Biodiversity & Conservation

Habitats (Biotope) Information Pages

LR - Littoral rock (and other hard substrata)

LR.LLR - Low energy littoral rock

LR.LLR.F.Asc - Ascophyllum nodosum on very sheltered mid eulittoral rock

LR.LLR.F.Fves.X - Fucus vesiculosus on mid eulittoral mixed substrata

LR.LLR.FVS.Ascmac - Ascophyllum nodosum ecad mackaii beds on extremely sheltered mid eulittoral mixed substrata

LR.LLR.FVS.Fcer - Fucus ceranoides on reduced salinity eulittoral rock

LR.MLR - Moderate energy littoral rock

LR.MLR.BF - Barnacles and fucoids on moderately exposed shores

LR.MLR.BF.Fser.Bo - Fucus serratus and under-boulder fauna on exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral boulders

LR.MLR.BF.Rho - Rhodothamniella floridula on sand-scoured lower eulittoral rock

LR.MLR.MusF.MytFves - Mytilus edulis and Fucus vesiculosus on moderately exposed mid eulittoral rock

LR.MLR.MusF.MytPid - Mytilus edulis and piddocks on eulittoral firm clay

LR.FLR - Features of littoral rock

LR.FLR.CvOv - Littoral caves and overhangs

LR.FLR.CvOv.AudCla - Audouinella purpurea and Cladophora rupestris on upper to mid-shore cave walls

LR.FLR.CvOv.ChrHap - Chrysophyceae and Haptophyceae on vertical upper littoral fringe soft rock

LR.FLR.Eph.Ent - Enteromorpha spp. on freshwater-influenced and/or unstable upper eulittoral rock

LR.FLR.Lic.YG - Yellow and grey lichens on supralittoral rock

LR.FLR.Rkp.Cor - Coralline crust-dominated shallow eulittoral rockpools

LR.FLR.Rkp.FK - Fucoids and kelp in deep eulittoral rockpools

LR.FLR.Rkp.G - Green seaweeds (Enteromorpha spp. and Cladophora spp.) in shallow upper shore rockpools

LR.FLR.Rkp.H - Hydroids, ephemeral seaweeds and Littorina littorea in shallow eulittoral mixed substrata pools

LR.FLR.Rkp.SwSed - Seaweeds in sediment-floored eulittoral rockpools

LR.HLR - High energy littoral rock

LR.HLR.FR.Coff - Corallina officinalis on exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock

LR.HLR.FR.Fdis - Fucus distichus and Fucus spiralis f. nana on extremely exposed upper shore rock

LR.HLR.FR.Him - Himanthalia elongata and red seaweeds on exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock

LR.HLR.FR.RPid - Ceramium sp. and piddocks on eulittoral fossilised peat

LR.HLR.FT.AscT - Ascophyllum nodosum, sponges and ascidians on tide-swept mid eulittoral rock

LR.HLR.FT.FserT - Fucus serratus, sponges and ascidians on tide-swept lower eulittoral rock

LR.HLR.FT.FserTX - Fucus serratus with sponges, ascidians and red seaweeds on tide-swept lower eulittoral mixed substrata

LR.HLR.MusB.Cht - Chthamalus spp. on exposed eulittoral rock

LR.HLR.MusB.MytB - Mytilus edulis and barnacles on very exposed eulittoral rock

LR.HLR.MusB.Sem.LitX - Semibalanus balanoides and Littorina spp. on exposed to moderately exposed eulittoral boulders and cobbles


LS - Littoral sediment

LS.LCS - Littoral coarse sediment

LS.LCS.Sh.Pec - Pectenogammarus planicrurus in mid shore well-sorted gravel or coarse sand

LS.LMu - Littoral mud

LS.LMu.MEst.HedMac - Hediste diversicolor and Macoma balthica in littoral sandy mud

LS.LBR - Littoral biogenic reefs

LS.LBR.Sab.Salv - Sabellaria alveolata reefs on sand-abraded eulittoral rock

LS.LMp - Littoral macrophyte-dominated sediment

LS.LMp.LSgr.Znol - Zostera noltii beds in littoral muddy sand

LS.LMp.Sm - Saltmarsh

LS.LMp.Sm.SM13 - Puccinellia maritima salt-marsh community

LS.LSa - Littoral sand

LS.LSa.MoSa.AmSco.Eur - Eurydice pulchra in littoral mobile sand

LS.LSa.MoSa.BarSa - Barren littoral coarse sand

LS.LSa.MuSa - Polychaete / bivalve dominated muddy sand shores

LS.LSa.MuSa.Lan - Lanice conchilega in littoral sand

LS.LSa.St.Tal - Talitrids on the upper shore and strand-line


CR - Circalittoral rock (and other hard substrata)

CR.FCR - Features of circalittoral rock

CR.FCR.Cv - Circalittoral caves and overhangs

CR.HCR - High energy circalittoral rock

CR.HCR.XFa.ByErSp.Eun - Eunicella verrucosa and Pentapora foliacea on wave-exposed circalittoral rock

CR.HCR.XFa.FluCoAs - Flustra foliacea and colonial ascidians on tide-swept moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock

CR.HCR.XFa.Mol - Molgula manhattensis with a hydroid and bryozoan turf on tide-swept moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock

CR.LCR - Low energy circalittoral rock

CR.LCR.BrAs.AntAsH - Antedon spp., solitary ascidians and fine hydroids on sheltered circalittoral rock

CR.LCR.BrAs.NeoPro - Neocrania anomala and Protanthea simplex on sheltered circalittoral rock

CR.MCR - Moderate energy circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.CFaVS.HbowEud - Halichondria bowerbanki, Eudendrium arbusculum and Eucratea loricata on reduced salinity tide-swept circalittoral mixed substrata

CR.MCR.CMus.CMyt - Mytilus edulis beds with hydroids and ascidians on tide-swept exposed to moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.CMus.Mdis - Musculus discors beds on moderately exposed circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.CSab.Sspi.As - Sabellaria spinulosa, didemnids and other small ascidians on tide-swept moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.EcCr.CarSp.Bri - Brittlestars overlying coralline crusts, Parasmittina trispinosa and Caryophyllia smithii on wave-exposed circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.EcCr.FaAlCr.Pom - Faunal and algal crusts with Pomatoceros triqueter and sparse Alcyonium digitatum on exposed to moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.EcCr.UrtScr - Urticina felina and sand-tolerant fauna on sand-scoured or covered circalittoral rock

CR.MCR.SfR.Pid - Piddocks with a sparse associated fauna in sublittoral very soft chalk or clay

CR.MCR.SfR.Pol - Polydora sp. tubes on moderately exposed sublittoral soft rock


SS - Sublittoral sediment

SS.SBR - Sublittoral biogenic reefs on sediment

SS.SBR.Crl.Lop - Lophelia reefs

SS.SBR.PoR.Ser - Serpula vermicularis reefs on very sheltered circalittoral muddy sand

SS.SBR.PoR.SspiMx - Sabellaria spinulosa on stable circalittoral mixed sediment

SS.SBR.SMus.ModT - Modiolus modiolus beds with hydroids and red seaweeds on tide-swept circalittoral mixed substrata

SS.SBR.SMus.MytSS - Mytilus edulis beds on sublittoral sediment

SS.SCS - Sublittoral coarse sediment (unstable cobbles and pebbles, gravels and coarse sands)

SS.SCS.CCS.MedLumVen - Mediomastus fragilis, Lumbrineris spp. and venerid bivalves in circalittoral coarse sand or gravel

SS.SCS.CCS.PomB - Pomatoceros triqueter with barnacles and bryozoan crusts on unstable circalittoral cobbles and pebbles

SS.SCS.ICS.HchrEdw - Halcampa chrysanthellum and Edwardsia timida on sublittoral clean stone gravel

SS.SCS.ICS.MoeVen - Moerella spp. with venerid bivalves in infralittoral gravelly sand

SS.SCS.ICS.SLan - Dense Lanice conchilega and other polychaetes in tide-swept infralittoral sand and mixed gravelly sand

SS.SSa - Sublittoral sands and muddy sands

SS.SSa.CMuSa.AalbNuc - Abra alba and Nucula nitidosa in circalittoral muddy sand or slightly mixed sediment

SS.SSa.IFiSa.NcirBat - Nephtys cirrosa and Bathyporeia spp. in infralittoral sand

SS.SSa.IFiSa.TbAmPo - Semi-permanent tube-building amphipods and polychaetes in sublittoral sand

SS.SSa.IMuSa.EcorEns - Echinocardium cordatum and Ensis spp. in lower shore and shallow sublittoral slightly muddy fine sand

SS.SSa.IMuSa.FfabMag - Fabulina fabula and Magelona mirabilis with venerid bivalves and amphipods in infralittoral compacted fine muddy sand

SS.SSa.SSaVS.NintGam - Neomysis integer and Gammarus spp. in variable salinity infralittoral mobile sand

SS.SMx - Sublittoral mixed sediment

SS.SMx.CMx.ClloMx - Cerianthus lloydii and other burrowing anemones in circalittoral muddy mixed sediment

SS.SMx.IMx.Lim - Limaria hians beds in tide-swept sublittoral muddy mixed sediment

SS.SMx.IMx.Ost - Ostrea edulis beds on shallow sublittoral muddy mixed sediment

SS.SMx.IMx.VsenAsquAps - Venerupis senegalensis, Amphipholis squamata and Apseudes latreilli in infralittoral mixed sediment

SS.SMx.SMxVS.AphPol - Aphelochaeta spp. and Polydora spp. in variable salinity infralittoral mixed sediment

SS.SMx.SMxVS.CreMed - Crepidula fornicata and Mediomastus fragilis in variable salinity infralittoral mixed sediment

SS.SMp - Sublittoral macrophyte-dominated communities on sediments

SS.SMp.Ang.A12 - Potamogeton pectinatus community

SS.SMp.Ang.S4 - Phragmites australis swamp and reed beds

SS.SMp.KSwSS.FilG - Filamentous green seaweeds on low salinity infralittoral mixed sediment or rock

SS.SMp.KSwSS.LsacCho - Laminaria saccharina and Chorda filum on sheltered upper infralittoral muddy sediment

SS.SMp.Mrl.Lgla - Lithothamnion glaciale maerl beds in tide-swept variable salinity infralittoral gravel

SS.SMp.Mrl.Pcal.Nmix - Phymatolithon calcareum maerl beds with Neopentadactyla mixta and other echinoderms in deeper infralittoral clean gravel or coarse sand

SS.SMp.SSgr.Rup - Ruppia maritima in reduced salinity infralittoral muddy sand

SS.SMp.SSgr.Zmar - Zostera marina/angustifolia beds on lower shore or infralittoral clean or muddy sand

Extra: Dead maerl beds - Beds of dead maerl

SS.SMu - Sublittoral cohesive mud and sandy mud communities

SS.SMu.CFiMu.BlyrAchi - Brissopsis lyrifera and Amphiura chiajei in circalittoral mud

SS.SMu.CFiMu.SpnMeg - Seapens and burrowing megafauna in circalittoral fine mud

SS.SMu.CSaMu.AfilMysAnit - Amphiura filiformis, Mysella bidentata and Abra nitida in circalittoral sandy mud

SS.SMu.CSaMu.VirOphPmax - Virgularia mirabilis and Ophiura spp. with Pecten maximus on circalittoral sandy or shelly mud

SS.SMu.IFiMu.Are - Arenicola marina in infralittoral mud

SS.SMu.IFiMu.Beg - Beggiatoa spp. on anoxic sublittoral mud

SS.SMu.IFiMu.Ocn - Ocnus planci aggregations on sheltered sublittoral muddy sediment

SS.SMu.IFiMu.PhiVir - Philine aperta and Virgularia mirabilis in soft stable infralittoral mud

SS.SMu.ISaMu.Cap - Capitella capitata in enriched sublittoral muddy sediments

SS.SMu.ISaMu.NhomMac - Nephtys hombergii and Macoma balthica in infralittoral sandy mud

SS.SMu.OMu.AfalPova - Ampharete falcata turf with Parvicardium ovale on cohesive muddy sediment near margins of deep stratified seas

SS.SMu.OMu.ForThy - Foraminiferans and Thyasira sp. in deep circalittoral fine mud

SS.SMu.OMu.StyPse - Styela gelatinosa, Pseudamussium septemradiatum and solitary ascidians on sheltered deep circalittoral muddy sediment

SS.SMu.SMuVS.AphTubi - Aphelochaeta marioni and Tubificoides spp. in variable salinity infralittoral mud

SS.SMu.SMuVS.CapTubi - Capitella capitata and Tubificoides spp. in reduced salinity infralittoral muddy sediment

SS.SMu.SMuVS.LhofTtub - Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Tubifex tubifex and Gammarus spp. in low salinity infralittoral muddy sediment

SS.SMu.SMuVS.PolCvol - Polydora ciliata and Corophium volutator in variable salinity infralittoral firm mud or clay