|Basic Information||Biotope classification||Ecology||Habitat preferences and distribution||Species composition||Sensitivity||Importance|
Image Bernard Picton - Virgularia mirabilis, Cerianthus lloydii with Ophiocomina nigra on shelly muddy gravel. Image width ca XX cm.
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SS.CMS._.VirOph recorded () and expected () distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)
Temperature range preferences - 5-15°C although where this biotope occurs in shallow water may be subjected to higher temperatures.
Water clarity preferences - Data deficient
Limiting Nutrients - Nitrogen (nitrates)
Other preferences -
Seapen biotopes occur in wave sheltered sealochs and much deeper open sea suggesting that water movement, particularly being sheltered from wave action, is more important to their existence than light.
This review can be cited as follows:
Hill, J.M. & Wilson, E. 2004. Virgularia mirabilis and Ophiura spp. on circalittoral sandy or shelly mud. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 31/10/2014]. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitatpreferences.php?habitatid=66&code=1997>