Biodiversity & Conservation

Flustra foliacea and other hydroid/bryozoan turf species on slightly scoured circalittoral rock or mixed substrata


MCR.Flu

Image David Connor - Flustra foliacea and other hydroid/bryozoan turf species on slightly scoured circalittoral rock or mixed substrata. Image width ca 10 cm.
Image copyright information

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Distribution map

recorded (dark blue bullet) and expected (light blue bullet) distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)


  • EC_Habitats

Habitat sensitivity

Physical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Substratum Loss High High Moderate Major decline Moderate
Smothering Intermediate High Low Major decline Low
Increase in suspended sediment Low Very high Very low Minor decline Low
Decrease in suspended sediment Low Very high Very low Rise Low
Desiccation Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant High
Increase in emergence regime Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Decrease in emergence regime Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Increase in water flow rate High High Moderate Decline Low
Decrease in water flow rate High High Moderate Decline Low
Increase in temperature Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Minor decline Low
Decrease in temperature Low Very high Very low Minor decline Low
Increase in turbidity Low Very high Very low Minor decline Low
Decrease in turbidity Intermediate High Low Decline Low
Increase in wave exposure Intermediate High Low Minor decline Low
Decrease in wave exposure Low Very high Very low Minor decline Low
Noise Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant High
Visual Presence Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant High
Abrasion & physical disturbance Intermediate High Low Decline Moderate
Displacement High High Moderate Major decline Moderate

Chemical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination Intermediate High Low Decline Low
Heavy metal contamination Low Very high Very low Minor decline Very low
Hydrocarbon contamination Intermediate High Low Decline Very low
Radionuclide contamination Insufficient information Not relevant Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Changes in nutrient levels Low Very high Very low No change Low
Increase in salinity Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant High
Decrease in salinity Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Moderate
Changes in oxygenation Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Moderate

Biological Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites Low Very high Very low Moderate
Introduction of non-native species Insufficient information Not relevant Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Extraction of this species Intermediate High Low Minor decline Low
Extraction of other species Intermediate High Low Minor decline Low

Species used to indicate biotope intolerance

Physical factors

Flustra foliacea
Important characterizing
Bugula turbinata
Important characterizing
Nemertesia ramosa
Important characterizing
Alcyonium digitatum
Important other
Urticina felina
Important other
Echinus esculentus
Important functional
Molgula manhattensis
Important other
Substratum LossHighHighHighHighHighHighHigh
SmotheringTolerantHighIntermediateIntermediateLowIntermediateLow
Increase in suspended sedimentTolerant*IntermediateIntermediateLowLowLowLow
Decrease in suspended sedimentTolerantTolerant*Tolerant*Tolerant
DesiccationNot relevantHighHighNot relevantIntermediateIntermediateIntermediate
Increase in emergence regimeNot relevantIntermediateHighNot relevantIntermediateLowIntermediate
Decrease in emergence regimeNot relevantTolerant*Tolerant*Tolerant*
Increase in water flow rateTolerantIntermediateIntermediateTolerant*TolerantLowLow
Decrease in water flow rateIntermediateHighIntermediateIntermediateLow
Increase in temperatureTolerantTolerantInsufficient informationLowIntermediateIntermediateTolerant
Decrease in temperatureTolerantIntermediateLowIntermediateTolerant
Increase in turbidityTolerantLowTolerantLowTolerantLowTolerant
Decrease in turbidityTolerant*TolerantTolerantTolerant*
Increase in wave exposureIntermediateIntermediateHighTolerantTolerantLowIntermediate
Decrease in wave exposureIntermediateTolerant*IntermediateIntermediateTolerant*
NoiseTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerant
Visual PresenceTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantLowTolerant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateHigh
DisplacementHighHighHighHighLowLowHigh

Chemical factors

Flustra foliacea
Important characterizing
Bugula turbinata
Important characterizing
Nemertesia ramosa
Important characterizing
Alcyonium digitatum
Important other
Urticina felina
Important other
Echinus esculentus
Important functional
Molgula manhattensis
Important other
Synthetic compound contaminationHighHighInsufficient informationIntermediateIntermediateHighLow
Heavy metal contaminationLowLowInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationHighInsufficient information
Hydrocarbon contaminationInsufficient informationHighInsufficient informationLowLowHighInsufficient information
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsInsufficient informationLowInsufficient informationLowInsufficient informationTolerant*Insufficient information
Increase in salinityNot relevantNot relevantInsufficient informationIntermediateNot relevantIntermediateTolerant
Decrease in salinityHighIntermediateLowIntermediate
Changes in oxygenationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationHighIntermediateIntermediateLow

Biological factors

Flustra foliacea
Important characterizing
Bugula turbinata
Important characterizing
Nemertesia ramosa
Important characterizing
Alcyonium digitatum
Important other
Urticina felina
Important other
Echinus esculentus
Important functional
Molgula manhattensis
Important other
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesLowInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationIntermediateTolerant
Introduction of non-native speciesInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationNot relevantTolerant
Extraction of this speciesNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantHighIntermediateNot relevant
Extraction of other speciesHighNot relevantTolerantIntermediateTolerantIntermediateNot relevant

Species used to indicate biotope recoverability

Physical factors

Flustra foliacea
Important characterizing
Bugula turbinata
Important characterizing
Nemertesia ramosa
Important characterizing
Alcyonium digitatum
Important other
Urticina felina
Important other
Echinus esculentus
Important functional
Molgula manhattensis
Important other
Substratum LossHighHighModerateHighModerateHighVery high
SmotheringNot relevantHighVery highHighVery highHighVery high
Increase in suspended sedimentNot relevantVery highImmediateVery highVery highVery highImmediate
Decrease in suspended sedimentNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
DesiccationNot relevantHighModerateNot relevantModerateHighVery high
Increase in emergence regimeNot relevantVery highModerateNot relevantModerateVery highVery high
Decrease in emergence regimeNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Increase in water flow rateHighVery highHighNot relevantNot relevantVery highImmediate
Decrease in water flow rateHighVery highHighModerateImmediate
Increase in temperatureNot relevantNot relevantInsufficient informationHighHighHighNot relevant
Decrease in temperatureNot relevantVery highHighHighNot relevant
Increase in turbidityNot relevantImmediateNot relevantVery highNot relevantVery highNot relevant
Decrease in turbidityNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Increase in wave exposureHighVery highModerateNot relevantNot relevantVery highVery high
Decrease in wave exposureHighNot relevantHighHighNot relevant
NoiseNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Visual PresenceNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantImmediateNot relevant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceHighVery highHighHighModerateHighVery high
DisplacementHighHighModerateHighImmediateVery highVery high

Chemical factors

Flustra foliacea
Important characterizing
Bugula turbinata
Important characterizing
Nemertesia ramosa
Important characterizing
Alcyonium digitatum
Important other
Urticina felina
Important other
Echinus esculentus
Important functional
Molgula manhattensis
Important other
Synthetic compound contaminationHighHighInsufficient informationHighModerateHighImmediate
Heavy metal contaminationVery highImmediateInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationHighNot relevant
Hydrocarbon contaminationNot relevantHighInsufficient informationHighVery highHighNot relevant
Radionuclide contaminationNot relevantNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationNot relevant
Changes in nutrient levelsNot relevantImmediateInsufficient informationHighInsufficient informationNot relevantNot relevant
Increase in salinityNot relevantNot relevantInsufficient informationHighNot relevantHighNot relevant
Decrease in salinityHighVery highVery highVery high
Changes in oxygenationNot relevantNot relevantInsufficient informationHighHighHighImmediate

Biological factors

Flustra foliacea
Important characterizing
Bugula turbinata
Important characterizing
Nemertesia ramosa
Important characterizing
Alcyonium digitatum
Important other
Urticina felina
Important other
Echinus esculentus
Important functional
Molgula manhattensis
Important other
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesImmediateNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationHighNot relevant
Introduction of non-native speciesNot relevantNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationNot relevantNot relevant
Extraction of this speciesNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantModerateHighNot relevant
Extraction of other speciesHighNot relevantNot relevantHighNot relevantHighNot relevant

This review can be cited as follows:

Tyler-Walters, H. 2002. Flustra foliacea and other hydroid/bryozoan turf species on slightly scoured circalittoral rock or mixed substrata. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 23/11/2014]. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitatsensitivity.php?habitatid=267&code=1997>