Biodiversity & Conservation

Habitats (Biotope) Information Pages

LR - Littoral rock (and other hard substrata)

LR.L - Lichens or algal crusts

LR.L.Chr - Chrysophyceae on vertical upper littoral fringe soft rock

LR.L.YG - Yellow and grey lichens on supralittoral rock

LR.ELR - Exposed littoral rock (mussel/barnacle shores)

LR.ELR.FR.Coff - Corallina officinalis on very exposed lower eulittoral rock

LR.ELR.FR.Fdis - Fucus distichus subsp. anceps and Fucus spiralis f. nana on extremely exposed upper eulittoral rock

LR.ELR.FR.Him - Himanthalia elongata and red seaweeds on exposed lower eulittoral rock

LR.ELR.MB.BPat.Fvesl - Barnacles, Patella spp. and Fucus vesiculosus f. linearis on exposed eulittoral rock

LR.ELR.MB.MytB - Mytilus edulis and barnacles on very exposed eulittoral rock

LR.MLR - Moderately exposed littoral rock (barnacle/fucoid shores)

LR.MLR.BF - Barnacles and fucoids (moderately exposed shores)

LR.MLR.BF.Fser.Fser.Bo - Fucus serratus and under-boulder fauna on lower eulittoral boulders

LR.MLR.Eph.Ent - Enteromorpha spp. on freshwater-influenced or unstable upper eulittoral rock

LR.MLR.Eph.Rho - Rhodothamniella floridula on sand-scoured lower eulittoral rock

LR.MLR.MF.MytFves - Mytilus edulis and Fucus vesiculosus on moderately exposed mid eulittoral rock

LR.MLR.MytPid - Mytilus edulis and piddocks on eulittoral firm clay

LR.MLR.R.RPid - Ceramium sp. and piddocks on eulittoral fossilised peat

LR.MLR.Sab.Salv - Sabellaria alveolata reefs on sand-abraded eulittoral rock

LR.SLR - Sheltered littoral rock (fucoid shores)

LR.SLR.F.Asc - Ascophyllum nodosum on very sheltered mid eulittoral rock

LR.SLR.F.Asc.T - Ascophyllum nodosum, sponges and ascidians on tide-swept mid eulittoral rock

LR.SLR.F.Fserr.T - Fucus serratus, sponges and ascidians on tide-swept lower eulittoral rock

LR.SLR.FX.AscX.mac - Ascophyllum nodosum ecad. mackaii beds on extremely sheltered mid eulittoral mixed substrata

LR.SLR.FX.FcerX - Fucus ceranoides on reduced salinity eulittoral mixed substrata

LR.SLR.FX.FserX.T - Fucus serratus with sponges, ascidians and red seaweeds on tide-swept lower eulittoral mixed substrata

LR.SLR.FX.FvesX - Fucus vesiculosus on mid eulittoral mixed substrata

LR.LR - Littoral rock (other)

LR.LR.Ov - Overhangs and caves

LR.LR.Ov.RhoCv - Rhodothamniella floridula in upper littoral fringe soft rock caves

LR.LR.Rkp.Cor - Corallina officinalis and coralline crusts in shallow eulittoral rockpools

LR.LR.Rkp.FK - Fucoids and kelps in deep eulittoral rockpools

LR.LR.Rkp.G - Green seaweeds (Enteromorpha spp. and Cladophora spp.) in upper shore rockpools

LR.LR.Rkp.H - Hydroids, ephemeral seaweeds and Littorina littorea in shallow eulittoral mixed substrata pools

LR.LR.Rkp.SwSed - Seaweeds in sediment (sand or gravel) floored eulittoral rockpools


LS - Littoral sediments

LS.LGS - Littoral gravels and sands

LS.LGS.S.BarSnd - Barren coarse sand shores

LS.LGS.S.Lan - Dense Lanice conchilega in tide-swept lower shore sand

LS.LGS.S.Tal - Talitrid amphipods in decomposing seaweed on the strand-line

LS.LGS.Sh.Pec - Pectenogammarus planicrurus in mid shore well-sorted gravel or coarse sand

LS.LMS - Littoral muddy sands

LS.LMS.MS - Muddy sand shores

LS.LMS.ZOS.Znol - Zostera noltii beds in upper to mid shore muddy sand

LS.LMU - Littoral muds

LS.LMU.SMu.HedMac - Hediste diversicolor and Macoma balthica in sandy mud shores

LS.LMU.Sm - Saltmarsh

LS.LMU.Sm.SM13 - Puccinellia maritima


IR - Infralittoral rock (and other hard substrata)

IR.EIR - Exposed infralittoral rock

IR.EIR.KFaR.Ala - Alaria esculenta on sublittoral fringe bedrock

IR.EIR.KFaR.FoR - Foliose red seaweeds on exposed or moderately exposed lower infralittoral rock

IR.EIR.KFaR.LhypFa - Laminaria hyperborea forest with a faunal cushion (sponges and polyclinids) and foliose red seaweeds on very exposed infralittoral rock

IR.EIR.KFaR.LhypR - Laminaria hyperborea with dense foliose red seaweeds on exposed infralittoral rock

IR.EIR.KFaR.LsacSac - Laminaria saccharina and/or Saccorhiza polyschides on exposed infralittoral rock

IR.MIR - Moderately exposed infralittoral rock

IR.MIR.GzK.LhypGz.Ft - Grazed Laminaria hyperborea forest with coralline crusts on upper infralittoral rock

IR.MIR.KR.Ldig.Ldig - Laminaria digitata on moderately exposed sublittoral fringe rock

IR.MIR.KR.Ldig.Pid - Laminaria digitata and piddocks on sublittoral fringe soft rock

IR.MIR.KR.Ldig.T - Laminaria digitata, ascidians and bryozoans on tide-swept sublittoral fringe rock

IR.MIR.SedK.HalXK - Halidrys siliquosa and mixed kelps on tide-swept infralittoral rock with coarse sediment

IR.MIR.SedK.LsacChoR - Laminaria saccharina, Chorda filum and dense red seaweeds on shallow unstable infralittoral boulders and cobbles

IR.MIR.SedK.PolAhn - Polyides rotundus, Ahnfeltia plicata and Chondrus crispus on sand-covered infralittoral rock

IR.MIR.SedK.SabKR - Sabellaria spinulosa with kelp and red seaweeds on sand-influenced infralittoral rock

IR.SIR - Sheltered infralittoral rock

IR.SIR.EstFa.CorEle - Cordylophora caspia and Electra crustulenta on reduced salinity infralittoral rock

IR.SIR.EstFa.HarCon - Hartlaubella gelatinosa and Conopeum reticulum on low salinity infralittoral mixed substrata

IR.SIR.EstFa.MytT - Mytilus edulis beds on reduced salinity tide-swept infralittoral rock

IR.SIR.K.Lsac.Pk - Laminaria saccharina park on very sheltered lower infralittoral rock

IR.SIR.K.LsacRS - Laminaria saccharina on reduced or low salinity infralittoral rock

IR.SIR.Lag.AscSAs - Ascophyllum nodosum with epiphytic sponges and ascidians on variable salinity infralittoral rock

IR.SIR.Lag.FChoG - Mixed fucoids, Chorda filum and green seaweeds on reduced salinity infralittoral rock

IR.SIR.Lag.PolFur - Polyides rotundus and/or Furcellaria lumbricalis on reduced salinity infralittoral rock


CR - Circalittoral rock (and other hard substrata)

CR.ECR - Exposed circalittoral rock

CR.ECR.BS.HbowEud - Halichondria bowerbanki, Eudendrium arbusculum and Eucratea loricata on reduced salinity tide-swept circalittoral mixed substrata

CR.ECR.EFa.PomByC - Pomatoceros triqueter, Balanus crenatus and bryozoan crusts on mobile circalittoral cobbles and pebbles

CR.MCR - Moderately exposed circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.As.MolPol.Sab - Dense ascidians, bryozoans and hydroids on a crust of Sabellaria spinulosa on tide-swept circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.ByH.Flu - Flustra foliacea and colonial ascidians on tide-swept moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.ByH.Urt - Urticina felina on sand-affected circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.M.ModT - Modiolus modiolus beds with hydroids and red seaweeds on tide-swept circalittoral mixed substrata

CR.MCR.M.Mus - Musculus discors beds on moderately exposed circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.M.MytHAs - Mytilus edulis beds with hydroids and ascidians on tide-swept moderately exposed circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.SfR.Pid - Piddocks with a sparse associated fauna in upward-facing circalittoral very soft chalk or clay

CR.MCR.SfR.Pol - Polydora sp. tubes on upward-facing circalittoral soft rock

CR.MCR.XFa.ErSEun - Erect sponges, Eunicella verrucosa and Pentapora foliacea on slightly tide-swept moderately exposed circalittoral rock

CR.SCR - Sheltered circalittoral rock

CR.SCR.BrAs.AntAsH - Antedon spp., solitary ascidians and fine hydroids on sheltered circalittoral rock

CR.SCR.BrAs.NeoPro - Neocrania anomala and Protanthea simplex on very sheltered circalittoral rock

CR.SCR.BrAs.SubSoAs - Suberites spp. and other sponges with solitary ascidians on very sheltered circalittoral rock

CR.C - Circalittoral rock (other)

CR.C.Cv - Caves and overhangs (deep)

CR.C.FaV.Bug - Bugula spp. and other bryozoans on vertical moderately exposed circalittoral rock


COR - Circalittoral offshore rock (and other hard substrata)

COR.COR - Circalittoral offshore rock

COR.COR.Lop - Lophelia reefs


SS - Sublittoral sediments

SS.SBR - Sublittoral biogenic reefs on sediment

SS.SBR.PoR.SspiMx - Sabellaria spinulosa on stable circalittoral mixed sediment

SS.IGS -

SS.IGS.EstGS.NeoGam - Neomysis integer and Gammarus spp. in low salinity infralittoral mobile sand

SS.IGS.FaG.HalEdw - Halcampa chrysanthellum and Edwardsia timida on sublittoral clean stone gravel

SS.IGS.FaS.FabMag - Fabulina fabula and Magelona mirabilis with venerid bivalves in infralittoral compacted fine sand

SS.IGS.FaS.Lcon - Dense Lanice conchilega and other polychaetes in tide-swept infralittoral sand

SS.IGS.FaS.NcirBat - Nephtys cirrosa and Bathyporeia spp. in infralittoral sand

SS.IGS.Mrl.Lgla - Lithothamnion glaciale maerl beds in tide-swept variable salinity infralittoral gravel

SS.IGS.Mrl.Phy.HEc - Phymatolithon calcareum maerl beds with hydroids and echinoderms in deeper infralittoral clean gravel or coarse sand

SS.CGS - Circalittoral gravels and sands

SS.CGS._.Ven - Venerid bivalves in circalittoral coarse sand or gravel

SS.IMS -

SS.IMS.FaMS.Cap - Capitella capitata in enriched sublittoral muddy sediments

SS.IMS.FaMS.EcorEns - Echinocardium cordatum and Ensis sp. in lower shore or shallow sublittoral muddy fine sand

SS.IMS.FaMS.MacAbr - Macoma balthica and Abra alba in infralittoral muddy sand or mud

SS.IMS.Sgr.Rup - Ruppia maritima in reduced salinity infralittoral muddy sand

SS.IMS.Sgr.Zmar - Zostera marina/angustifolia beds in lower shore or infralittoral clean or muddy sand

SS.CMS - Circalittoral muddy sands

SS.CMS._.AbrNucCor - Abra alba, Nucula nitida and Corbula gibba in circalittoral muddy sand or slightly mixed sediment

SS.CMS._.AfilEcor - Amphiura filiformis and Echinocardium cordatum in circalittoral clean or slightly muddy sand

SS.CMS._.Ser - Serpula vermicularis reefs on very sheltered circalittoral muddy sand

SS.CMS._.VirOph - Virgularia mirabilis and Ophiura spp. on circalittoral sandy or shelly mud

SS.IMU -

SS.IMU.Ang.A12 - Potamogeton pectinatus community

SS.IMU.Ang.S4 - Phragmites australis swamp and reed beds

SS.IMU.EstMu.AphTub - Aphelochaeta marioni and Tubificoides spp. in variable salinity infralittoral mud

SS.IMU.EstMu.CapTub - Capitella capitata and Tubificoides spp. in reduced salinity infralittoral muddy sediment

SS.IMU.EstMu.LimTtub - Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Tubifex tubifex and Gammarus spp. in low salinity infralittoral muddy sediment

SS.IMU.EstMu.PolVS - Polydora ciliata in variable salinity infralittoral firm mud or clay

SS.IMU.MarMu.AreSyn - Arenicola marina and synaptid holothurians in extremely shallow soft mud

SS.IMU.MarMu.Ocn - Ocnus planci aggregations on sheltered sublittoral muddy sediment

SS.IMU.MarMu.PhiVir - Philine aperta and Virgularia mirabilis in soft stable infralittoral mud

SS.IMU.MarMu.TubeAP - Semi-permanent tube-building amphipods and polychaetes in sublittoral mud or muddy sand

SS.CMU - Circalittoral muds

SS.CMU._.Beg - Beggiatoa spp. on anoxic sublittoral mud

SS.CMU._.BriAchi - Brissopsis lyrifera and Amphiura chiajei in circalittoral mud

SS.CMU._.SpMeg - Seapens and burrowing megafauna in circalittoral soft mud

SS.IMX -

SS.IMX.EstMx.CreAph - Crepidula fornicata and Aphelochaeta marioni in variable salinity infralittoral mixed sediment

SS.IMX.EstMx.MytV - Mytilus edulis beds in variable salinity infralittoral mixed sediment

SS.IMX.EstMx.PolMtru - Polydora ciliata, Mya truncata and solitary ascidians in variable salinity infralittoral mixed sediment

SS.IMX.FaMx.Lim - Limaria hians beds in tide-swept sublittoral muddy mixed sediment

SS.IMX.FaMx.VsenMtru - Venerupis senegalensis and Mya truncata in lower shore or infralittoral muddy gravel

SS.IMX.KSwMx.FiG - Filamentous green seaweeds on low salinity infralittoral mixed sediment or rock

SS.IMX.KSwMx.LsacX - Laminaria saccharina, Chorda filum and filamentous red seaweeds on sheltered infralittoral sediment

SS.IMX.Oy.Ost - Ostrea edulis beds on shallow sublittoral muddy sediment


COS - Circalittoral offshore sediments

COS.COS - Circalittoral offshore sediments

COS.COS.AmpPar - Ampharete falcata turf with Parvicardium ovale on cohesive muddy very fine sand near margins of deep stratified seas

COS.COS.ForThy - Foramaniferans and Thyasira sp. in deep circalittoral soft mud

COS.COS.Sty - Styela gelatinosa and other solitary ascidians on sheltered deep circalittoral muddy sediment