MarLIN

information on the biology of species and the ecology of habitats found around the coasts and seas of the British Isles

A gammarid shrimp (Gammarus salinus)

Distribution data supplied by the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). To interrogate UK data visit the NBN Atlas.

Summary

Description

Gammarus salinus has a laterally compressed, smooth, curved body, which grows up to 22 mm in length. Its body is divided into three segments; head, pereon (thorax) and pleon (abdomen), but its abdomen is not distinctly demarcated from the thorax in either size or shape. Its head lacks a carapace and is fused with the first thoracic segment. Two well developed elongate pairs of antennae are distinct. Both pairs are pedunculate (a stalk consisting of larger segments) with a long, multi-articulate flagellum. The first pair of antennae have a small accessory flagellum, whilst the second pair have many, longer bristles. Its sessile compound eyes are large, elongate and kidney shaped. Each body segment has its own pair of limbs; pereopods on the thorax and pleopods (used for swimming) and uropods (used for hopping/scudding about on substrata) on the abdomen. The first pair of thoracic limbs are modified into maxillipeds, used for feeding, whilst the second and third pair have a distinctly different, more robust structure and are called gnathopods. The tail-piece (telson) is lobed with bristles and spines. Gammarus salinus appears brownish or greenish brown in colour, with slight transverse banding along the body.

Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland

On all coasts of England, Scotland and Wales in brackish-water, especially in the Humber and Severn Estuaries.

Global distribution

North-west Europe from English Channel to Baltic, some isolated reports of Gammarus salinus on the Iberian Peninsula.

Habitat

Gammarus salinus inhabits brackish waters of an intermediate salinity. The densest populations have been found in the middle reaches of estuaries that do not have a steep salinity gradient. Gammarus salinus lives amongst algae and other vegetation, as well as generally over the sediment surface and beneath stones.

Depth range

0-10 m

Identifying features

  • Laterally compressed smooth body; < 22 mm in length, with limbs on each body segment
  • The lateral lobe of the head is angular and truncated with a deep post-antennal sinus
  • Large, elongated kidney-shaped compound eyes
  • Two pairs of pedunculate antennae. Antenna 1, peduncle article 1 has about 6 ventral groups of bristles (setae), article 2 has 5-6 setal groups and article 3 has 2-3 setal groups. The long multi-articulated flagellum has an accessory flagellum equal in length to the length of peduncle article 2. Antenna 2 more bristled, with calceoli (sensory structure) present in males.
  • Amphipod telson is of major taxonomic importance from specific through to familial level; telson lobes of Gammarus salinus have 3 apical, 1 sub-apical and 1-2 lateral spines, each group with a few setae, which may be longer than associated spines
  • Brownish or greenish brown in colour, with light banding
  • Distinguished from Gammarus zaddachi Sexton, by less pronounced setation (coverage of hair-like bristles) on body and appendages.

Additional information

  • Nine other marine species of Gammarus are found around the British Isles: Gammarus locusta, Gammarus zaddachi, Gammarus oceanicus, Gammarus chevreuxi,Gammarus tigrinus, Gammarus finmarchicus, Gammarus duebeni, Gammarus insensibilis and Gammarus crinicornis (Lincoln, 1979).
  • Accurate identification of amphipods requires a certain amount of manipulation under a microscope.

Listed by

- none -

Further information sources

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Biology review

Taxonomy

PhylumArthropoda
ClassMalacostraca
OrderAmphipoda
FamilyGammaridae
GenusGammarus
AuthoritySpooner, 1947
Recent Synonyms

Biology

Typical abundance
Male size range< 22mm
Male size at maturity
Female size range7-8mm
Female size at maturity
Growth formArticulate
Growth rate
Body flexibilityHigh (greater than 45 degrees)
Mobility
Characteristic feeding methodSurface deposit feeder
Diet/food sourceHerbivore
Typically feeds onOrganic detritus and seaweed.
Sociability
Environmental positionEpibenthic
DependencyNo information found.
SupportsNo information
Is the species harmful?No

Biology information

Moulting
Kinné (1960) found that the frequency (days - weeks) at which Gammarus salinus moulted varied with changes in temperature, the intervals being longer in males than in females. Females kept without a male showed a progressive prolongation of the intervals between moults beginning with the 3rd of 4th interval following isolation. Females kept together with males, in pairs, maintained moults at constant intervals. No differences were observed to occur in different salinities of 5, 10 and 30 psu.

Habitat preferences

Physiographic preferencesEstuary
Biological zone preferencesLower infralittoral, Upper infralittoral
Substratum / habitat preferencesMacroalgae, Coarse clean sand, Gravel / shingle
Tidal strength preferencesModerately Strong 1 to 3 knots (0.5-1.5 m/sec.), Strong 3 to 6 knots (1.5-3 m/sec.)
Wave exposure preferencesExtremely sheltered, Sheltered, Very sheltered
Salinity preferencesLow (<18 psu), Reduced (18-30 psu)
Depth range0-10 m
Other preferencesNo text entered
Migration PatternNon-migratory / resident

Habitat Information

Gammarus species are abundant estuarine animals. Spooner (1947) stated that gammarids were adaptable to various surroundings and not limited to particularly specialised ecological niches. Nor did they show gross patchiness of distribution within their habitable range, rather continuous populations occupy the entire length of estuaries, although the proportion of species represented changes from head to mouth. Furthermore, gammarids are relatively indifferent to the nature of the substratum to a remarkable degree. Provided that there is some kind of object to provide them with shelter/cover it does not matter whether the substratum is muddy or stony, the water turbid or clear and almost any kind of organic matter provides detritus upon which to feed (Spooner, 1947).

The distributional range of Gammarus salinus to the south was thought to be restricted as far as the English Channel. However, Van Maren (1975) reported Gammarus salinus for the first time on the Spanish coast in 1974.

Life history

Adult characteristics

Reproductive typeGonochoristic (dioecious)
Reproductive frequency Annual protracted
Fecundity (number of eggs)See additional information
Generation time<1 year
Age at maturity20-30 days
SeasonAutumn - Spring
Life span<1 year

Larval characteristics

Larval/propagule type-
Larval/juvenile development Direct development
Duration of larval stageNot relevant
Larval dispersal potential 100 -1000 m
Larval settlement periodNot relevant

Life history information

Leineweber (1985) sampled a population of Gammarus salinus over 15 months in the south-western Kattegat at Sangstrup Klint, Denmark and reported that Gammarus salinus most likely had two generations per year, mature females were found from late November to late July. However, in the Limfjord, Denmark, the population of Gammarus salinus was reported to only produce one generation between 1977-1978, despite the presence of egg bearing females throughout the year (Kolding & Fenchel, 1979). Juveniles were most numerous from April through to July, and in the warmer months between July and October a relatively stable population was attained. The main reproduction period occurred during the winter months, with 80% of the female population reported to be pregnant, the adult generation died in May.
During reproduction, the male carries the smaller female grasped by his gnathopods, a condition known as amplexus. The animals separate briefly to permit the final preadult moult of the female. Sperm transfer is accomplished quickly; the male twists his abdomen around so that his uropods touch the female marsupium (brood pouch) and sperm are swept into the marsupium by the ventilating current created by the female. Finally the pair separate (Rupert & Barnes, 1994). The eggs are brooded within a chamber, the marsupium, beneath the thorax, formed by shelf-like plates projecting inward from the thoracic coxae.
Kinné (1960) examined the effects of different temperatures and salinity on the incubation time of Gammarus salinus. At a temperature between 19-20 °C females attained sexual maturity (1st oviposition) 20-30 days after hatching; their average length (from tip of rostrum to base of telson) being 7-8 mm. Males reached maturity one or more weeks later than the females. The incubation time (period between oviposition and hatching) of the eggs depended largely on the temperature at which the females were maintained; < 14 °C incubation took over 15 days and decreased to 5 days at 20 °C. As in other amphipods Kinné (1960) found that the fecundity of females increased with length, with numbers of eggs varying in a clutch (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).

Sensitivity reviewHow is sensitivity assessed?

Physical pressures

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence/Confidence
Intermediate Very high Low Low
Gammarus salinus lives in a variety of locations within the estuarine environment: amongst algae and other vegetation, as well as generally over the sediment surface and beneath stones. Gammarus salinus is a mobile species capable of a rapid escape response and therefore likely to be able to local substratum loss. Nevertheless, a proportion of the population is likely to be removed with the substratum. Therefore, an intolerance assessment of intermediate has been made. Recoverability is likely to be very high (see additional information below.
Intermediate Very high Low Moderate
Gammarus salinus lives in a variety of locations within the estuarine environment: amongst algae and other vegetation, as well as generally over the sediment surface and beneath stones. It is a mobile species capable of a rapid escape response (back flip) if disturbed, however in the event of suddenly being smothered by 5 cm of sediment individuals resting on the surface may be killed, particularly so if the materials are viscous or impermeable. Intolerance has been assessed to be intermediate. Recovery has been assessed to be very high owing to the production of an new generation within the year (see additional information below).
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant
As an estuarine species Gammarus salinus probably experiences fluctuations in the concentration of suspended sediment, which in the estuarine environment may be measurable in grams per litre (benchmark is mg per litre). Consequently the benchmark increase for the duration of one month is unlikely to affect Gammarus salinus and it has been assessed to be tolerant.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant
As an estuarine species Gammarus salinus probably experiences fluctuations in the concentration of suspended sediment, which in the estuarine environment may be measurable in grams per litre (benchmark is mg per litre). Consequently the benchmark decrease for the duration of one month is unlikely to affect Gammarus salinus and it has been assessed to be tolerant.
Low Immediate Not sensitive Moderate
Desiccation events are unlikely to prove a lethal factor to a species with a rapid escape response and ability to find cover. Consequently, the species is probably sufficiently mobile to avoid prolonged exposure if stranded and intolerance has been assessed to be low. Recovery is likely to be immediate upon finding cover.
Low Immediate Not sensitive Moderate
In the estuarine environment Gammarus salinus may experience regular periods of immersion and emersion. At low tide it probably seeks shelter amongst vegetation, under pebbles / rock or burrows loosely into the surface of the substratum in order to avoid the effects of desiccation. Gammarus salinus is a relatively slow crawler, swimming using the three pairs of pleopods is much faster. However, the speciality of amphipods is the tail-flip, a rapid escape response whereby the abdomen flicks the animal away after the uropods are dug into the ground. Consequently, the species is probably sufficiently mobile to avoid prolonged exposure resulting from an increase in emergence and intolerance has been assessed to be low. Recovery is likely to be immediate upon finding cover.
Low Very high Very Low Moderate
In the estuarine environment Gammarus salinus may experience regular periods of immersion and emersion. An increased period of immersion may favour fish which prey upon Gammarus salinus such as sprats, Sprattus sprattus. However, although normally abundant in the environment, Gammarus salinus was ingested in disproportionately small quantities by other fish, perhaps reflecting its concealment amongst floating weeds and a selection made by larger fish against small (< 1 cm) prey items (Moore & Moore, 1976). Intolerance has been assessed to be low and recoverability likely to be very high (see additional information, below).
High Very high Low Low
Spooner (1947) stated that species of Gammarus are relatively indifferent to the nature of the substratum to a remarkable degree, provided that there is some kind of object to provide them with shelter/cover. However, an increase in the water flow rate would increase scour which, over the period of a year (see benchmark) may create the problem of retaining a position in the estuarine environment, against conditions of net seaward transport. Therefore intolerance has been assessed to be high as the population may be washed from the estuary. Recovery and repopulation are likely to occur within a year (see additional information, below).
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant
A decrease in water flow rate, in the absence of wave action determining particle grain size, would favour the accretion of finer silts and clays. Such deposition would alter not only the physical properties of the substratum, but also the chemical properties, especially the degree of oxygenation. Spooner (1947) stated that species of Gammarus are relatively indifferent to the nature of the substratum to a remarkable degree, provided that there is some kind of object to provide them with shelter/cover and such changes are unlikely to be of consequence to Gammarus salinus. Therefore, an assessment of tolerant has been made.
Low Immediate Not sensitive Moderate
Gammarus salinus lives in brackish waters and experiences a variety of temperature and salinity changes. Furch (1972) exposed Gammarus salinus to both constant (8 °C, 14 °C & 20 °C) and fluctuating (daily fluctuations between 8 °C to 20 °C) temperatures. The species revealed significant differences in heat resistance, which became apparent within 12 hours. Gammarus salinus was able to endure long term exposure (2 to 4 weeks) to fluctuating temperatures, although fast temperature changes (every hour) were less well tolerated by it than slower temperature fluctuations (2 hours). Intolerance has been assessed to be low, as acute temperature changes may cause additional stress but did not result in mortality. Recovery from rapid fluctuations was apparent within a matter of hours, therefore recovery has been assessed to be immediate. Parasitized specimens may be more intolerant of acute temperature increases.
Intermediate Very high Low Low
Gammarus salinus lives in brackish waters and experiences a variety of temperature and salinity changes. The distribution of Gammarus salinus extends to the north of the UK, into the Baltic Sea, so the species would probably tolerate a chronic decrease of 2 °C. Acute temperature decreases may cause death of vulnerable individuals, such as those that are parasitized owing to additional stress, and intolerance has been assessed to be intermediate.
Low Very high Very Low Low
Gammarus salinus may feed upon macroalgae as well as detritus, which is dependant on light availability for photosynthesis. An increase in turbidity for the duration of a year would reduce light penetration and therefore probably the abundance of macroalgae as a food resource which may consequently affect the species viability. Therefore intolerance to increased turbidity has been assessed to be low. The species is likely to have a very high capacity for recovery (see additional information below).
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant
Gammarus salinus is not likely to be directly sensitive to decreased turbidity.
High High Moderate Low
Gammarus salinus normally inhabits relatively well sheltered estuarine environments. It is likely to be washed away as a result of increased wave exposure owing to turbulence displacing it from shelter. The algae on which it feeds may also become detached, reducing its food source. Consequently intolerance has been assessed to be high.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low
Decreased wave exposure is likely to result in changes to the composition of the estuarine substratum e.g., the accretion of finer particulate matter, settling out as a result of reduced turbulence. However, Spooner (1947) considered that species of Gammarus were relatively indifferent to the nature of the substratum to a remarkable degree, provided that they could find cover and it has been assessed as tolerant of a decrease in wave exposure.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant
Gammarus salinus may respond to vibrations caused by noise, but it is unlikely to be directly sensitive to noise at the benchmark level.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant
Gammarus salinus is unlikely to have the visual acuity to detect the presence of boats, machinery present in its environment, and it has been assessed not to be sensitive to the factor.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Not relevant
Gammarus salinus is small, a highly mobile and likely to be able to avoid physical disturbance or to pass through passing fishing gear. Therefore, it has been assessed to be tolerant of physical disturbance.
Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Gammarus salinus is a mobile species and therefore an intolerance assessment for displacement was not considered to be relevant.

Chemical pressures

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence/Confidence
Low Very high Very Low Moderate
No information specifically concerning the effects of synthetic chemicals upon Gammarus salinus was found. However, in the closely related Gammarus duebeni, reproductive behaviour in the male is evoked by its detection of a chemical cue from the female. The cue is perceived by receptors on the second antennae and its function is to synchronize mating with the suitable phase of ecdysis in the female. Low concentration of the surfactant TWEEN 80 were shown to interfere with the reception of the females chemical cues, resulting in a decrease in mating success (Lyes, 1979).
Lawrence & Poulter (2001) examined the effect of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on the embryogenesis, and swimming stamina of Chaetogammarus marinus against a pump driven head of water. Swimming stamina was significantly impaired at a concentration of 40 µg PCP/l and 20µg B[a]P/l, whilst development of in vitro cultured embryos was significantly impaired by 20 µg /l of both PCP and B[a]P.
intolerance has been assessed to be low owing to evidence of sub-lethal effects and reduced reproductive potential. Gammarus salinus is likely to have a very high capacity for recovery (see additional information below), assuming deterioration of the contaminants.
Heavy metal contamination
Low Very high Very Low Moderate
  • No information specifically concerning the effects of heavy metals upon Gammarus salinus was found. However, a closely related species Gammarus zaddachi occurred in the brackish water upper reaches of Restronguet Creek, Fal Estuary, Cornwall, and over the creeks entire length there was a continuous population of gammarids, which was composed of several species of a typical succession (Bryan & Gibbs, 1983). Water entering Restronguet Creek from the Carnon River was acidic (pH 3.8) and contained high concentrations of soluble Fe (18500µg/l), Zn (12030µg/l), Mn (2974µg/l) and Cu (474µg/l) (Table 1, Site 1, Bryan & Gibbs, 1983). However, there was no further information concerning specific effects of such heavy metal concentrations on the gammarids, except to say that the flora and fauna in general in Restronguet Creek was less obviously affected than might be predicted from toxicity data in the literature. Possible reasons being development of metal-tolerant strains and/or the ability of species to migrate into other less contaminated areas of the Fal System (Bryan & Gibbs, 1983).

  • Lawrence & Poulter (2001) examined the effect of copper on the embryogenesis and swimming stamina of Chaetogammarus marinus against a pump driven head of water. Swimming stamina was significantly impaired at a concentration of 15 µg Cu/l, whilst development of in vitro cultured embryos was significantly impaired by 20 µg Cu/l. Copper exposure extended the period of embryogenesis by 4 to 8 days and specific stages in the embryos' development were affected. These two assays were also responsive at environmental concentrations periodically experienced at some locations on the Humber Estuary, UK (Lawrence & Poulter, 2001).

  • Ritz (1980) examined the tolerance of two intertidal amphipods, Gammarus duebeni and Marinogammarus marinus to copper under static conditions. For Marinogammarus marinus the LT50 varied from 106 hours in 0.04 ppm Cu, to 3 hours in 4 ppm Cu. Mortality in 0.04 ppm Cu was not significantly different to that in the control. For Gammarus duebeni the corresponding LT50 values were > 5 days at 0.04 ppm Cu and 3 hours at 4 ppm Cu. At concentrations of 0.04 ppm and below, the copper was not acutely toxic to Gammarus duebeni.
intolerance has been assessed to be low owing to evidence of only sub-lethal effects of heavy metals and influence upon embryogenesis in another closely related species. Gammarus salinus is likely to have a very high capacity for recovery (see additional information below), assuming deterioration of the contaminants.
Hydrocarbon contamination
High High Moderate High
Amphipods have been reported to be sensitive to oil (Suchanek, 1993).
  • Ponat (1975) observed the narcotic effect of crude oil on Gammarus salinus, which reduced the species oxygen consumption to 40 % of normal levels.
  • Lindén (1976) also observed narcosis in Gammarus oceanicus, a species related to Gammarus salinus, exposed to concentrations of oil between 5 and 20 mg/l, which caused an initial period of hectic swimming and then deterioration in crawling ability. Furthermore sub-lethal concentrations of crude oil (1-40µg /l) proved to be responsible for a reduction in the numbers of sexually mature adults of Gammarus oceanicus entering precopula, a requirement of successful fertilization (Lindén, 1976b).
  • Penetration of the substratum by oil released from the Amoco Cadiz translated into massive mortality of amphipods of the genus Ampelisca in the fine sand of the Bay of Morlaix, north-west Brittany, France (Cabioch et al., 1978).
intolerance of Gammarus salinus to hydrocarbon contamination has been assessed to be high. Despite a very high capacity for recovery (see additional information below), recovery from hydrocarbon contamination has been assessed to be high rather than very high owing to the probable persistence of oil in sediments and the likelihood that juveniles are especially susceptible.
Radionuclide contamination
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
Insufficient
information.
Changes in nutrient levels
Tolerant* Not relevant Not sensitive* Low
Gammarus salinus is a both a detritivore and herbivore, consequently it may benefit form nutrient enrichment that stimulates the productivity of phytoplankton and macroalgae. Anger (1977) listed Gammarus salinus as an indicator species for slight organic pollution. Furthermore, Gammarus salinus has demonstrated a negative rheotaxic response to lethal and sublethal concentrations of oxygen (see oxygenation) which may result as a consequence of eutrophication. Therefore it has been assessed to be tolerant* to nutrient enrichment.
Low Immediate Not sensitive Low
Gammarus salinus is a euryhaline species relatively tolerant of salinities as low as 2 psu and as high as 30 psu, but it is most abundant at 10 psu. It is likely that the species would experience some physiological stress following an acute increase in salinity (see decrease in salinity below), intolerance has therefore been assessed to be low and, as an euryhaline species, it is likely to recover relatively rapidly.
Low Immediate Not sensitive High
Gammarus salinus is a euryhaline species relatively tolerant of salinities as low as 2 psu and as high as 30 psu, but it is most abundant at 10 psu. Bulnheim (1984) recorded the respiratory response of Gammarus salinus in response to an acute salinity change, from 30 psu to 10 psu, respiration rate moderately increased after an initial shock like response and initially specimens were quiescent as they acclimated to the decreased salinity but recovered within 24 hours. Intolerance has therefore been assessed to be low and recovery immediate.
Low Immediate Not sensitive High
Gammarids are occasionally found in locations with reduced O2 tensions, especially on soft substratum, in stagnant pools and in polluted waters. In deeper waters oxygen deficiency may be accompanied by the formation of hydrogen sulphide. Bulnheim (1984) examined the survival rates of five gammarid species held in brackish water with poor oxygenation. The LT 50 for Gammarus salinus held at 15 °C, 10 psu with a depleted oxygen level of 0.5 ml O2/l was 6.5 hours, 100% mortality occurred after 15 hours. Gammarus salinus being more tolerant than Gammarus locusta and Gammarus oceanicus. Gammarus salinus had an LT50 of 4 hours in brackish-water (10 psu) with oxygen depletion in the presence of hydrogen sulphide (< 0.2 ml O2/l + 50 mg Na2S.9H2O/l) at 15 °C . However, Vobis (1973) used an experimental vessel to observe the behaviour of gammarids in various water current speeds and oxygen concentrations. In adequately oxygenated waters, Gammarus salinus demonstrated a moderate positive rheotaxis (swimming into the current). Lethal and sublethal oxygen concentrations, however, led to negative rheotaxis (swimming away from the current). Oxygen deficiency caused Gammarus salinus to swim downstream at 2.5 mg O2 per litre. An intolerance assessment of low has been made, as the species can avoid the factor. The species is likely to repopulate areas as soon as the oxygen concentration of the water becomes optimal and recovery has been assessed to be immediate.

Biological pressures

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence/Confidence
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
Gammarus salinus, Gammarus zaddachi and Gammarus oceanicus were found to be important host species for the transmission of parasites (Voigt, 1991). Larval stages of 4 fish parasites (1 Nematoda, 2 Acanthocephala and 1 Digena) as well as larval stages of 4 bird parasites (1 Nematoda, 1 Acanthocephala, 1 Digena and 1 Cestoda) were found. However, there was insufficient information concerning the effect that such parasitization may have on the species viability.
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
No information concerning non-native species that might affect the abundance or survival of Gammarus salinus was found.
Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Gammarus salinus is not a species targeted for extraction.
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
No information concerning the extraction of other species that might affect the abundance or survival of Gammarus salinus was found.

Additional information

Recoverability
Gammarus salinus is an abundant, widespread species which typically produces two generations within its lifespan of a year, consequently the species is likely to have a very high capacity for recovery.

Importance review

Policy/legislation

- no data -

Status

Non-native

Importance information

  • In the Severn Estuary, sprats, Sprattus sprattus, fed chiefly on Gammarus salinus or on Neomysis integer. However, although normally abundant in the environment, Gammarus salinus was ingested in disproportionately small quantities by other fish, perhaps reflecting its concealment amongst floating weeds and a selection made by larger fish against small (< 1 cm) prey items (Moore & Moore, 1976).
  • Gammarus salinus has a documented role as a seaweed disperser (Breeman & Hoeksema, 1987). The red seaweed Audouinella purpurea (= Rhodochorton purpureum) was able to survive digestion and grew in the field from faecal pellets of Gammarus salinus in the northern Netherlands.
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    5. Cabioch, L., Dauvin, J.C. & Gentil, F., 1978. Preliminary observations on pollution of the sea bed and disturbance of sub-littoral communities in northern Brittany by oil from the Amoco Cadiz. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 9, 303-307.

    6. Crothers, J.H. (ed.), 1966. Dale Fort Marine Fauna. London: Field Studies Council.

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    10. JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), 1999. Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line] http://www.jncc.gov.uk/mermaid

    11. Kinné, O., 1960. Gammarus salinus - einige Daten uber den Umwelt-einfluss auf Wachstum, Hautungsfolge, Herzfrequenz und Eientwicklungsdauer. Crustaceana, 1, 208-217.

    12. Kolding, S. & Fenchel, T.M., 1979. Coexistence and life cycle characteristics of five species of the amphipod genus Gammarus. Oikos, 33, 323-327.

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    14. Lawrence, A.J. & Poulter, C., 2001. Impact of copper, pentachlorophenol and benzo[a]pyrene on the swimming efficiency and embryogenesis of the amphipod Chaetogammarus marinus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 223, 213-223.

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    18. Lindén, O., 1976b. Effects of oil on the reproduction of the amphipod Gammarus oceanicus. Ambio, 5, 36-37.

    19. Lyes, M.C., 1979. The reproductive behaviour of Gammarus duebeni (Lilljeborg), and the inhibitory effect of a surface active agent. Marine Behaviour and Physiology, 6, 47-55.

    20. Moore, J.W. & Moore, I.A., 1976. The basis of food selection in some estuarine fishes; eels, Anguilla anguilla (L.), whiting, Merlangius merlangus (L.), sprat, Sprattus sprattus and stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.). Journal of Fish Biology, 9, 375-390.

    21. National Biodiversity Network (NBN) Atlas website. Available from: http://www.nbnatlas.org.  Accessed 01 April 2017

    22. Ponat, A., 1975. Investigations on the influence of crude oil on the survival and oxygen consumption of Idotea baltica and Gammarus salinus. Kieler Meeresforschungen, 31, 26-31.

    23. Ritz, D.D., 1980. Tolerance of intertidal amphipods to fluctuating conditions of salinity, oxygen and copper. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 60, 489-498.

    24. Roast, S.D., Widdows, J. & Jones, M.B., 1999c. Respiratory responses of the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Peracarida: Mysidacea) in relation to a variable environment. Marine Biology, 133, 643-649.

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    27. Suchanek, T.H., 1993. Oil impacts on marine invertebrate populations and communities. American Zoologist, 33, 510-523.

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    29. Voigt, M.O.C., 1991. Community structure of the helminth parasite fauna of gammarids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in Kiel Bay, western Baltic Sea. Meeresforschung, 33, 266-274.

    Citation

    This review can be cited as:

    Budd, G.C. 2002. Gammarus salinus A gammarid shrimp. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1699

    Last Updated: 19/08/2002