Biodiversity & Conservation

Zostera marina/angustifolia beds in lower shore or infralittoral clean or muddy sand

SS.IMS.Sgr.Zmar


IMS.Zmar

Image Keith Hiscock - Current swept bed of Zostera marina. Image width ca 2 m in foreground.
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Distribution map

SS.IMS.Sgr.Zmar recorded (dark blue bullet) and expected (light blue bullet) distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)


  • Berne
  • EC_Habitats
  • UK_BAP
  • OSPAR

Habitat sensitivity

Physical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Substratum Loss High Very low / none Very High Major decline Moderate
Smothering High Very low / none Very High Major decline Moderate
Increase in suspended sediment Intermediate Moderate Moderate Decline Moderate
Decrease in suspended sediment
Desiccation Intermediate High Low Decline Low
Increase in emergence regime Intermediate High Low Minor decline Low
Decrease in emergence regime
Increase in water flow rate Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Low
Decrease in water flow rate
Increase in temperature Low Very high Very low Minor decline Low
Decrease in temperature
Increase in turbidity High Very low / none Very High Major decline Moderate
Decrease in turbidity
Increase in wave exposure High Very low / none Very High Major decline Low
Decrease in wave exposure
Noise Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Minor decline Very low
Visual Presence Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change Very low
Abrasion & physical disturbance Intermediate Moderate Moderate Decline Low
Displacement High Low High Major decline Low

Chemical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination Intermediate Moderate Moderate Decline Moderate
Heavy metal contamination Low High Low No change Low
Hydrocarbon contamination Intermediate High Low Decline Moderate
Radionuclide contamination Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Changes in nutrient levels High Very low / none Very High Major decline Moderate
Increase in salinity Low Very high Very low No change Moderate
Decrease in salinity
Changes in oxygenation Intermediate High Low Minor decline Low

Biological Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites High Very low / none Very High High
Introduction of non-native species Intermediate Low High Minor decline Low
Extraction of this species Intermediate Moderate Moderate Decline Low
Extraction of other species Intermediate Moderate Moderate Decline Low

Species used to indicate biotope intolerance

Physical factors

Zostera marina
Key structural
Lacuna vincta
Important structural
Hydrobia ulvae
Important structural
Substratum LossHighHighHigh
SmotheringHighIntermediateIntermediate
Increase in suspended sedimentIntermediateLowTolerant
Decrease in suspended sediment
DesiccationIntermediateIntermediateLow
Increase in emergence regimeIntermediateIntermediateLow
Decrease in emergence regime
Increase in water flow rateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediate
Decrease in water flow rate
Increase in temperatureTolerantIntermediateIntermediate
Decrease in temperature
Increase in turbidityHighLowTolerant
Decrease in turbidity
Increase in wave exposureHighIntermediateHigh
Decrease in wave exposure
NoiseTolerantTolerantTolerant
Visual PresenceTolerantTolerantTolerant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceIntermediateHighLow
DisplacementHighTolerantTolerant

Chemical factors

Zostera marina
Key structural
Lacuna vincta
Important structural
Hydrobia ulvae
Important structural
Synthetic compound contaminationIntermediateInsufficient informationLow
Heavy metal contaminationLowInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Hydrocarbon contaminationLowIntermediateIntermediate
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsHighTolerantLow
Increase in salinityLowTolerantTolerant
Decrease in salinity
Changes in oxygenationLowIntermediateIntermediate

Biological factors

Zostera marina
Key structural
Lacuna vincta
Important structural
Hydrobia ulvae
Important structural
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesHighInsufficient informationHigh
Introduction of non-native speciesIntermediateInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Extraction of this speciesIntermediateNot relevantNot relevant
Extraction of other speciesIntermediateIntermediateTolerant

Species used to indicate biotope recoverability

Physical factors

Zostera marina
Key structural
Lacuna vincta
Important structural
Hydrobia ulvae
Important structural
Substratum LossHighHigh
SmotheringHighVery high
Increase in suspended sedimentModerateImmediateNot relevant
Decrease in suspended sediment
DesiccationHighHighImmediate
Increase in emergence regimeHighHighImmediate
Decrease in emergence regime
Increase in water flow rateModerateHighVery high
Decrease in water flow rate
Increase in temperatureNot relevantHighImmediate
Decrease in temperature
Increase in turbidityVery highNot relevant
Decrease in turbidity
Increase in wave exposureHighHigh
Decrease in wave exposure
NoiseNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Visual PresenceNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceModerateHighVery high
DisplacementLowNot relevantNot relevant

Chemical factors

Zostera marina
Key structural
Lacuna vincta
Important structural
Hydrobia ulvae
Important structural
Synthetic compound contaminationModerateInsufficient informationImmediate
Heavy metal contaminationVery highInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Hydrocarbon contaminationVery highHighVery high
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsNot relevantImmediate
Increase in salinityVery highNot relevantNot relevant
Decrease in salinity
Changes in oxygenationVery highHighVery high

Biological factors

Zostera marina
Key structural
Lacuna vincta
Important structural
Hydrobia ulvae
Important structural
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesInsufficient informationHigh
Introduction of non-native speciesLowInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Extraction of this speciesModerateNot relevantNot relevant
Extraction of other speciesModerateHighNot relevant

This review can be cited as follows:

Tyler-Walters, H. & Wilding, C.M. 2008. Zostera marina/angustifolia beds in lower shore or infralittoral clean or muddy sand. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 31/10/2014]. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitatsensitivity.php?habitatid=257&code=1997>