Biodiversity & Conservation

Philine aperta and Virgularia mirabilis in soft stable infralittoral mud

SS.IMU.MarMu.PhiVir


IMU.PhiVir

Image Rohan Holt - Dense Virgularia and Sagartiogeton. Image with ca XX cm.
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Distribution map

SS.IMU.MarMu.PhiVir recorded (dark blue bullet) and expected (light blue bullet) distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)


  • EC_Habitats

Habitat sensitivity

Physical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Substratum Loss High Moderate Moderate Major decline Low
Smothering Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Low
Increase in suspended sediment Low Very high Very low No change Low
Decrease in suspended sediment
Desiccation Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Increase in emergence regime Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Decrease in emergence regime Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Increase in water flow rate High High Moderate Minor decline Low
Decrease in water flow rate High Moderate Moderate Minor decline Low
Increase in temperature Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Low
Decrease in temperature
Increase in turbidity Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change Low
Decrease in turbidity
Increase in wave exposure Low Very high Very low Minor decline Low
Decrease in wave exposure
Noise Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change Low
Visual Presence Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change Low
Abrasion & physical disturbance Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Low
Displacement Low Very high Very low Minor decline Low

Chemical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Heavy metal contamination Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Hydrocarbon contamination Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Radionuclide contamination Insufficient information Not relevant Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Changes in nutrient levels Insufficient information Not relevant Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Increase in salinity High Moderate Moderate No change Low
Decrease in salinity
Changes in oxygenation Intermediate High Low Minor decline Low

Biological Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Not relevant Not relevant
Introduction of non-native species Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Extraction of this species Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Low
Extraction of other species Intermediate High Low No change Low

Species used to indicate biotope intolerance

Physical factors

Philine aperta
Important characterizing
Virgularia mirabilis
Important characterizing
Amphiura filiformis
Important other
Substratum LossHighHighHigh
SmotheringTolerantLowLow
Increase in suspended sedimentTolerantLowLow
Decrease in suspended sedimentTolerant
DesiccationNot relevantNot relevantLow
Increase in emergence regimeNot relevantNot relevantLow
Decrease in emergence regimeTolerant
Increase in water flow rateHighHighHigh
Decrease in water flow rateTolerant
Increase in temperatureLowIntermediateLow
Decrease in temperatureLow
Increase in turbidityTolerantTolerantLow
Decrease in turbidityTolerant
Increase in wave exposureHighHighHigh
Decrease in wave exposureNot relevant
NoiseTolerantLowLow
Visual PresenceTolerantTolerantTolerant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceIntermediateIntermediateLow
DisplacementTolerantLowLow

Chemical factors

Philine aperta
Important characterizing
Virgularia mirabilis
Important characterizing
Amphiura filiformis
Important other
Synthetic compound contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationHigh
Heavy metal contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationIntermediate
Hydrocarbon contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationHigh
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationLowInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsInsufficient informationLowTolerant*
Increase in salinityInsufficient informationHighNot relevant
Decrease in salinityHigh
Changes in oxygenationInsufficient informationHighLow

Biological factors

Philine aperta
Important characterizing
Virgularia mirabilis
Important characterizing
Amphiura filiformis
Important other
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Introduction of non-native speciesInsufficient informationTolerantNot relevant
Extraction of this speciesNot relevantIntermediateNot relevant
Extraction of other speciesTolerantTolerantTolerant

Species used to indicate biotope recoverability

Physical factors

Philine aperta
Important characterizing
Virgularia mirabilis
Important characterizing
Amphiura filiformis
Important other
Substratum LossHighModerateModerate
SmotheringNot relevantImmediateVery high
Increase in suspended sedimentNot relevantImmediateVery high
Decrease in suspended sedimentNot relevant
DesiccationNot relevantNot relevantVery high
Increase in emergence regimeNot relevantNot relevantVery high
Decrease in emergence regimeNot relevant
Increase in water flow rateHighModerateModerate
Decrease in water flow rateNot relevant
Increase in temperatureHighModerateHigh
Decrease in temperatureHigh
Increase in turbidityNot relevantNot relevantVery high
Decrease in turbidityNot relevant
Increase in wave exposureHighHighModerate
Decrease in wave exposureNot relevant
NoiseNot relevantImmediateImmediate
Visual PresenceNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceHighModerateVery high
DisplacementNot relevantImmediateImmediate

Chemical factors

Philine aperta
Important characterizing
Virgularia mirabilis
Important characterizing
Amphiura filiformis
Important other
Synthetic compound contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationModerate
Heavy metal contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationHigh
Hydrocarbon contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationModerate
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationHighInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsInsufficient informationHighHigh
Increase in salinityInsufficient informationModerateNot relevant
Decrease in salinityModerate
Changes in oxygenationInsufficient informationModerateVery high

Biological factors

Philine aperta
Important characterizing
Virgularia mirabilis
Important characterizing
Amphiura filiformis
Important other
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Introduction of non-native speciesInsufficient informationNot relevantNot relevant
Extraction of this speciesNot relevantHighNot relevant
Extraction of other speciesNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant

This review can be cited as follows:

Hill, J.M. & Wilson, E. 2005. Philine aperta and Virgularia mirabilis in soft stable infralittoral mud. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 01/08/2014]. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitatsensitivity.php?habitatid=202&code=1997>