Biodiversity & Conservation

Zostera noltii beds in upper to mid shore muddy sand

LS.LMS.ZOS.Znol


LMS.Znol

Image Mark Davies - A bed of Zostera noltii with Hydrobia ulvae visible on the mud surface. Image width ca 40 cm.
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Distribution map

LS.LMS.ZOS.Znol recorded (dark blue bullet) and expected (light blue bullet) distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)


  • EC_Habitats
  • UK_BAP
  • OSPAR

Habitat sensitivity

Physical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Substratum Loss High Low High Major decline High
Smothering High Low High Major decline Moderate
Increase in suspended sediment Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline High
Decrease in suspended sediment
Desiccation Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Moderate
Increase in emergence regime Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Low
Decrease in emergence regime Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Moderate
Increase in water flow rate Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Low
Decrease in water flow rate Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Moderate
Increase in temperature Low Very high Very low No change Moderate
Decrease in temperature Low Very high Very low No change Moderate
Increase in turbidity Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Moderate
Decrease in turbidity Tolerant* High Not sensitive* No change Low
Increase in wave exposure High Very low / none Very High Major decline Low
Decrease in wave exposure Low High Low Rise Low
Noise Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant Moderate
Visual Presence Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant Moderate
Abrasion & physical disturbance Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Moderate
Displacement High Very low / none Very High Major decline Moderate

Chemical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Low
Heavy metal contamination Intermediate High Low Minor decline Moderate
Hydrocarbon contamination Intermediate Moderate Moderate Minor decline Moderate
Radionuclide contamination Insufficient information Not relevant Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Changes in nutrient levels High Very low / none Very High Major decline High
Increase in salinity Low Very high Very low No change Moderate
Decrease in salinity
Changes in oxygenation Intermediate High Low Minor decline Low

Biological Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites Intermediate Moderate Moderate High
Introduction of non-native species Intermediate Low High Minor decline Low
Extraction of this species High Very low / none Very High Minor decline Moderate
Extraction of other species High Very low / none Very High Major decline High

Species used to indicate biotope intolerance

Physical factors

Zostera noltii
Key structural
Hydrobia ulvae
Important functional
Littorina littorea
Important functional
Cerastoderma edule
Important other
Arenicola marina
Important other
Substratum LossHighHighHighHighHigh
SmotheringHighIntermediateHighIntermediateTolerant
Increase in suspended sedimentIntermediateTolerantIntermediateLowLow
Decrease in suspended sediment
DesiccationLowLowLowIntermediateNot relevant
Increase in emergence regimeIntermediateLowLowIntermediateIntermediate
Decrease in emergence regime
Increase in water flow rateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediate
Decrease in water flow rate
Increase in temperatureTolerantIntermediateLowIntermediateIntermediate
Decrease in temperature
Increase in turbidityIntermediateTolerantLowTolerantLow
Decrease in turbidity
Increase in wave exposureHighHighIntermediateIntermediateIntermediate
Decrease in wave exposure
NoiseTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerant
Visual PresenceTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceIntermediateLowIntermediateIntermediateIntermediate
DisplacementIntermediateTolerantTolerantLowLow

Chemical factors

Zostera noltii
Key structural
Hydrobia ulvae
Important functional
Littorina littorea
Important functional
Cerastoderma edule
Important other
Arenicola marina
Important other
Synthetic compound contaminationIntermediateLowLowIntermediateHigh
Heavy metal contaminationLowInsufficient informationIntermediateIntermediateLow
Hydrocarbon contaminationHighIntermediateHighIntermediateIntermediate
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsIntermediateLowTolerantIntermediateIntermediate
Increase in salinityLowTolerantTolerantLowLow
Decrease in salinity
Changes in oxygenationLowIntermediateLowHighLow

Biological factors

Zostera noltii
Key structural
Hydrobia ulvae
Important functional
Littorina littorea
Important functional
Cerastoderma edule
Important other
Arenicola marina
Important other
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesIntermediateHighInsufficient informationIntermediateInsufficient information
Introduction of non-native speciesIntermediateInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Extraction of this speciesIntermediateNot relevantIntermediateIntermediateIntermediate
Extraction of other speciesHighTolerantTolerantHighIntermediate

Species used to indicate biotope recoverability

Physical factors

Zostera noltii
Key structural
Hydrobia ulvae
Important functional
Littorina littorea
Important functional
Cerastoderma edule
Important other
Arenicola marina
Important other
Substratum LossLowHighHighHighHigh
SmotheringLowVery highHighHighNot relevant
Increase in suspended sedimentHighNot relevantHighImmediateImmediate
Decrease in suspended sediment
DesiccationVery highImmediateImmediateHighNot relevant
Increase in emergence regimeHighImmediateImmediateHighVery high
Decrease in emergence regime
Increase in water flow rateHighVery highHighHighVery high
Decrease in water flow rate
Increase in temperatureNot relevantImmediateImmediateHighVery high
Decrease in temperature
Increase in turbidityHighNot relevantVery highNot relevantImmediate
Decrease in turbidity
Increase in wave exposureLowHighHighHighVery high
Decrease in wave exposure
NoiseNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Visual PresenceNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceHighVery highHighHighVery high
DisplacementHighNot relevantNot relevantHighImmediate

Chemical factors

Zostera noltii
Key structural
Hydrobia ulvae
Important functional
Littorina littorea
Important functional
Cerastoderma edule
Important other
Arenicola marina
Important other
Synthetic compound contaminationHighImmediateVery highHighHigh
Heavy metal contaminationVery highInsufficient informationHighHighVery high
Hydrocarbon contaminationHighVery highHighHighHigh
Radionuclide contaminationNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationNot relevant
Changes in nutrient levelsHighImmediateNot relevantHighHigh
Increase in salinityVery highNot relevantNot relevantVery highImmediate
Decrease in salinity
Changes in oxygenationVery highVery highVery highHighImmediate

Biological factors

Zostera noltii
Key structural
Hydrobia ulvae
Important functional
Littorina littorea
Important functional
Cerastoderma edule
Important other
Arenicola marina
Important other
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesVery highHighInsufficient informationHighNot relevant
Introduction of non-native speciesLowInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationNot relevant
Extraction of this speciesHighNot relevantHighHighVery high
Extraction of other speciesLowNot relevantNot relevantHighVery high

This review can be cited as follows:

Tyler-Walters, H. & Wilding, C.M. 2008. Zostera noltii beds in upper to mid shore muddy sand. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 01/09/2014]. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitatsensitivity.php?habitatid=318&code=1997>