Biodiversity & Conservation

Barnacles and Littorina littorea on unstable eulittoral mixed substrata

LR.HLR.MusB.Sem.LitX


SLR.Bllit

Image Paul Brazier - Boulder shore backed by low cliffs (SLR.Bllit) Image width ca 1m in foreground.
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Distribution map

LR.HLR.MusB.Sem.LitX recorded (dark blue bullet) and expected (light blue bullet) distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)


  • EC_Habitats
  • UK_BAP

Habitat sensitivity

Physical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Substratum Loss High High Moderate Major decline High
Smothering High High Moderate Minor decline Moderate
Increase in suspended sediment Low Immediate Not sensitive No change High
Decrease in suspended sediment Low Immediate Not sensitive No change High
Desiccation Low High Low No change Moderate
Increase in emergence regime Low High Low No change Moderate
Decrease in emergence regime Low High Low No change Moderate
Increase in water flow rate Intermediate Very high Low Minor decline Moderate
Decrease in water flow rate Low Very high Very low Minor decline Moderate
Increase in temperature Low Very high Very low No change High
Decrease in temperature Low Very high Very low No change High
Increase in turbidity Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change High
Decrease in turbidity Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change High
Increase in wave exposure Intermediate High Low Minor decline High
Decrease in wave exposure Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant No change High
Noise Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change High
Visual Presence Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change High
Abrasion & physical disturbance Intermediate High Low Minor decline Moderate
Displacement High High Moderate Decline High

Chemical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination Intermediate High Low Decline Moderate
Heavy metal contamination Low Very high Very low No change Moderate
Hydrocarbon contamination High Moderate Moderate Decline High
Radionuclide contamination Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Changes in nutrient levels Low Very high Very low No change Moderate
Increase in salinity Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Decrease in salinity Low Very high Very low No change High
Changes in oxygenation Low Immediate Not sensitive No change High

Biological Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites Low High Low Moderate
Introduction of non-native species Low High Low No change Moderate
Extraction of this species Intermediate High Low Decline Moderate
Extraction of other species High High Moderate Decline High

Species used to indicate biotope intolerance

Physical factors

Littorina littorea
Key functional
Semibalanus balanoides
Important characterizing
Patella vulgata
Key functional
Substratum LossHighHighHigh
SmotheringHighIntermediateHigh
Increase in suspended sedimentIntermediateLowLow
Decrease in suspended sedimentLow
DesiccationLowIntermediateLow
Increase in emergence regimeLowHighLow
Decrease in emergence regime
Increase in water flow rateIntermediateLowLow
Decrease in water flow rate
Increase in temperatureLowIntermediateLow
Decrease in temperature
Increase in turbidityLowLowLow
Decrease in turbidity
Increase in wave exposureIntermediateLowLow
Decrease in wave exposure
NoiseTolerantTolerantLow
Visual PresenceTolerantTolerantTolerant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceIntermediateIntermediateLow
DisplacementTolerantHighIntermediate

Chemical factors

Littorina littorea
Key functional
Semibalanus balanoides
Important characterizing
Patella vulgata
Key functional
Synthetic compound contaminationLowIntermediateHigh
Heavy metal contaminationIntermediateLowIntermediate
Hydrocarbon contaminationHighIntermediateHigh
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsTolerantIntermediateLow
Increase in salinityTolerantLowLow
Decrease in salinity
Changes in oxygenationLowIntermediateIntermediate

Biological factors

Littorina littorea
Key functional
Semibalanus balanoides
Important characterizing
Patella vulgata
Key functional
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesInsufficient informationIntermediateInsufficient information
Introduction of non-native speciesInsufficient informationIntermediateNot relevant
Extraction of this speciesIntermediateNot relevantIntermediate
Extraction of other speciesTolerantIntermediateLow

Species used to indicate biotope recoverability

Physical factors

Littorina littorea
Key functional
Semibalanus balanoides
Important characterizing
Patella vulgata
Key functional
Substratum LossHighHighHigh
SmotheringHighHighHigh
Increase in suspended sedimentHighVery highHigh
Decrease in suspended sedimentHigh
DesiccationImmediateHighHigh
Increase in emergence regimeImmediateHighHigh
Decrease in emergence regime
Increase in water flow rateHighVery highHigh
Decrease in water flow rate
Increase in temperatureImmediateHighHigh
Decrease in temperature
Increase in turbidityVery highVery highVery high
Decrease in turbidity
Increase in wave exposureHighHighHigh
Decrease in wave exposure
NoiseNot relevantNot relevantHigh
Visual PresenceNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceHighHighVery high
DisplacementNot relevantHighHigh

Chemical factors

Littorina littorea
Key functional
Semibalanus balanoides
Important characterizing
Patella vulgata
Key functional
Synthetic compound contaminationVery highModerateHigh
Heavy metal contaminationHighHighHigh
Hydrocarbon contaminationHighModerateHigh
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationNot relevantInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsNot relevantHighHigh
Increase in salinityNot relevantHighHigh
Decrease in salinity
Changes in oxygenationVery highHighHigh

Biological factors

Littorina littorea
Key functional
Semibalanus balanoides
Important characterizing
Patella vulgata
Key functional
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesInsufficient informationHighInsufficient information
Introduction of non-native speciesInsufficient informationHighNot relevant
Extraction of this speciesHighNot relevantHigh
Extraction of other speciesNot relevantHighHigh

This review can be cited as follows:

Hill, J.M. 2002. Barnacles and Littorina littorea on unstable eulittoral mixed substrata. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 22/10/2014]. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitatsensitivity.php?habitatid=340&code=2004>