information on the biology of species and the ecology of habitats found around the coasts and seas of the British Isles

Laminaria hyperborea park and foliose red seaweeds on moderately exposed lower infralittoral rock



UK and Ireland classification

UK and Ireland classification


Below the dense kelp forest (MIR.Lhyp.Ft) on moderately exposed lower infralittoral bedrock and boulders, the kelp thins out to form a park. Beneath the kelp, the rock and kelp stipes are covered by an often dense turf of foliose red seaweeds. The faunal component of this biotope is similar to that found below the kelp in the upper circalittoral zone. Many species of foliose red seaweed found in this biotope, such as Membranoptera alata and Ptilota plumosa, occur in the shallower kelp forest at greater abundance. Other species such as Hypoglossum hypoglossoides, Pterothamnion plumula and Brongniartella byssoides are more abundant in this zone than the upper infralittoral.

Depth range

5-10 m, 10-20 m

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Sensitivity reviewHow is sensitivity assessed?



Species indicative of sensitivity


Physical Pressures

No sensitivity data available

Chemical Pressures

No sensitivity data available

Biological Pressures

No sensitivity data available

Additional information



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This review can be cited as:

Stamp, T.E., 2015. [Laminaria hyperborea] park and foliose red seaweeds on moderately exposed lower infralittoral rock. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 19-06-2018]. Available from:

Last Updated: 16/12/2015