Biodiversity & Conservation

Grazed Laminaria hyperborea with coralline crusts on infralittoral rock

IR.MIR.GzK.LhypGz.Ft


MIR.LhypGz

Image Keith Hiscock - Grazed Laminaria hyperborea forest with coralline crusts on upper infralittoral rock (MIR.LhypGz.Ft). Image width ca 2 m.
Image copyright information

Distribution map

IR.MIR.GzK.LhypGz.Ft recorded (dark blue bullet) and expected (light blue bullet) distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)


  • EC_Habitats

Habitat sensitivity

Physical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Substratum Loss High Moderate Moderate Major decline High
Smothering Intermediate High Low Decline Moderate
Increase in suspended sediment Intermediate High Low Minor decline Moderate
Decrease in suspended sediment Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change Moderate
Desiccation Intermediate High Low Decline Moderate
Increase in emergence regime High Moderate Moderate Decline Moderate
Decrease in emergence regime Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Moderate
Increase in water flow rate High High Moderate Rise Moderate
Decrease in water flow rate Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant No change High
Increase in temperature Low Very high Very low No change Low
Decrease in temperature Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change Moderate
Increase in turbidity Low Very high Very low No change Moderate
Decrease in turbidity Tolerant* Not relevant Not sensitive* No change Moderate
Increase in wave exposure High High Moderate Rise Moderate
Decrease in wave exposure High High Moderate Minor decline Low
Noise Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant Moderate
Visual Presence Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant Moderate
Abrasion & physical disturbance Intermediate High Low Minor decline Moderate
Displacement High Moderate Moderate Major decline Low

Chemical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination High High Moderate Decline Very low
Heavy metal contamination Low Immediate Not sensitive No change Low
Hydrocarbon contamination Intermediate High Low Minor decline Moderate
Radionuclide contamination Insufficient information Not relevant Insufficient information Not relevant Moderate
Changes in nutrient levels Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant Low
Increase in salinity Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant High
Decrease in salinity High Moderate Moderate Decline Moderate
Changes in oxygenation Intermediate High Low Decline Low

Biological Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites Low Very high Very low Moderate
Introduction of non-native species Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Moderate
Extraction of this species High Moderate Moderate Major decline High
Extraction of other species Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant

Species used to indicate biotope intolerance

Physical factors

Laminaria hyperborea
Key structural
Echinus esculentus
Key functional
Delesseria sanguinea
Important characterizing
Lithophyllum incrustans
Important characterizing
Urticina felina
Important other
Alcyonium digitatum
Important other
Antedon bifida
Important other
Substratum LossHighHighHighHighHighHighHigh
SmotheringLowIntermediateIntermediateLowLowIntermediateHigh
Increase in suspended sedimentLowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Decrease in suspended sedimentTolerant*Tolerant*Low
DesiccationHighIntermediateHighHighIntermediateNot relevantHigh
Increase in emergence regimeHighLowIntermediateHighIntermediateNot relevantHigh
Decrease in emergence regimeTolerantTolerant*Tolerant
Increase in water flow rateHighLowIntermediateLowTolerantTolerant*High
Decrease in water flow rateLowIntermediateIntermediateHigh
Increase in temperatureHighIntermediateLowTolerantIntermediateLowIntermediate
Decrease in temperatureTolerantIntermediateLowInsufficient information
Increase in turbidityIntermediateLowTolerantLowTolerantLowLow
Decrease in turbidityTolerant*TolerantTolerant*
Increase in wave exposureHighLowTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantHigh
Decrease in wave exposureLowIntermediateIntermediateTolerant
NoiseTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerant
Visual PresenceTolerantLowTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateHigh
DisplacementHighLowHighLowLowHighLow

Chemical factors

Laminaria hyperborea
Key structural
Echinus esculentus
Key functional
Delesseria sanguinea
Important characterizing
Lithophyllum incrustans
Important characterizing
Urticina felina
Important other
Alcyonium digitatum
Important other
Antedon bifida
Important other
Synthetic compound contaminationLowHighHighHighIntermediateIntermediateHigh
Heavy metal contaminationIntermediateHighLowInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationIntermediate
Hydrocarbon contaminationLowHighHighHighLowLowHigh
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsIntermediateTolerant*LowLowInsufficient informationLowInsufficient information
Increase in salinityIntermediateIntermediateLowInsufficient informationNot relevantIntermediateHigh
Decrease in salinityIntermediateLowHigh
Changes in oxygenationInsufficient informationIntermediateHighInsufficient informationIntermediateHighIntermediate

Biological factors

Laminaria hyperborea
Key structural
Echinus esculentus
Key functional
Delesseria sanguinea
Important characterizing
Lithophyllum incrustans
Important characterizing
Urticina felina
Important other
Alcyonium digitatum
Important other
Antedon bifida
Important other
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesLowIntermediateInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationLow
Introduction of non-native speciesInsufficient informationNot relevantNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationTolerant
Extraction of this speciesIntermediateIntermediateNot relevantNot relevantHighNot relevantIntermediate
Extraction of other speciesIntermediateIntermediateTolerant*IntermediateTolerantIntermediateTolerant

Species used to indicate biotope recoverability

Physical factors

Laminaria hyperborea
Key structural
Echinus esculentus
Key functional
Delesseria sanguinea
Important characterizing
Lithophyllum incrustans
Important characterizing
Urticina felina
Important other
Alcyonium digitatum
Important other
Antedon bifida
Important other
Substratum LossModerateHighHighLowModerateHighHigh
SmotheringImmediateHighHighVery highVery highHighHigh
Increase in suspended sedimentImmediateVery highImmediateVery highVery highVery highImmediate
Decrease in suspended sedimentNot relevantNot relevantVery high
DesiccationModerateHighHighLowModerateNot relevantHigh
Increase in emergence regimeModerateVery highHighLowModerateNot relevantHigh
Decrease in emergence regimeNot relevantNot relevantHigh
Increase in water flow rateModerateVery highHighVery highNot relevantNot relevantHigh
Decrease in water flow rateVery highModerateHighHigh
Increase in temperatureModerateHighImmediateNot relevantHighHighHigh
Decrease in temperatureNot relevantHighHighInsufficient information
Increase in turbidityModerateVery highNot relevantVery highNot relevantVery highVery high
Decrease in turbidityNot relevantNot relevantVery high
Increase in wave exposureModerateVery highNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantHigh
Decrease in wave exposureImmediateHighHighNot relevant
NoiseNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Visual PresenceNot relevantImmediateNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceModerateHighHighHighModerateHighHigh
DisplacementModerateVery highHighVery highImmediateHighImmediate

Chemical factors

Laminaria hyperborea
Key structural
Echinus esculentus
Key functional
Delesseria sanguinea
Important characterizing
Lithophyllum incrustans
Important characterizing
Urticina felina
Important other
Alcyonium digitatum
Important other
Antedon bifida
Important other
Synthetic compound contaminationImmediateHighHighLowModerateHighHigh
Heavy metal contaminationImmediateHighVery highNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient informationHigh
Hydrocarbon contaminationImmediateHighHighHighVery highHighHigh
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationNot relevantNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsModerateNot relevantImmediateHighInsufficient informationHighInsufficient information
Increase in salinityModerateHighImmediateNot relevantNot relevantHighHigh
Decrease in salinityHighVery highHigh
Changes in oxygenationNot relevantHighHighNot relevantHighHighHigh

Biological factors

Laminaria hyperborea
Key structural
Echinus esculentus
Key functional
Delesseria sanguinea
Important characterizing
Lithophyllum incrustans
Important characterizing
Urticina felina
Important other
Alcyonium digitatum
Important other
Antedon bifida
Important other
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesImmediateHighInsufficient informationNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient informationHigh
Introduction of non-native speciesNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient informationNot relevant
Extraction of this speciesModerateHighNot relevantNot relevantModerateNot relevantHigh
Extraction of other speciesModerateHighNot relevantHighNot relevantHighNot relevant

This review can be cited as follows:

Hiscock, K. 2002. Grazed Laminaria hyperborea with coralline crusts on infralittoral rock. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 22/09/2014]. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitatsensitivity.php?habitatid=333&code=1997>