Biodiversity & Conservation

Neocrania anomala and Protanthea simplex on very sheltered circalittoral rock



Image Sue Scott - Circalittoral cliff face with dense brachiopods Neocrania anomala and Terebratulina retusa, the anemone Protanthea simplex and the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Loch Duich, Highland. Image width ca 1 m.
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Distribution map

CR.LCR.BrAs.NeoPro recorded (dark blue bullet) and expected (light blue bullet) distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)

  • EC_Habitats

Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland

Present in sea lochs along the west coast of Scotland although not the Western Isles. Also locally in the south and west of Ireland as the variable salinity sub-biotope SCR.NeoPro.CaTw.

Habitat preferences

Temperature range preferences - Data deficient

Water clarity preferences - Data deficient

Limiting Nutrients - Data deficient

Other preferences -

Additional information

The two sub-biotopes included within this assessment are characterized by variable, reduced or low salinity which may influence biotope structure. The two sub-biotopes have some similarities although SCR.NeoPro.Den is more species rich and may occur in more open lochs (so far it has only been recorded from Loch Etive). The temperature preferences of the individual species selected to represent the biotope are quite different to the temperatures in which the biotope occurs in Britain and Ireland. For instance, Ciona intestinalis has a world-wide distribution and optimal growth occurs at between 15-20 degrees C, considerably higher than water temperatures on the west coast of Scotland. Protanthea simplex extends further north into colder waters. No information is available regarding limiting nutrients.

This review can be cited as follows:

Jackson, A. 2005. Neocrania anomala and Protanthea simplex on very sheltered circalittoral rock. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 01/12/2015]. Available from: <>