|Researched by||Dr Harvey Tyler-Walters & Olivia Durkin||Refereed by||This information is not refereed.|
|EUNIS Code||A5.625||EUNIS Name||Mytilus edulis beds on sublittoral sediment|
|EUNIS 2008||A5.625||Mytilus edulis beds on sublittoral sediment|
|EUNIS 2006||A5.625||Mytilus edulis beds on sublittoral sediment|
|JNCC 2004||SS.SBR.SMus.MytSS||Mytilus edulis beds on sublittoral sediment|
|1997 Biotope||SS.IMX.EstMx.MytV||Mytilus edulis beds in variable salinity infralittoral mixed sediment|
Shallow sublittoral mixed sediment, in fully marine coastal habitats or sometimes in variable salinity conditions in the outer regions of estuaries, are characterised by beds of the common mussel Mytilus edulis. Other characterising infaunal species may include the amphipod Gammarus salinus and oligochaetes of the genus Tubificoides. The polychaetes Harmothoe spp., Kefersteinia cirrata and Heteromastus filiformis are also important. Epifaunal species include the whelks Nucella lapillus and Buccinum undatum, the common starfish Asterias rubens, the spider crab Maja squinado and the anemone Urticina felina. Relatively few records are available for this biotope and it is possible that as more data is accumulated separate estuarine and fully marine sub-biotopes may be described. Further clarification may also be required with regard to the overlap between littoral and sublittoral mussel beds and with regard to mussel beds biotopes on hard substratum.
|Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland||Found in a few scattered locations around the coast of Britain in sheltered bays and estuaries and recorded in Lough Foyle in Ireland.|
|Water clarity preferences|
|Limiting Nutrients||Not relevant|
This MarLIN sensitivity assessment has been superseded by the MarESA approach to sensitivity assessment. MarLIN assessments used an approach that has now been modified to reflect the most recent conservation imperatives and terminology and are due to be updated by 2016/17.
|Community Importance||Species name||Common Name|
|Important functional||Asterias rubens||Common starfish|
|Key structural||Mytilus edulis||Common mussel|
|Important functional||Nucella lapillus||Dog whelk|
|Removal of the substratum will remove of all the species within the biotope. Therefore, an intolerance of high has been recorded. Although a single good recruitment event may recolonize the substratum within a year, recovery may take up to 5 years, and is some circumstances significantly longer (see additional information below). Therefore, a recoverability of high has been recorded.|
|Intertidal Mytilus edulis beds have been reported to suffer moralities as a result on smothering by large scale movements of sand or sand scour (Holt et al., 1998; Daly & Mathieson, 1977). Similarly, biodeposition within a mussel bed results in suffocation or starvation of individuals that cannot re-surface. Young mussels have been shown to move up through a bed, avoiding smothering, while many others were suffocated (Dare, 1976; Holt et al., 1998). This suggests that a proportion of the population may be able to avoid smothering in subtidal conditions, and, therefore, an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded. Many infaunal species are likely to be not sensitive to smothering by the same grade of sediment, however, interstitial species and epifauna may be adversely affected. Although a single good recruitment event may recolonize the substratum within a year, recovery may take up to 5 years, and is some circumstances significantly longer (see additional information below). Therefore, a recoverability of high has been recorded.|
|Low||Immediate||Not sensitive||Minor decline||Moderate|
|Mytilus edulis has been reported to be relatively tolerant of suspended sediment and siltation and survived over 25 days at 440mg/l and on average 13 days at 1200mg/l (Purchon, 1937; Moore, 1977a). Mytilus edulis also has efficient pseudofaeces discharge mechanisms (Moore, 1977a; de Vooys, 1987). Asterias rubens flourishes in naturally turbid conditions and is capable of cleansing itself of adherent mud particles (Moore, 1977). Nucella lapillus is also found in turbid environments such as the Bristol Channel. Similarly, the barnacle Balanus crenatus was considered to be of low intolerance to suspended sediment. However, these species probably suffer a metabolic cost resulting from the cleansing mechanisms, mucus production and interrupted or impaired feeding. Therefore, a biotope intolerance of low, at the benchmark level, has been recorded. The majority of the organisms within the biotope are adapted to sedimentary, estuarine habitats and probably have mechanisms to deal with siltation and suspended sediment, so that recoverability of immediate has been recorded.|
|A decrease in suspended sediment, especially organic particulate could potentially reduce the food available to Mytilus edulis and the other suspension feeders within the biotope. A reduction in sedimentation could potential result in increased rates of erosion in sedimentary habitats. However, a large proportion of deposition within the mussel bed is due to accumulation of faeces and pseudofaeces. Therefore, a decrease in sedimentation at the benchmark level is probably not significant and an intolerance of low has been recorded.|
|Low||Immediate||Not sensitive||Minor decline||Low|
|This biotope occurs from 0 -10m in depth and, therefore, only populations in the shallowest parts of its distribution may be exposed to desiccation by extreme low tides. The upper limit of Mytilus edulis population is primarily controlled by the synergistic effects of temperature and desiccation (Suchanek, 1978; Seed & Suchanek, 1992; Holt et al., 1998). However, Mytilus spp. beds occur in the mid to lower intertidal, so that a change in desiccation at the benchmark level is unlikely to adversely affect the bed. Similarly, Nucella lapillus also occur in the intertidal and is unlikely to be adversely affect at the benchmark level.|
Asterias rubens has a high surface to volume ratio and is highly intolerant of desiccation. Its distribution is restricted to the sublittoral, or sublittoral fringe. Most infauna or interstitial fauna are protected from desiccation by their habitat but can tolerate intertidal conditions. Therefore an intolerance of low has been recorded at the benchmark level.
|An increase in emergence will effectively move the upper limits of the biotope into the lower intertidal. Mytilus edulis can form extensive beds in the intertidal. Growth rates will decrease due to loss of feeding time at low tide. However, the major predators will probably change, from the starfish and crabs of the sublittoral to birds and wildfowl in the eulittoral. Dog whelk predation will probably remain about constant, while fish predation will be limited to high tides. Most of the epifauna and infaunal polychaetes and amphipods are recorded from the lower shore and likely to be little affected. However, wildfowl predation may be significant, and is likely to change to size and age distribution within the bed and disrupt the mussel bed itself, e.g. eider duck, therefore an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded. Recovery is likely to be rapid (see additional information).|
|Tolerant*||Not sensitive||No change||Low|
|An increase in tidal submergence is likely to allow the biotope to extend its range further up the shore. Therefore, a rank of not sensitive* has been recorded.|
|As mussel beds increase in size and depth, individual mussels become increasingly attached to each other rather than the substratum. As a result, the bed may become destabilised and susceptible to removal by wave action or tidal scour. However, mussels at the edge of the beds are often more strongly attached than mussels within the bed (Seed & Suchanek, 1992). On sedimentary shores, mussel beds are probably intolerant of increased water flow due to removal of the sediment resulting in loss of clumps of the bed. Mussel reefs in the Wash, Morecambe Bay and the Wadden Sea are vulnerable to destruction by storms and tidal surges (Holt et al., 1998). Therefore, a change in water flow rate from weak to strong (the benchmark) would probably result in the loss of clumps or large parts of the mussel bed, Loss of the bed would result in loss of the epifaunal and predatory species associated with them, together with the interstitial fauna and a proportion of the benthic infauna. Therefore, an intolerance of high has been recorded. |
Although a single good recruitment event may recolonize the substratum within a year, recovery may take up to 5 years, and is some circumstances significantly longer (see additional information below). Therefore, a recoverability of high has been recorded.
|This biotope is found in moderately strong to weak tidal streams and further reduction in water flow may result in an increased sedimentation (see above) and risk of low oxygen conditions (see below). The mussels, and other suspension feeders, probably require water flow to supply food (suspended particulates, benthic diatoms and phytoplankton). However, overall a reduction in water flow is likely to have only limited affects and an intolerance of low and a recoverability of very high has been recorded.|
|Low||Very high||Very Low||Minor decline||Low|
|Sublittoral populations are unlikely to experience rapid or extreme temperature changes due to natural events and may, therefore, be expected to be intolerant of acute temperature change. An upper, sustained temperature tolerance limit of about 29 °C has been reported for Mytilus edulis in the United Kingdom (Read & Cumming, 1967; Almada-Villa et al., 1982). Seed & Suchanek (1992) noted that European populations were unlikely to experience temperatures greater than 25°C. Therefore, Mytilus edulis was consider to be of low intolerance to temperature change. Nucella lapillus may succumb to increased temperatures in summer but is otherwise relatively tolerant. Balanus crenatus and Asterias rubens, however, were assessed as highly intolerant of increased temperatures. Overall, the biotope has been assessed as of low intolerance to increased temperatures since the key species, Mytilus edulis, is unlikely to be adversely affected. Recovery is likely to be rapid (see additional information below).|
|Low||Very high||Moderate||No change||Low|
|Sublittoral populations are unlikely to experience rapid or extreme temperature changes due to natural events and may, therefore, be expected to be intolerant of acute temperature change. However, Mytilus edulis tolerates decreases in temperature and even freezing for short periods. Mytilus edulis was relatively little affected by the severe winter of 1962/63, with 30% mortality reported from south-east coasts of England (Whitstable area) and ca. 2% from Rhosilli in south Wales (Crisp (ed.),1964). Similarly, the barnacle Balanus crenatus, were unaffected by the severe winter of 1962/63 (Crisp, 1964). Most of the polychaetes characterizing the biotope have a wide distribution and are probably tolerant of low temperatures, especially when protected from temperature change by their infaunal habit. It appears, therefore, that most of the characterizing species within the biotope are tolerant of an acute short term temperature decrease and a biotope intolerance of low has been recorded. Recovery is likely to be rapid (see additional information below).|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not relevant||No change||Low|
|This biotope is an animal dominated community, dependant on secondary production and not dependant on light. Therefore, the biotope is probably not sensitive to changes in turbidity and light attenuation.|
|Tolerant||Not sensitive*||No change||Low|
|This biotope is an animal dominated community, dependant on secondary production and not dependant on light. Therefore, the biotope is probably not sensitive to changes in turbidity and light attenuation.|
|The intolerance of mussel beds probably owes more to the nature of the substratum than the strength of their attachment. Individuals attached to solid substrata (rock) are likely to be more tolerant than individuals attached to boulders, cobbles or sediment. Harger & Landenberger (1971) noted that, on gravel based substratum, small, single layered mussel beds suffered far less damage from storms that heavy, multi-layered beds. As mussel beds grow in size and thickness relatively fewer mussels are directly attached to the substratum, so that heavy seas can "roll up the whole mass of mud and mussels like a carpet and break it to pieces on the foreshore" (Harger & Landenberger, 1971). Storms and tidal surges are known to destroy mussel beds, often over hundreds of hectares in the Wash, Morecambe Bay and the Wadden Sea. Mussels beds persist in sheltered areas whereas beds in exposed areas are more dynamic (Holt et al., 1998). Although, subtidal beds are protected by depth, in the shallow sublittoral occupied by this biotope wave action may still be significant. An increase in wave action from sheltered to exposed (the benchmark) is likely to remove a large proportion of the bed, the remaining mussel mud and modify the average grain size of the sediment (from fine to coarse) resulting in major changes in the benthic infauna. Therefore an intolerance of high has been recorded. Recovery may take up to 5 years or longer once prior conditions return (see additional information below) and a recoverability of high has been recorded.|
|On wave sheltered sedimentary shores decreased wave exposure (i.e. sheltered to very sheltered) is likely to have little affect on mussel beds. Therefore, sheltered shore mussels beds are probably of low intolerance to decreased wave exposure, and may be less patchy and more stable (persistent). Reduced wave action will decrease water flow over the bed (see above) and may increase the risk of deoxygenation (see below).|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not relevant||No change||High|
|Mytilus edulis and most invertebrate species within the biotope are probably insensitive to noise disturbance at the levels of the benchmark.|
|Tolerant||Not relevant||Not relevant||No change||High|
|Mytilus edulis and most invertebrate species within the biotope are probably insensitive to visual disturbance at the levels of the benchmark.|
|Wave driven logs have been reported to influence Mytilus edulis populations, causing the removal of patches from extensive beds that subsequently open the beds to further damage by wave action (Holt et al., 1998). A similar effect could be caused by a vessel grounding.
Little information on physical disturbance in subtidal Mytilus spp. beds was found. Fishing activities, e.g. scallop dredging are know to physically disturb marine communities. Modiolus modiolus beds have been reported to have declined off the Isle of Man due to scallop dredging, presumably because the scallop dredging activity had damaged the edges of denser beds over time (Jones, 1951; Holt et al., 1998). Benthic trawls, where they occur, may affect Mytilus edulis beds similarly.|
Of the other species in the biotope, starfish, such as Asterias rubens, have been reported to be damaged by benthic dredges but have considerable regenerative capability, and, as scavengers, benefit from the presence of other damaged or killed animals (Emson & Wilkie, 1980; Gubbay & Knapman, 1999). Therefore, it is likely that abrasion or impact at the level of the benchmark (a scallop dredge) would damage or remove patches of the population and an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded. Recovery is dependant on recruitment of Mytilus edulis and a recoverability of high has been reported (see additional information below).
|Mytilus edulis is capable of re-attaching itself to suitable substrata once displaced. Dislodgement may result in increased risk of predation and some individuals may be lost if swept to unsuitable substrata. Overall, however, displacement will result in loss of mussels from this biotope. Displaced starfish are unlikely to be adversely affected and could probably return. Permanently attached species within the community such as barnacles, bryozoans and tubeworms are likely to be lost as a result of displacement. Overall, a proportion of the mussel bed would probably survive displacement and an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded. However, other members of the community are probably more intolerant, resulting in a decline in species richness until they are able to recolonize. Recovery is dependant on recruitment of Mytilus edulis and a recoverability of high has been reported (see additional information below).|
|The effects of contaminants on Mytilus edulis were extensively reviewed by Widdows & Donkin (1992) and Livingstone & Pipe (1992). Overall, Mytilus edulis is probably relatively tolerant of contaminants, although mortalities have been recorded (see species review for details). For example,|
Therefore, chemical contamination may cause mortalities and sub-lethal effects in the Mytilus edulis bed but affect other members of the community to varying degrees, and an overall intolerance of intermediate has been recorded.
Most members of the community will recolonize rapidly and a recoverability of high has been reported (see additional information below).
|Lethal threshold concentrations for several heavy metals have been determined in Mytilus edulis (see species review; Widdows & Donkin (1992) and Livingstone & Pipe (1992) for reviews). Mussels were also reported to be missing from a wider area of the Cumbrian coast than other organisms in the vicinity of a phosphate rich effluent contaminated by heavy metals (Holt et al., 1998). Widdows & Donkin (1992) noted that lethal responses give a false impression of high tolerance. However, Mytilus edulis is probably relatively tolerant of heavy metal contamination. Besten et al. (1989) suggested that cadmium (Cd) pollution posed a significant threat to populations of Asterias rubens since it affected reproduction.|
Cole et al. (1999) suggested that Pb, Zn, Ni and As were very toxic to algae, while Cd was very toxic to Crustacea (amphipods, isopods, shrimp, mysids and crabs), and Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni, and As were very toxic to fish. Gobies were reported to be particularly intolerant of Hg (see Pomatoschistus minutus). Bryan (1984) reported sublethal effects of heavy metals in crustaceans at low (ppb) levels. Bryan (1984) suggested that polychaetes are fairly resistant to heavy metals, based on the species studied. Short term toxicity in polychaetes was highest to Hg, Cu and Ag, declined with Al, Cr, Zn and Pb whereas Cd, Ni, Co and Se were the least toxic. However, he suggested that gastropods (e.g. limpets, Nucella lapillus and Buccinum undatum) were relatively tolerant of heavy metal pollution. Therefore, given the evidence of sub-lethal and lethal effects of heavy metals in Mytilus edulis a biotope intolerance of intermediate has been reported.
|The effects of contaminants on Mytilus edulis were extensively reviewed by Widdows & Donkin (1992) and Livingstone & Pipe (1992). Overall, Mytilus edulis is probably relatively tolerant of contaminants, although mortalities have been recorded (see species review for details). Sublittoral populations are protected from the immediate effects of oil spills by their depth. Therefore, hydrocarbon contamination in sublittoral populations is limited to exposure to lighter oil fractions and PAHs in solution, as droplets as a result of wave exposure or adsorbed onto particulates.|
Suchanek (1993) noted that gastropods, amphipods, infaunal polychaetes and bivalves were particularly sensitive to oil spills. For example, substantial kills of Nereis, Cerastoderma, Macoma, Arenicola and Hydrobia were reported after the Sivand oil spill in the Humber (Hailey, 1995). The toxicity of oil and petrochemicals to fish ranges from moderate to high (Cole et al., 1999). The mussel bed may benefit from a reduction in starfish, dog whelk and fish predation, however, the above evidence suggests that the associated community will be adversely affected by hydrocarbon contamination. Therefore a biotope intolerance of high has been recorded.
Recovery is probably dependant on Mytilus edulis recruitment and a recoverability of high has, therefore, been recorded (see additional information below).
|No information||Not relevant||No information||Insufficient
|Tolerant*||Not relevant||Not sensitive*||Minor decline||Low|
|Moderate nutrient enrichment, especially in the form of organic particulates and dissolved organic material, is likely to increase food availability for all the suspension feeders within the biotope. Therefore, 'not sensitive*' has been recorded. However, long term or high levels of organic enrichment may result in deoxygenation and algal blooms. Mytilus edulis has been reported to suffer mortalities due to algal blooms of Gyrodinium aureolum and Phaeocystis poucheri (Holt et al., 1998). Nucella lapillus has been shown to be severely affected by toxic algal blooms (see review; Robertson, 1991; Gibbs et al., 1999). Death of toxic and non-toxic algal blooms may result in large numbers of dead algal cells collecting on the sea bottom, resulting in local de-oxygenation as the algal decompose. Although, Mytilus edulis is probably tolerant of anoxic conditions other members of the community may be more intolerant (see oxygenation below).|
|Tolerant*||Not relevant||Not sensitive*||Rise||Low|
|Mytilus edulis is considered to be tolerant of a wide range of salinities. Many members of the community occur in the intertidal and estuaries, exposed to fluctuating salinities. An increase from reduced to full salinity is likely to result in a change in species composition, to include more fully marine species and increased species richness, while the mussel bed itself is likely to be little affected. Since the biotope is likely to be persist and species richness increase, not sensitive* has been recorded.|
|However, in the longer term (weeks) Mytilus edulis can acclimate to lower salinities (Almada-Villela, 1984; Seed & Suchanek, 1992; Holt et al., 1998). Almada-Villela (1984) reported that the growth rate of individuals exposed to only 13psu reduced to almost zero but had recovered to over 80% of control animals within one month. Mytilus edulis can survive a considerably reduced salinities, growing as dwarf individuals at 4-5 psu in the Baltic. Asterias rubens is thought to be intolerant of salinity change, although local adaptation can occur (Stickle & Diehl, 1987), and a sudden inflow of river water into an inshore coastal area caused mass mortality of the conspecific species Asterias vulgaris at Prince Edward Island, Canada (Smith, 1940, in Lawrence, 1995). Asterias rubens would probably be excluded from the biotope by a further reduction in salinity.|
Crothers (1985) noted that Nucella lapillus is usually absent from estuaries and although found in the Severn Estuary it is restricted to the lower shore up-channel from Minehead where they presumably avoid reduced salinities. Many of the infaunal species are probably tolerant of estuarine conditions, while other would be replaced by species, e.g. oligochaetes, tolerant of low salinities.
Overall, a reduction in salinity from variable to reduced is likely to reduce growth and productivity of the mussel beds but reduce predation pressure so that although species richness will be reduced, the biotope will probably remain. However, sudden acute changes in salinity from variable to low may result in loss of proportions of the mussel bed. Therefore, an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded. Recovery will probably be rapid (see additional information below).
|Mytilus edulis was regarded to be tolerant of a wide range of oxygen concentrations including zero (Zwaan de & Mathieu, 1992; Diaz & Rosenberg, 1995; see species review). Intolerance to hypoxia is variable. Echinoderms such as Asterias rubens are highly intolerant of anoxic conditions. Similarly, the barnacle Balanus crenatus was considered to be highly intolerant of anoxia (see review). Crustacea are probably intolerant of hypoxia but would be able to migrate to more suitable condition. However, most polychaetes are capable of anaerobic respiration and Capitella capitata, Hediste diversicolor and Scoloplos armiger were considered to be resistant of moderate hypoxia while Nephtys hombergii and Heteromastus filiformis were thought to be resistant of severe hypoxia (Diaz & Rosenberg, 1995). Therefore, Mytilus edulis is likely to tolerate hypoxic conditions. However, hypoxia is likely to cause species specific mortality and reduce species richness, an intolerance of intermediate. Recoverability of the associated species is likely to be rapid (see additional information below).|
|The diseases and parasites of Mytilus edulis were reviewed by Bower (1992) and Bower & McGladdery (1996) (see the species review).|
The boring sponge Cliona spp. has been reported from Modiolus modiolus beds and may affect subtidal Mytilus edulis beds. Similarly, subtidal beds may be affected by the boring polychaete Polydora ciliata. Both of the above boring species weaken the shell of the victim and makes them more vulnerable to predation. Polydora ciliata also causes blisters, atrophy of muscle tissue and interferes with gamete production and has resulted in substantial mortalities in European mussel populations. Asterias rubens may be parasitised by the ciliate Orchitophyra stellarum (Vevers, 1951; Bouland & Clareboudt, 1994) resulting in castration of males, and subsequent reduction in population size (Vevers, 1951). Nucella lapillus may also suffer form castration due to infestation with the larval stages of seabird trematode parasites.
None of the above were reported to cause high mortalities so that the biotope would probably persist. Therefore, an intolerance of low and a recoverability of very high has been recorded (see additional information below).
|No information||Not relevant||No information||Not relevant||Not relevant|
|Mytilus edulis is an effective space occupier and few other species are able to out-compete it for space. However, the South American mytilid Aulocomya ater has been reported recently in the Moray Firth, Scotland in 1994 and again in 1997 (McKay, 1994; Holt et al., 1998; Eno et al., 2000). Aulocomya ater is thought to have a stronger byssal attachment than Mytilus edulis and may replace Mytilus edulis in more exposed areas if it reproduces successfully (Holt et al., 1998). However, its potential effects in sheltered sedimentary habitats are unknown.|
|Large mussel beds in the intertidal and subtidal have been routinely fished for hundreds of years, and managed by local Sea Fishery Committees in England and Wales for the past hundred years (Holt et al., 1998).|
Subtidal mussel beds may be exploited by dredging. Holt et al., (1998) suggest that, in particular embayments, over-exploitation may reduce subsequent recruitment leading to long term reduction in the population or stock. The relationship between stock and recruitment is poorly understood. Loss of stock may have significant effects on other species, e.g. in the Dutch Wadden Sea in 1990 the mussel stocks fell to unprecedented low levels resulting in death or migration of eiders, and oystercatchers seeking alternative prey such as Cerastoderma edule, Mya arenaria, and Macoma baltica.
Extraction of Mytilus edulis is likely to remove much of the epifaunal and infaunal community, resulting in a decline in species richness. Overall, an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded at the benchmark level of extraction. However, recovery is likely to occur within 5 years and a recoverability of high has been recorded (see additional information below).
|Not relevant||Not relevant||Not relevant||Not relevant||Low|
|Habitats of Principal Importance||Blue mussel beds|
|Habitats of Conservation Importance||Blue mussel beds|
|Habitats Directive Annex 1||Reefs|
|UK Biodiversity Action Plan Priority||Blue mussel beds|
|Priority Marine Features (Scotland)||Blue mussel beds|
Buschbaum, C. & Saier, B., 2001. Growth of the mussel Mytilus edulis L. in the Wadden Sea affected by tidal emergence and barnacle epibionts. Journal of Sea Research, 45, 27-36
Cole, S., Codling, I.D., Parr, W., Zabel, T., 1999. Guidelines for managing water quality impacts within UK European marine sites [On-line]. UK Marine SACs Project. [Cited 26/01/16]. Available from: http://www.ukmarinesac.org.uk/pdfs/water_quality.pdf
Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 1996. A student's guide to the seashore. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Liddle, M.J., 1997. Recreational ecology. The ecological impact of outdoor recreation and ecotourism. London: Chapman & Hall.
Moore, P.G., 1977a. Inorganic particulate suspensions in the sea and their effects on marine animals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 15, 225-363.
Stickle, W.B. & Diehl, W.J., 1987. Effects of salinity on echinoderms. In Echinoderm Studies, Vol. 2 (ed. M. Jangoux & J.M. Lawrence), pp. 235-285. A.A. Balkema: Rotterdam.
Tsuchiya, M., 1983. Mass mortality in a population of the mussel Mytilus edulis L. Caused by high temperature on rocky shores. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 66: 101-11
This review can be cited as:
Last Updated: 30/11/2001