Biodiversity & Conservation

Halcampa chrysanthellum and Edwardsia timida on sublittoral clean stone gravel



Image Bernard Picton - Edwardsia timida on sublittoral clean stone gravel. Image width ca XX cm.
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Distribution map

SS.SCS.ICS.HchrEdw recorded (dark blue bullet) and expected (light blue bullet) distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)

  • EC_Habitats

Ecological and functional relationships

Most species in this biotope are not interacting with each other except in competition for space although the characteristic species are so widely separated, there is unlikely to be significant competition. It is expected that there will be grazers present - small prosobranchs and chitons especially although the biotopes classification gives no indication. There is no information available on the infauna of the biotope.

Seasonal and longer term change

The biotope character (Connor et al., 1997a) suggests that there might be periodic (seasonal?) disturbance of the gravel and pebbles. Such disturbance might occur during spring tides when currents will increase or during storms when wave action may be important. It also seems likely that there will be seasonal occurrence of algae attached to pebbles.

Habitat structure and complexity

The habitat will attract both infauna and epibiota although epibiota will be restricted to encrusting and foliose species.


Productivity will be mainly secondary although there could be quite high rates of primary production on pebbles most likely grazed rapidly.

Recruitment processes

Recruitment will predominantly be from the plankton including for the mobile species such as prosobranchs and chitons likely to be present. It is likely that some echinoderms such as starfish will migrate from other areas.

Time for community to reach maturity

The community probably includes several slow-growing and long-lived species that do not recruit regularly. This is thought to be the case especially for burrowing sea anemones.

Additional information

No other information.

This review can be cited as follows:

Hiscock, K. 2001. Halcampa chrysanthellum and Edwardsia timida on sublittoral clean stone gravel. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 24/11/2015]. Available from: <>