Biodiversity & Conservation

Laminaria hyperborea forest with a faunal cushion (sponges and polyclinids) and foliose red seaweeds on very exposed upper infralittoral rock

IR.EIR.KFaR.LhypFa


EIR.LhypFa

Image Bernard Picton - Laminaria hyperborea forest with a faunal cushion (sponges and polyclinids) and foliose red seaweeds on very exposed upper infralittoral rock. Image width ca 20 m.
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Distribution map

IR.EIR.KFaR.LhypFa recorded (dark blue bullet) and expected (light blue bullet) distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)


  • EC_Habitats

Habitat sensitivity

Physical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Substratum Loss High Moderate Moderate Major decline Moderate
Smothering Intermediate High Low Decline Moderate
Increase in suspended sediment Low Immediate Not sensitive No change Moderate
Decrease in suspended sediment Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant Moderate
Desiccation Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant High
Increase in emergence regime High High Moderate Minor decline Moderate
Decrease in emergence regime Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Increase in water flow rate Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change High
Decrease in water flow rate Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change High
Increase in temperature Low Very high Very low No change Low
Decrease in temperature Low Very high Very low No change Moderate
Increase in turbidity Low Very high Very low No change Moderate
Decrease in turbidity Tolerant* Not relevant Not sensitive* No change Moderate
Increase in wave exposure High High Moderate Minor decline Moderate
Decrease in wave exposure High High Moderate Rise Moderate
Noise Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change High
Visual Presence Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change High
Abrasion & physical disturbance Intermediate Moderate Moderate Decline Moderate
Displacement High High Moderate Decline Moderate

Chemical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination High High Moderate Decline Moderate
Heavy metal contamination Low Very high Very low No change Low
Hydrocarbon contamination Low Very high Very low Minor decline Moderate
Radionuclide contamination Insufficient information Not relevant Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Changes in nutrient levels Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change Moderate
Increase in salinity Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Decrease in salinity Intermediate High Low Minor decline Low
Changes in oxygenation High Moderate Moderate Decline Low

Biological Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites Low Immediate Not sensitive Low
Introduction of non-native species Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Moderate
Extraction of this species Intermediate High Low Decline Moderate
Extraction of other species Intermediate High Low Decline Moderate

Species used to indicate biotope intolerance

Physical factors

Laminaria hyperborea
Key structural
Urticina felina
Important characterizing
Alcyonium digitatum
Important characterizing
Botryllus schlosseri
Important characterizing
Delesseria sanguinea
Important characterizing
Echinus esculentus
Important structural
Substratum LossHighHighHighHighHighHigh
SmotheringLowLowIntermediateHighIntermediateIntermediate
Increase in suspended sedimentLowLowLowHighLowLow
Decrease in suspended sedimentTolerant*
DesiccationHighIntermediateNot relevantIntermediateHighIntermediate
Increase in emergence regimeHighIntermediateNot relevantIntermediateIntermediateLow
Decrease in emergence regimeTolerant*
Increase in water flow rateHighTolerantTolerant*IntermediateIntermediateLow
Decrease in water flow rateIntermediateIntermediate
Increase in temperatureHighIntermediateLowLowLowIntermediate
Decrease in temperatureIntermediateLow
Increase in turbidityIntermediateTolerantLowLowTolerantLow
Decrease in turbidityTolerant
Increase in wave exposureHighTolerantTolerantIntermediateTolerantLow
Decrease in wave exposureIntermediateIntermediate
NoiseTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerant
Visual PresenceTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantTolerantLow
Abrasion & physical disturbanceIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediateIntermediate
DisplacementHighLowHighHighHighLow

Chemical factors

Laminaria hyperborea
Key structural
Urticina felina
Important characterizing
Alcyonium digitatum
Important characterizing
Botryllus schlosseri
Important characterizing
Delesseria sanguinea
Important characterizing
Echinus esculentus
Important structural
Synthetic compound contaminationLowIntermediateIntermediateInsufficient informationHighHigh
Heavy metal contaminationIntermediateInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationLowHigh
Hydrocarbon contaminationLowLowLowInsufficient informationHighHigh
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsIntermediateInsufficient informationLowLowLowTolerant*
Increase in salinityIntermediateNot relevantIntermediateIntermediateLowIntermediate
Decrease in salinityLow
Changes in oxygenationInsufficient informationIntermediateHighIntermediateHighIntermediate

Biological factors

Laminaria hyperborea
Key structural
Urticina felina
Important characterizing
Alcyonium digitatum
Important characterizing
Botryllus schlosseri
Important characterizing
Delesseria sanguinea
Important characterizing
Echinus esculentus
Important structural
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesLowInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationIntermediate
Introduction of non-native speciesInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationTolerant*Not relevantNot relevant
Extraction of this speciesIntermediateHighNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantIntermediate
Extraction of other speciesIntermediateTolerantIntermediateHighTolerant*Intermediate

Species used to indicate biotope recoverability

Physical factors

Laminaria hyperborea
Key structural
Urticina felina
Important characterizing
Alcyonium digitatum
Important characterizing
Botryllus schlosseri
Important characterizing
Delesseria sanguinea
Important characterizing
Echinus esculentus
Important structural
Substratum LossModerateModerateHighHighHighHigh
SmotheringImmediateVery highHighHighHighHigh
Increase in suspended sedimentImmediateVery highVery highHighImmediateVery high
Decrease in suspended sedimentNot relevant
DesiccationModerateModerateNot relevantHighHighHigh
Increase in emergence regimeModerateModerateNot relevantHighHighVery high
Decrease in emergence regimeNot relevant
Increase in water flow rateModerateNot relevantNot relevantHighHighVery high
Decrease in water flow rateModerateHigh
Increase in temperatureModerateHighHighVery highImmediateHigh
Decrease in temperatureHighHigh
Increase in turbidityModerateNot relevantVery highImmediateNot relevantVery high
Decrease in turbidityNot relevant
Increase in wave exposureModerateNot relevantNot relevantModerateNot relevantVery high
Decrease in wave exposureHighHigh
NoiseNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Visual PresenceNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantImmediate
Abrasion & physical disturbanceModerateModerateHighHighHighHigh
DisplacementModerateImmediateHighModerateHighVery high

Chemical factors

Laminaria hyperborea
Key structural
Urticina felina
Important characterizing
Alcyonium digitatum
Important characterizing
Botryllus schlosseri
Important characterizing
Delesseria sanguinea
Important characterizing
Echinus esculentus
Important structural
Synthetic compound contaminationImmediateModerateHighNot relevantHighHigh
Heavy metal contaminationImmediateInsufficient informationInsufficient informationNot relevantVery highHigh
Hydrocarbon contaminationImmediateVery highHighNot relevantHighHigh
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationNot relevantNot relevantInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsModerateInsufficient informationHighHighImmediateNot relevant
Increase in salinityModerateNot relevantHighHighImmediateHigh
Decrease in salinityVery high
Changes in oxygenationNot relevantHighHighHighHighHigh

Biological factors

Laminaria hyperborea
Key structural
Urticina felina
Important characterizing
Alcyonium digitatum
Important characterizing
Botryllus schlosseri
Important characterizing
Delesseria sanguinea
Important characterizing
Echinus esculentus
Important structural
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesImmediateInsufficient informationInsufficient informationHighInsufficient informationHigh
Introduction of non-native speciesNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient informationNot relevantNot relevantNot relevant
Extraction of this speciesModerateModerateNot relevantNot relevantNot relevantHigh
Extraction of other speciesModerateNot relevantHighModerateNot relevantHigh

This review can be cited as follows:

Hiscock, K. 2001. Laminaria hyperborea forest with a faunal cushion (sponges and polyclinids) and foliose red seaweeds on very exposed upper infralittoral rock. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 21/04/2014]. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitatsensitivity.php?habitatid=44&code=1997>