Biodiversity & Conservation

Laminaria digitata on moderately exposed sublittoral fringe rock

IR.MIR.KR.Ldig.Ldig


MIR.Ldig.Ldig

Image Keith Hiscock - Kelp forest exposed at low tide with rocky shore in background. Image width ca 3 m (foreground).
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Distribution map

IR.MIR.KR.Ldig.Ldig recorded (dark blue bullet) and expected (light blue bullet) distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)


  • EC_Habitats

Habitat sensitivity

Physical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Substratum Loss High High Moderate Major decline High
Smothering Intermediate High Low Decline High
Increase in suspended sediment Low High Low Minor decline Moderate
Decrease in suspended sediment
Desiccation Intermediate High Low Minor decline High
Increase in emergence regime Intermediate High Low Minor decline Moderate
Decrease in emergence regime
Increase in water flow rate Low High Low No change Moderate
Decrease in water flow rate
Increase in temperature Intermediate High Low Minor decline Moderate
Decrease in temperature
Increase in turbidity Intermediate High Low Decline Moderate
Decrease in turbidity
Increase in wave exposure Low High Low No change Moderate
Decrease in wave exposure
Noise Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant Not relevant
Visual Presence Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant Not relevant
Abrasion & physical disturbance Intermediate High Low Decline Moderate
Displacement High High Moderate Major decline High

Chemical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination High High Moderate Major decline Moderate
Heavy metal contamination Intermediate High Low Minor decline Low
Hydrocarbon contamination Intermediate High Low Major decline Moderate
Radionuclide contamination Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Not relevant Not relevant
Changes in nutrient levels Intermediate High Low Decline High
Increase in salinity Intermediate High Low Decline High
Decrease in salinity
Changes in oxygenation Low High Low Decline Moderate

Biological Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites Low High Low Moderate
Introduction of non-native species Low High Low Minor decline Moderate
Extraction of this species Intermediate High Low Decline Moderate
Extraction of other species Low High Low No change Moderate

Species used to indicate biotope intolerance

Physical factors

Laminaria digitata
Key structural
Lithophyllum incrustans
Key structural
Palmaria palmata
Important characterizing
Patella vulgata
Important functional
Substratum LossHighHighHighHigh
SmotheringIntermediateLowIntermediateHigh
Increase in suspended sedimentIntermediateLowLowLow
Decrease in suspended sedimentTolerant*Tolerant*Low
DesiccationIntermediateHighIntermediateLow
Increase in emergence regimeIntermediateHighIntermediateLow
Decrease in emergence regimeTolerant*Tolerant
Increase in water flow rateLowLowIntermediateLow
Decrease in water flow rateIntermediateLow
Increase in temperatureIntermediateTolerantIntermediateLow
Decrease in temperatureIntermediateTolerant
Increase in turbidityIntermediateLowLowLow
Decrease in turbidityTolerant*Tolerant*
Increase in wave exposureLowTolerantIntermediateLow
Decrease in wave exposureLow
NoiseTolerantTolerantNot relevantLow
Visual PresenceTolerantTolerantNot relevantTolerant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateLow
DisplacementHighLowHighIntermediate

Chemical factors

Laminaria digitata
Key structural
Lithophyllum incrustans
Key structural
Palmaria palmata
Important characterizing
Patella vulgata
Important functional
Synthetic compound contaminationIntermediateHighHighHigh
Heavy metal contaminationIntermediateInsufficient informationIntermediateIntermediate
Hydrocarbon contaminationLowHighHighHigh
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsLowLowIntermediateLow
Increase in salinityNot relevantInsufficient informationIntermediateLow
Decrease in salinityIntermediateIntermediate
Changes in oxygenationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationLowIntermediate

Biological factors

Laminaria digitata
Key structural
Lithophyllum incrustans
Key structural
Palmaria palmata
Important characterizing
Patella vulgata
Important functional
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesLowInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Introduction of non-native speciesLowInsufficient informationNot relevantNot relevant
Extraction of this speciesIntermediateNot relevantIntermediateIntermediate
Extraction of other speciesIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateLow

Species used to indicate biotope recoverability

Physical factors

Laminaria digitata
Key structural
Lithophyllum incrustans
Key structural
Palmaria palmata
Important characterizing
Patella vulgata
Important functional
Substratum LossHighLowHighHigh
SmotheringHighVery highHighHigh
Increase in suspended sedimentHighVery highHighHigh
Decrease in suspended sedimentNot relevantNot relevantHigh
DesiccationHighLowHighHigh
Increase in emergence regimeHighLowHighHigh
Decrease in emergence regimeNot relevantNot relevant
Increase in water flow rateHighVery highHighHigh
Decrease in water flow rateHighVery high
Increase in temperatureHighNot relevantHighHigh
Decrease in temperatureHighNot relevant
Increase in turbidityHighVery highVery highVery high
Decrease in turbidityNot relevantNot relevant
Increase in wave exposureHighNot relevantHighHigh
Decrease in wave exposureImmediate
NoiseNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantHigh
Visual PresenceNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceHighHighHighVery high
DisplacementHighVery highHighHigh

Chemical factors

Laminaria digitata
Key structural
Lithophyllum incrustans
Key structural
Palmaria palmata
Important characterizing
Patella vulgata
Important functional
Synthetic compound contaminationHighLowHighHigh
Heavy metal contaminationHighNot relevantHighHigh
Hydrocarbon contaminationHighHighHighHigh
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsHighHighHighHigh
Increase in salinityNoneNot relevantHighHigh
Decrease in salinityVery highHigh
Changes in oxygenationInsufficient informationNot relevantImmediateHigh

Biological factors

Laminaria digitata
Key structural
Lithophyllum incrustans
Key structural
Palmaria palmata
Important characterizing
Patella vulgata
Important functional
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesHighNot relevantNot relevantInsufficient information
Introduction of non-native speciesInsufficient informationNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Extraction of this speciesHighNot relevantHighHigh
Extraction of other speciesHighHighHighHigh

This review can be cited as follows:

Hill, J.M. 2000. Laminaria digitata on moderately exposed sublittoral fringe rock. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 02/10/2014]. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitatsensitivity.php?habitatid=297&code=1997>