Biodiversity & Conservation

Erect sponges, Eunicella verrucosa and Pentapora fascialis on slightly tide-swept moderately exposed circalittoral rock.

CR.HCR.XFa.ByErSp.Eun


MCR.ErSEun

Image Rohan Holt - Bedrock with the sea fan Eunicella verrucosa, the soft coral Alcyonium glomeratum and the stalked sponge Raspailia ramosa amongst a hydroid turf. Image width ca 1.0 m.
Image copyright information

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Distribution map

CR.HCR.XFa.ByErSp.Eun recorded (dark blue bullet) and expected (light blue bullet) distribution in Britain and Ireland (see below)


  • EC_Habitats

Habitat sensitivity

Physical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Substratum Loss High Very low / none Very High Major decline High
Smothering Intermediate Moderate Moderate Decline Moderate
Increase in suspended sediment Low Very high Very low No change Moderate
Decrease in suspended sediment Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change Moderate
Desiccation Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Increase in emergence regime Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Decrease in emergence regime Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Increase in water flow rate Low High Low Minor decline Moderate
Decrease in water flow rate Intermediate High Low Minor decline Moderate
Increase in temperature Tolerant* Not relevant Not sensitive* Rise High
Decrease in temperature Intermediate High Low Minor decline Very low
Increase in turbidity Low Very high Very low No change Moderate
Decrease in turbidity Low Immediate Not sensitive No change Moderate
Increase in wave exposure Intermediate Low High Decline Moderate
Decrease in wave exposure Low Very high Very low Minor decline Moderate
Noise Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change Low
Visual Presence Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive No change High
Abrasion & physical disturbance High Very low / none Very High Major decline Moderate
Displacement High Very low / none Very High Major decline High

Chemical Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Heavy metal contamination Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Hydrocarbon contamination Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Radionuclide contamination Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Changes in nutrient levels Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Increase in salinity High Very low / none Very High Major decline Moderate
Decrease in salinity
Changes in oxygenation Intermediate Low High Major decline Moderate

Biological Factors

Click factor name to view rationale Intolerance Recoverability Sensitivity Species Richness Evidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Not relevant Not relevant
Introduction of non-native species Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient information Insufficient Information Not relevant
Extraction of this species Intermediate Low High No change Low
Extraction of other species Intermediate Low High Decline Low

Species used to indicate biotope intolerance

Physical factors

Eunicella verrucosa
Key structural
Axinella dissimilis
Important characterizing
Pentapora fascialis
Important characterizing
Substratum LossHighHighHigh
SmotheringIntermediateIntermediateIntermediate
Increase in suspended sedimentLowIntermediateIntermediate
Decrease in suspended sedimentNot relevant
DesiccationNot relevantHighHigh
Increase in emergence regimeNot relevantHighHigh
Decrease in emergence regimeNot relevant
Increase in water flow rateIntermediateLowLow
Decrease in water flow rateIntermediate
Increase in temperatureTolerant*IntermediateIntermediate
Decrease in temperatureLow
Increase in turbidityTolerantTolerantTolerant
Decrease in turbidityIntermediate
Increase in wave exposureIntermediateIntermediateIntermediate
Decrease in wave exposureIntermediate
NoiseNot relevantTolerantTolerant
Visual PresenceNot relevantTolerantTolerant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceIntermediateIntermediateHigh
DisplacementHighHighHigh

Chemical factors

Eunicella verrucosa
Key structural
Axinella dissimilis
Important characterizing
Pentapora fascialis
Important characterizing
Synthetic compound contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Heavy metal contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Hydrocarbon contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Radionuclide contaminationInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsTolerantInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Increase in salinityNot relevantHighHigh
Decrease in salinityHigh
Changes in oxygenationHighIntermediateIntermediate

Biological factors

Eunicella verrucosa
Key structural
Axinella dissimilis
Important characterizing
Pentapora fascialis
Important characterizing
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesInsufficient informationInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Introduction of non-native speciesNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Extraction of this speciesIntermediateNot relevantNot relevant
Extraction of other speciesNot relevantTolerantTolerant

Species used to indicate biotope recoverability

Physical factors

Eunicella verrucosa
Key structural
Axinella dissimilis
Important characterizing
Pentapora fascialis
Important characterizing
Substratum LossInsufficient informationModerate
SmotheringModerateInsufficient informationModerate
Increase in suspended sedimentVery highInsufficient informationHigh
Decrease in suspended sedimentNot relevant
DesiccationNot relevantInsufficient informationModerate
Increase in emergence regimeNot relevantInsufficient informationModerate
Decrease in emergence regimeNot relevant
Increase in water flow rateModerateInsufficient informationVery high
Decrease in water flow rateModerate
Increase in temperatureNot relevantInsufficient informationHigh
Decrease in temperatureHigh
Increase in turbidityNot relevantInsufficient informationNot relevant
Decrease in turbidityModerate
Increase in wave exposureModerateInsufficient informationHigh
Decrease in wave exposureModerate
NoiseNot relevantInsufficient informationNot relevant
Visual PresenceNot relevantInsufficient informationNot relevant
Abrasion & physical disturbanceModerateInsufficient informationModerate
DisplacementModerateInsufficient informationModerate

Chemical factors

Eunicella verrucosa
Key structural
Axinella dissimilis
Important characterizing
Pentapora fascialis
Important characterizing
Synthetic compound contaminationNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Heavy metal contaminationNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Hydrocarbon contaminationNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Radionuclide contaminationNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Changes in nutrient levelsNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Increase in salinityNot relevantInsufficient informationModerate
Decrease in salinity
Changes in oxygenationInsufficient informationHigh

Biological factors

Eunicella verrucosa
Key structural
Axinella dissimilis
Important characterizing
Pentapora fascialis
Important characterizing
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasitesNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Introduction of non-native speciesNot relevantInsufficient informationInsufficient information
Extraction of this speciesModerateNot relevantNot relevant
Extraction of other speciesNot relevantInsufficient informationNot relevant

This review can be cited as follows:

Jackson, A. & Hiscock, K. 2000. Erect sponges, Eunicella verrucosa and Pentapora fascialis on slightly tide-swept moderately exposed circalittoral rock.. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 31/10/2014]. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/habitatsensitivity.php?habitatid=77&code=2004>