Biodiversity & Conservation

Bugula spp. and other bryozoans on vertical moderately exposed circalittoral rock



Image Rohan Holt - Bugula spp. and other bryozoans on vertical moderately exposed circalittoral rock Image width ca XX m.
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Distribution map

CR.C.FaV.Bug recorded (dark blue bullet) and expected (light blue bullet) distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)

  • EC_Habitats

Text page icon Habitat description

Map icon Distribution of biotope in Britain and Ireland Recorded from only a few sites in the British Isles, including Orkney, Portland Harbour, Fowey estuary, the Lleyn Peninsula, Bardsey and west Anglesey. However, the biotope has been recorded as parts of other habitats and is probably, therefore, under recorded.
National importance Not available

Text page icon Description of biotope

For a full description of this biotope including characterizing species, distribution, survey information and references visit JNCC

Vertical rock faces in the circalittoral (often at same depth as lower infralittoral biotopes as well as deeper) with a dense turf of Bugula spp. and Scrupocellaria spp. and the sponges Tethya aurantium, Pachymatisma johnstonia, Hemimycale columella and occasionally Dercitus bucklandi in crevices are often present. Also patches of Nemertesia antennina and Crisia eburnea. Most surfaces also with a thin cover of Cryptopleura, Rhodophyllis 'spiky' and Plocamium. Some areas may have large patches of Clavelina and a few areas with Perophora, Polycarpa scuba and Ascidia mentula. Antedon bifida also occurs in crevices. Bugula turbinata tends to predominate in shallower records of this biotope, whereas deeper records have a mixture of at least three Bugula spp., dominated by Bugula plumosa. Many of the records with this biotope have been recorded as parts of other habitat records despite the clarity in which this biotope occupies vertical faces of almost any size in some parts of the country, particularly in Wales and further south in the Irish Sea. Softer rock faces bored by Hiatella arctica (IR.AlcByH.Hia) tend to be more species-rich, reflecting the large number of niches and holes inhabited by small cryptic species. (Information taken from the Marine Biotope Classification for Britain and Ireland, Version 97.06: Connor et al., 1997a, b).

Additional information icon Additional information

None entered.

This review can be cited as follows:

Tyler-Walters, H. 2002. Bugula spp. and other bryozoans on vertical moderately exposed circalittoral rock. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 27/11/2015]. Available from: <>