchin Echinus esculentus. Progress in Underwater Science, 4, 189-195.

Mann, K.H., (1982). Kelp, sea urchins, and predators: a review of strong interactions in rocky subtidal systems of eastern Canada, 1970-1980. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 16, 414-423.

Matthews, A., (1917). The development of Alcyonium digitatum with some notes on early colony formation. Quarterly Journal of Microscopial Science, 62, 43-94.

Moore, P.G., (1977a). Inorganic particulate suspensions in the sea and their effects on marine animals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 15, 225-363.

Moore, P.G., (1978). Turbidity and kelp holdfast Amphipoda. I. Wales and S.W. England. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 32, 53-96.

Moore, P.G., (1973b). The kelp fauna of north east Britain. II. Multivariate classification: turbidity as an ecological factor. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 13, 127-163.

Moore, P.G., (1973a). The kelp fauna of north east Britain I. Function of the physical environment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 13, 97-125.

Moore, P.G., (1985). Levels of heterogeneity and the amphipod fauna of kelp holdfasts. In The Ecology of Rocky Coasts: essays presented to J.R. Lewis, D.Sc. (ed. P.G. Moore & R. Seed), 274-289. London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.

Morton, J.E. & Miller, M.C., (1968). The New Zealand sea shore. London: Collins

Nichols, D., (1984). An investigation of the population dynamics of the common edible sea urchin (Echinus esculentus L.) in relation to species conservation management. Report to Department of the Environment and Nature Conservancy Council from the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter.

Nichols, D., (1981). The Cornish Sea-urchin Fishery. Cornish Studies, 9, 5-18.

Nichols, D., (1991). Seasonal reproductive periodicity in the European comatulid crinoid Antedon bifida (Pennant). In Biology of Echinodermata. Proceedings of the Seventh International Echinoderm Conference, Atami, 9-14 September 1990 (ed. T. Yanagisawa, I. Yasumasu, C. Oguro, N. Suzuki & T. Motokawa), pp. 241-248.

Norton, T.A., (1992). Dispersal by macroalgae. British Phycological Journal, 27, 293-301.

Norton, T.A., Hiscock, K. & Kitching, J.A., (1977). The Ecology of Lough Ine XX. The Laminaria forest at Carrigathorna. Journal of Ecology, 65, 919-941.

O'Brien, P.J. & Dixon, P.S., (1976). Effects of oils and oil components on algae: a review. British Phycological Journal, 11, 115-142.

Penfold, R., Hughson, S., & Boyle, N., (1996). The potential for a sea urchin fishery in Shetland., 2000-04-14 00:00:00

Raffaelli, D. & Hawkins, S., (1999). Intertidal Ecology 2nd edn.. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Rostron, D.M. & Bunker, F. St P.D., (1997). An assessment of sublittoral epibenthic communities and species following the Sea Empress oil spill. A report to the Countryside Council for Wales from Marine Seen & Sub-Sea Survey., Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, CCW Sea Empress Contact Science, no. 177.

Ryland, J.S., (1970). Bryozoans. London: Hutchinson University Library.

Ryland, J.S., (1977). Taxes and tropisms of Bryozoans. In Biology of bryozoans (ed. R.M. Woollacott & R.L. Zimmer), pp. 411-436.

Ryland, J.S., (1976). Physiology and ecology of marine bryozoans. Advances in Marine Biology, 14, 285-443.

Schiel, D.R. & Foster, M.S., (1986). The structure of subtidal algal stands in temperate waters. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 24, 265-307.

Sebens, K.P., (1986). Spatial relationships among encrusting marine organisms in the New England subtidal zone. Ecological Monographs, 56, 73-96.

Sebens, K.P., (1985). Community ecology of vertical rock walls in the Gulf of Maine: small-scale processes and alternative community states. In The Ecology of Rocky Coasts: essays presented to J.R. Lewis, D.Sc., (ed. P.G. Moore & R. Seed), pp. 346-371. London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.

Sheppard, C.R.C., Bellamy, D.J. & Sheppard, A.L.S., (1980). Study of the fauna inhabiting the holdfasts of Laminaria hyperborea (Gunn.) Fosl. along some environmental and geographical gradients. Marine Environmental Research, 4, 25-51.

Sivertsen, K., (1997). Geographic and environmental factors affecting the distribution of kelp beds and barren grounds and changes in biota associated with kelp reduction at sites along the Norwegian coast. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 54, 2872-2887.

Smith, J.E. (ed.), (1968). 'Torrey Canyon'. Pollution and marine life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Somerfield, P.J. & Warwick, R.M., (1999). Appraisal of environmental impact and recovery using Laminaria holdfast faunas. Sea Empress, Environmental Evaluation Committee., Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, CCW Sea Empress Contract Science, Report no. 321.

Stickle, W.B. & Diehl, W.J., (1987). Effects of salinity on echinoderms. In Echinoderm Studies, Vol. 2, (ed. M. Jangoux & J.M. Lawrence), pp. 235-285.

Stock, J.H., (1988). Lamippidae (Copepoda : Siphonostomatoida) parasitic in Alcyonium. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 68, 351-359.

Todd, C.D. & Turner, S.J., (1988). Ecology of intertidal and sublittoral cryptic epifaunal assemblages. II. Non-lethal overgrowth of encrusting bryozoans by colonial ascidians. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 115, 113-126.

Ursin, E., (1960). A quantitative investigation of the echinoderm fauna of the central North Sea. Meddelelser fra Danmark Fiskeri-og-Havundersogelser, 2, No. 24, 204pp.

Vadas, R.L. & Elner, R.W., (1992). Plant-animal interactions in the north-west Atlantic. In Plant-animal interactions in the marine benthos, (ed. D.M. John, S.J. Hawkins & J.H. Price), 33-60. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [Systematics Association Special Volume, no. 46].

van den Hoek, C., (1982). The distribution of benthic marine algae in relation to the temperature regulation of their life histories. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 18, 81-144.

Vost, L.M., (1983). The influence of Echinus esculentus grazing on subtidal algal communities. British Phycological Journal, 18, 211.

Wendt, D.E., (1998). Effect of larval swimming duration on growth and reproduction of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa) under field conditions. Biological Bulletin, 195, 126-135.

Whittick, A., (1983). Spatial and temporal distributions of dominant epiphytes on the stipes of Laminaria hyperborea (Gunn.) Fosl. (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) in S.E. Scotland. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 73, 1-10.

Wilkinson, M., (1995). Information review on the impact of kelp harvesting. Scottish Natural Heritage Review, no. 34, 54 pp.