MarLIN

information on the biology of species and the ecology of habitats found around the coasts and seas of the British Isles

An erect bryozoan (Bugulina turbinata)

Distribution data supplied by the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). To interrogate UK data visit the NBN Atlas.

Summary

Description

Bugulina turbinata forms an erect, bushy, tufted colony about 3-6 cm in height and orange to brown in colour. The branches are arranged spirally around the main axis and composed of two rows of zooids proximally, increasing to 3-4 rows distally. Individual zooids are rectangular, 0.5-0.6 by 0.15-0.2 mm, narrowing slightly at their proximal end and bearing a single short spine at each corner of the distal end. The front of the zooid is almost entirely membranous. The polypide bears 13 tentacles. Avicularia arise just below the spines and are short and plump resembling a 'birds head', with a rectangularly hooked beak. Inner avicularia are smaller than marginal ones. Brood chambers (ooecia) are globular in shape and conspicuous. Colonies are attached to the substratum by extensions of the basal zooids (rhizoids). Yellow embryos are present from early May to November.

Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland

A southern species predominantly found on the south and southwest coasts of England and Wales but with records from Shetland, Orkney, the north east coast, Ireland, the west coast of Scotland and St. Kilda.

Global distribution

Recorded from Britain to the Mediterranean.

Habitat

Present on the walls of gullies and under boulders on the lower shore and on bedrock, boulders, stones and shells in the shallow subtidal.

Depth range

Lower shore to ca 21m.

Identifying features

  • Colony erect, branching and attached by frontal, lateral and basal rhizoids.
  • Operculum absent, orifice closed by a sphincter.
  • Ooecia (ovicells) globular and hyperstomial.
  • Avicularia prominent, resembling 'birds' heads'.
  • Avicularia short, plump, and broader than other species of Bugula/Bugulina, with a rectangularly hooked beak.
  • A single short spine present on each corner of the distal end of the zooid.
  • Branches with autozooids in two rows proximally, three to four distally.

Additional information

All British species of Bugula (and presumably Bugulina) die back in autumn, over-wintering as ancestrulae, colony stumps or stolons (Hayward & Ryland, 1998). Little information was found on the biology and sensitivity of Bugulina turbinata.

Please note the molecular taxonomy of the genus Bugula (Fehlauer-Ale et al., 2015) identified several clear genera (clades), Bugula sensu stricto (30 species), Bugulina (24 species), Crisularia (23 species) and the monotypic Virididentulagen. The following review was derived from information concerning species of Bugula prior to their recent revision. The review assumes that, while their taxonomy has changed, the biology of Bugulidae remains similar. Hence, references to Bugula spp. in the text refer to Bugula sensu strictoBugulina, and Crisularia species.

Listed by

- none -

Further information sources

Search on:

Biology review

Taxonomy

PhylumBryozoa
ClassGymnolaemata
OrderCheilostomatida
FamilyBugulidae
GenusBugula
AuthorityAlder, 1857
Recent Synonyms

Biology

Typical abundanceLow density
Male size range
Male size at maturity
Female size rangeSmall-medium(3-10cm)
Female size at maturity
Growth formArborescent / Arbuscular
Growth rateSee additional information
Body flexibilityHigh (greater than 45 degrees)
Mobility
Characteristic feeding methodActive suspension feeder, Non-feeding
Diet/food source
Typically feeds onPhytoplankton (<50µm), macroalgal spores, detritus, and bacteria.
Sociability
Environmental positionEpibenthic
DependencyIndependent.
SupportsNone
Is the species harmful?No

Biology information

Growth form
Bugula species form erect tufted growths, characterized by continuous branching. The holdfast is composed of encrusting rhizoids. The exact nature of branching and colony form varies with species, active growth occurring at the branch apices. In Bugulina turbinata, the branches form spirally around a central axis (Dyrynda & Ryland, 1982; Hayward & Ryland, 1998).

Growth rates
Growth rates in bryozoans have been shown to vary with environmental conditions, especially water flow, food supply, temperature, competition for food and space, and genotype. For example:

  • Wendt (1998) reported that the length of time larvae spent in the plankton affected subsequent growth and reproduction of colonies of Bugula neritina, i.e. although specific growth rates were probably the same, colonies developing from 24hr old larvae were 35% smaller, began reproduction about 1.5 days later and had about 50% fewer brood chambers than those growing from 1hr larvae.
  • Wendt (1998) also noted that colonies growing on upward facing surfaces in the laboratory were about 40% smaller than colonies growing on downward facing surfaces.

Growth in numbers of zooids is exponential. Wendt (1998) reported a mean number of 74-113 zooids 14 days after larval settlement in Bugula neritina, depending on the length of time the larvae spent in the plankton. Note, however, that Bugula neritina is a warm temperate species probably only remotely related to the NE Atlantic species (P. Hayward, pers. comm.). Schneider (1963) reported that buds grew at about 12 µm /hr (a maximum of 25 µm/hr) in the laboratory. Schnieder's estimates probably represent optimal growth under laboratory conditions, however, growth in Bugula species is likely to rapid.

Feeding
The structure and function of the bryozoan lophophore was reviewed by Ryland (1976), Winston (1977), and Hayward & Ryland (1998). Ambient water flow is important for bringing food-bearing water within range of the colonies own pumping ability (McKinney, 1986), however, increased water flow reduces feeding efficiency in small colonies but not of large colonies (Okamura, 1984). Curiously , upstream zooids dominated feeding in slow flow (1-2 cm/s) and central zooids in fast flow (10-12cm/s) (Okamura, 1984). Bryozoa probably feed on small flagellates (<50 µm), bacteria, algal spores and small pieces of abraded macroalgae (Winston, 1977; Best & Thorpe, 1994).

Habitat preferences

Physiographic preferencesEnclosed coast / Embayment, Open coast, Ria / Voe, Sea loch / Sea lough, Strait / sound
Biological zone preferencesLower eulittoral, Lower infralittoral, Sublittoral fringe, Upper infralittoral
Substratum / habitat preferencesArtificial (man-made), Bedrock, Caves, Cobbles, Crevices / fissures, Large to very large boulders, Overhangs, Small boulders, Under boulders
Tidal strength preferencesModerately Strong 1 to 3 knots (0.5-1.5 m/sec.), Strong 3 to 6 knots (1.5-3 m/sec.), Weak < 1 knot (<0.5 m/sec.)
Wave exposure preferencesExposed, Moderately exposed, Sheltered, Very exposed, Very sheltered
Salinity preferencesFull (30-40 psu)
Depth rangeLower shore to ca 21m.
Other preferencesNo text entered
Migration Pattern

Habitat Information

Bugulina turbinata has been reported on the lower shore to al least 21 m in Lundy (Hiscock, 1985b; Hayward & Ryland, 1998). Although found in a variety of wave exposed habitats, the microhabitat occupied by Bugulina turbinata, under boulders, overhangs and crevices is probably protected from direct wave action. Although found in wave sheltered situations or weak tidal streams, some water flow is probably important to bring food and nutrient-laden water to the colonies and ensure an adequate supply of hard substrata. The abundance of bryozoans is positively correlated with supply of hard substrata and hence with current strength (Eggleston, 1972b; Ryland, 1976). Bugula spp. are characteristic fouling bryozoans, and may be found in the intake pipes of ships or power stations, and on ships hulls. The geographic distribution of Bugula species has been extended by transportation by shipping (Ryland, 1967). However, no information on transportation of Bugulina turbinata was found.

Life history

Adult characteristics

Reproductive typeProtogynous hermaphrodite
Reproductive frequency Annual protracted
Fecundity (number of eggs)See additional information
Generation time<1 year
Age at maturityLess than 1 month.
SeasonMay - October
Life spanInsufficient information

Larval characteristics

Larval/propagule type-
Larval/juvenile development Viviparous
Duration of larval stage< 1 day
Larval dispersal potential <10 m
Larval settlement periodSummer and autumn

Life history information

The reproductive biology of Bugula sp. has been extensively studied and reviewed. Gametogenesis and embryology are detailed by Ryland (1976), Franzén, (1977), Dyrynda & King (1983) and Reed (1991). The fronds of Bugula species are ephemeral, large colonies present in summer, dying back in late autumn and over-wintering as perennial, dormant, holdfasts or ancestrulae (Eggleston 1972a; Dyrynda & Ryland, 1982). Bugula species are placental ovicell brooders, producing small embryos that are brooded in conspicuous hyperstomial ovicells, increasing in size considerably during development due to nutrition derived from the inside of the ovicell, which acts as a placenta. For example, the Bugulina turbinata embryo grows 33 fold in embryogenesis (Dyrynda & Ryland, 1982; Dyrynda & King, 1983). The reproductive cycle of Bugulina flabellata is summarised below and may be similar in other Bugula spp., although Eggleston (1972a) noted that the number of generations in the other species was not known.

Zooids are protogynous hermaphrodites, developing eggs then sperm. Gametogenesis begins as the new zooid has formed. Egg maturation, ovulation and transfer of a single egg to the ovicell occurs halfway through the life of the first polypide. Embryogenesis continues through to the life of the second polypide, and larvae are released prior to ovulation of the next egg, taking about 3 weeks in July at Oxwich Point, Swansea. Sperm are produced after the egg has transferred to the ovicell, during the last half of the first polypide's life, and are released through the terminal pore in the tips of the tentacles (Dyrynda & Ryland, 1982). Fertilization probably occurs at ovulation, within the zooid (internal fertilization) (Dyrynda & Ryland, 1982; Reed, 1991). Once completed the cycle is repeated. Dyrynda & Ryland (1982) reported 4 cycles of polypides within zooids, after which frond death is simultaneous. Zooids may be found at different stages all the length of the frond (Eggleston, 1972a; Dyrynda & Ryland, 1982). In bryozoans, released sperm are entrained by the tentacles of feeding polypides and may not disperse far, resulting in self-fertilization. However, genetic cross-fertilization is assumed in oviparous and brooding bryozoans based partly on the proximity of other colonies and genetic data, although there is evidence of self fertilization (Reed, 1991; Hayward & Ryland, 1998).

Overall, Bugulina flabellata exhibits two generations of ephemeral fronds each summer. Each fronds begins to produce larvae soon after initiation, within 1 month. At Oxwich, Swansea, the first frond generation appeared in June and died in August, the second generation arising in August and dying back in late October (Dyrynda & Ryland, 1982). In the Isle of Man, Eggleston (1972c) noted rapid growth in March, with eggs and embryos by May, dying back in September, with a second generation in mid September to late October. Eggleston (1972a) also noted that offspring of the first generation grew rapidly and contributed to the second generation.

Ryland (1970) noted that in British waters bryozoan reproduction was generally maximal in late summer, declining into autumn. Dyrynda & Ryland (1982) concluded that Bugulina flabellata was adapted to rapid growth and reproduction (r-selected), taking advantage of the spring/summer phytoplankton bloom and more favourable (less stormy) conditions.
 

Fecundity
While each individual zooid is not prolific, the fecundity of the colony is probably directly proportional to the number of functional zooids (Bayer et al., 1994) and is probably high.
 

Longevity
The fronds of Bugula sp. are ephemeral, surviving about 3-4 months but producing two frond generations in summer before dying back in winter. However, the holdfasts are probably perennial (Dyrynda & Ryland, 1982). No information concerning the longevity of holdfasts was found.

Dispersal
The lecithotrophic coronate larva of Bugula species is free-swimming for a short period of time (<1 to 36 hrs) and colonies developing from later settling larvae (24 hr old) have significantly reduced growth and reproduction (Wendt, 1998, 2000). Therefore, dispersal is likely to be limited, resulting in poor gene flow and population subdivision( Wendt, 1998). Bugula species are common members of the fouling community of shipping and harbour installations but are far less abundant on buoys (Ryland, 1967). Keough & Chernoff (1987) noted that post settlement mortality of Bugula neritina was high, ca 70% in the first week after settlement on a Florida seagrass bed. Populations showed substantial spatial and temporal variation and Keough & Chernoff (1987) concluded that this variation was due to poor dispersal by the lecithotrophic larvae. Similarly, Castric-Fey (1974) noted that Bugulina turbinata, Crisularia plumosa and Bugula calathus did not recruit to settlement plates after ca two years in the subtidal even though present on the surrounding bedrock. Ryland (1976) reported that significant settlement in bryozoans was only found near a reservoir of breeding colonies. The short larval life and large numbers of larvae produced probably results in good local but poor long-range dispersal depending on the hydrographic regime.

Sensitivity reviewHow is sensitivity assessed?

Physical pressures

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence/Confidence
High High Moderate High
Removal of the substratum will result in removal of the attached colonies of Bugulina turbinata. Therefore, an intolerance of high has been recorded. Recovery will probably take more than a year in most cases, and has been assessed as high (see additional information below).
High High Moderate Low
Smothering by 5 cm of sediment is likely to prevent feeding, and hence growth and reproduction, as well as respiration. In addition, associated sediment abrasion may remove or damage the bryozoan colonies. A layer of sediment will probably also interfere with larval settlement. Therefore, an intolerance of high has been recorded. Recoverability has been assessed as high (see additional information below).
Intermediate Very high Low Moderate
Bryozoans are suspension feeding organisms that may be adversely affected by increases in suspended sediment, due to clogging of their feeding apparatus. Bryozoan turfs form preferentially on steep surfaces and under overhangs and larvae preferentially settle under overhangs, presumably to avoid smothering and siltation (Ryland, 1977; Hartnoll, 1983). Wendt (1998) noted that Bugula neritina grew faster on downward facing surfaces than upward facing surfaces, presumably due to siltation and reduced feeding efficiency on upward facing surfaces. However, where water flow is sufficient to prevent siltation, Bugulina turbinata may colonize upward facing surfaces (Hiscock & Mitchell, 1980). In addition, a layer of silt may prevent larval settlement and sediment scour may remove colonies. Overall, Bugulina turbinata is likely to encounter turbid conditions under boulders which may restrict its abundance in these habitats. An increase in suspended sediment at the benchmark level is likely to at least reduce the population abundance and may exclude some Bugula species, therefore, an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded. Recoverability is likely to be very high (see additional information below).
Tolerant* Not relevant Not sensitive* Moderate
Bryozoan turfs are often abundant in clear, fast flowing waters (Moore, 1977a). A decrease in suspended sediment is likely to increase the abundance of bryozoans, including species of Bugula. Therefore, tolerant* has been recorded.
High High Moderate High
Although occurring in the intertidal, Bugulina turbinata is restricted to damp underboulder and overhang habitats. Dyrynda & Ryland (1982) noted that rapid growth in Bugulina flabellata was associated with light skeletalization. On emersion, the branching form of Bugulina turbinata probably holds some water. However, it is probably intolerant of drying and water loss. Therefore, an increase in desiccation at the benchmark level (e.g. by overturning of boulders to which the colonies are attached) is likely to result in loss of the population, including dormant holdfasts, and intolerance of high has been recorded. Recovery is likely to be very high (see additional information below).
Intermediate Very high Low Moderate
An increase in emergence will increase the risk of desiccation, expose the species to increased extremes of temperature and reduce the time available for feeding, hence reducing growth and reproduction. Therefore, the upper extent and abundance of the population is likely to be reduced and an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded. Recoverability is likely to be very high.
Tolerant* Not relevant Not sensitive* Low
A decrease in emergence is likely to allow Bugulina turbinata to extend its range further up the shore. Therefore, tolerant* has been recorded.
Intermediate Very high Low Low
Water flow has been shown to be important for the development of bryozoan communities and the provision of suitable hard substrata for colonization (Eggleston, 1972b; Ryland, 1976). In addition, areas subject to high mass transport of water such as the Menai Strait, or tidal rapids generally support large numbers of bryozoan species. Although, active suspension feeders, their feeding currents are probably fairly localized and they are dependent on water flow to bring adequate food supplies within reach (McKinney, 1986). Okamura (1984) reported that an increase in water flow from slow flow (1-2 cm/s) to fast flow (10-12 cm/s) reduced feeding efficiency in small colonies but not in large colonies of Bugulina stolonifera. Bugulina turbinata has been recorded from strong to weak tidal streams. However, an increase in water flow from e.g. moderately strong to very strong may result in loss of a proportion of the population or displacement of more tolerant species. Populations on less stable substrata such as pebbles and cobbles will probably be lost but are probably ephemeral, short-lived populations. In addition, very strong water flow may interfere with larval settlement, transporting larvae away from the adult population, and increasing settlement time and larval mortality. Therefore, an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded. Recoverability is probably very high (see additional below).
High Very high Low Low
Water flow has been shown to be important for the development of bryozoan communities and the provision of suitable hard substrata for colonization (Eggleston, 1972b; Ryland, 1976). In addition, areas subject to high mass transport of water such as the Menai Strait and tidal rapids generally support large numbers of bryozoan species. Although, active suspension feeders, their feeding currents are probably fairly localized and they are dependent on water flow to bring adequate food supplies within reach (McKinney, 1986). A decrease in water flow, e.g. from moderately strong to very weak will probably result in impaired growth due to a reduction in food availability, and an increased risk of siltation (see above). Therefore, an intolerance of high has been recorded with a recoverability of very high (see additional information below). However, Bugulina turbinata may occur in areas of weak tidal streams, where wave action is adequate to maintain water movement (see below).
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Moderate
Although species of Bugula grow and reproduce in the summer months, day length and/or the phytoplankton bloom characteristic of temperate waters are probably more important cues than temperature (Ryland, 1967; 1970). Bugulina turbinata is a predominantly southern species in British waters (Lewis, 1964; Hayward & Ryland, 1998) but has been recorded as far north as Shetland. A long term increase in temperature may increase its abundance in northern British waters and allow the species to extend its range. As an intertidal species it is likely to be exposed to extremes of temperature when emersed, and is presumably tolerant of acute temperature changes. It occurs as far south as the Mediterranean and is, therefore, probably tolerant to increases of temperature, at the benchmark level, within British waters.
Intermediate Very high Low Low
Bugulina turbinata is a predominantly southern species extending in range to the Mediterranean (Lewis, 1964; Hayward & Ryland, 1998). Although it has been recorded as far north as Shetland, a long term decrease in temperature may reduce its extent in British waters, probably by interfering with growth and reproduction. Similarly a decreased temperature may reduce its extent or abundance in the intertidal. Therefore, an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded. Recoverability is probably very high (see additional below)
Low Immediate Not sensitive Low
An increase in turbidity is likely to result in a decrease in phytoplankton and macroalgal primary production, which may reduce food available to Bugulina turbinata. Therefore, an intolerance of low has been recorded.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low
A decrease in turbidity may increase phytoplankton productivity and increase food availability for growth and reproduction. However, it is unlikely to adversely affect Bugulina turbinata and tolerant has been recorded.
Intermediate Very high Low Moderate
Bugula spp. produce flexible erect tufts, which are likely to move with the oscillatory flow created by wave action. Bugulina turbinata has been recorded from very wave exposed to very wave sheltered habitats. However, populations on unstable substrata such as cobbles and pebbles will probably be destroyed by increased wave action or storms. In addition, increased wave action may result in increased scour in the presence of sediments and resultant loss of colonies. Therefore, an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded. Recoverability is probably very high (see additional below).
Tolerant* Not relevant Not sensitive* Low
A decrease in wave action is unlikely to adversely affect colonies of Bugula spp. in areas where water flow (see above) is sufficient to provide food bearing water and prevent siltation. A decrease in wave action may allow Bugula spp. to colonize more ephemeral habitats such as pebbles, cobbles and shells, Therefore, tolerant* has been recorded.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive High
The species is unlikely to be sensitive to changes in noise vibrations.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive High
The species is unlikely to be sensitive to changes in visual perception.
Intermediate Very high Low Moderate

Physical disturbance by fishing gear has been shown to adversely affect emergent epifaunal communities. For example, emergent epifauna were indicative of scallop dredge damage on Modiolus modiolus beds (see species review), and hydroid and bryozoan matrices were reported to be greatly reduced in fished areas (Jennings & Kaiser, 1998 and references therein). Mobile gears also result in modification of the substratum, including removal of shell debris, cobbles and rocks, and the movement of boulders (Bullimore, 1985; Jennings & Kaiser, 1998).

Therefore, physical disturbance by an anchor or passing dredge (see benchmark) is likely to damage fronds and remove colonies. However, some colonies and connecting stolons are likely to survive, suggesting an intolerance of intermediate. Colonies on hard substrata are probably less vulnerable to fishing activity but would probably be damaged or partially removed. Colonies growing on rocks, cobbles and shells on coarse grounds, may be removed by the dredge (see substratum loss above) and therefore, highly intolerant. Recovery is likely to be very high (see additional information below)

High High Moderate Moderate
Colonies of Bugula spp. that are displaced with their substratum, e.g. shell debris, cobbles or boulders, will probably survive if moved to a suitable habitat and not crushed in the process. However, if removed from its substratum, Bugula spp. colonies can not reattach and will probably be washed to deep water or be deposited on the strand line and die. Therefore, an intolerance of high has been recorded, with a recoverability of high (see additional information below).

Chemical pressures

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence/Confidence
High High Moderate Low
Bryozoans are common members of the fouling community, and amongst those organisms most resistant to antifouling measures, such as copper-containing anti-fouling paints (Soule & Soule, 1979; Holt et al., 1995). Bryan & Gibbs (1991) reported that there was little evidence regarding TBT toxicity in Bryozoa with the exception of the encrusting Schizoporella errata, which suffered 50% mortality when exposed for 63 days to 100ng/l TBT. Rees et al. (2001) reported that the abundance of epifauna (including bryozoans) had increased in the Crouch estuary in the five years since TBT was banned from use on small vessels. This last report suggests that bryozoans may be at least inhibited by the presence of TBT. Moran & Grant (1993) reported that settlement of marine fouling species, including Bugula neritina was significantly reduced in Port Kembla Harbour, Australia, exposed to high levels of cyanide, ammonia and phenolics. Note, however, that Bugula neritina is a warm temperate species probably only remotely related to the NE Atlantic species (P. Hayward, pers. comm.). Hoare & Hiscock (1974) suggested that polyzoa were amongst the most sensitive species to acidified halogenated effluents in Amlwch Bay, Anglesey and noted that Bugulina flabellata did not occur within the bay.
Although physiological tolerances vary between species, other Bugula sp. may have a similar intolerance. Therefore, an intolerance of high has been recorded with a low confidence. Recoverability would probably be high (see additional information below).
Heavy metal contamination
Low Immediate Not sensitive Low
Bryozoans are common members of the fouling community, and amongst those organisms most resistant to antifouling measures, such as copper-containing anti-fouling paints (Soule & Soule, 1979; Holt et al., 1995). Most of the information found concerning the toxicity of metals to this genus concerned Bugula neritina. Lee & Trot, (1973) reported that Bugula neritina colonized wooden panels treated with copper based antifouling paints and dominated the succession after 5-7 weeks. Bugula neritina was reported to survive but not grow exposed to ionic Cu concentrations of 0.2-0.3 ppm, while larvae died above 0.3ppm (Soule & Soule, 1979). Similarly, Ryland (1967) reported that Bugula neritina died where the surface leaching rate of Cu exceeded 10µg Cu/cm²/day, while ancestrulae may recover from prolonged Cu exposure if transferred to clean sea water. Ryland (1967) also noted that Bugula neritina was less intolerant of Hg than Cu. Copper ion concentrations greater than 2.5mg CuCl2/l stimulated a change from positive to negative phototactic response in Bugula simplex (Ryland, 1967).
Overall, Bugula spp. are likely to be relatively tolerant of copper contamination, and may be tolerant of other heavy metals. Therefore, an intolerance of low has been recorded but with low confidence given the lack of information on Bugula turbinata.
Hydrocarbon contamination
High High Moderate Moderate
Soule & Soule (1979) reported that Bugula neritina was lost from breakwater rocks in the vicinity of the December 1976 Bunker C oil spill in Los Angeles Harbour, and had not recovered within a year. However, it had returned to a nearby area within 5 months (May 1977) even though the area was still affected by sheens of oil. Similarly, Mohammad (1974) reported that Bugula spp. and Membranipora spp. were excluded from settlement panels near a Kuwait oil terminal subject to minor but frequent oil spills.
Therefore, although they may tolerate some hydrocarbon pollution, it is likely that Bugula species will be adversely affected by oil spills . Hence, an intolerance of high has been recorded. Recoverability is likely to be high (see additional information below).
Radionuclide contamination
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
Insufficient
information
Changes in nutrient levels
Low Immediate Not sensitive Very low
A moderate increase in nutrient levels may increase the food available to Bugula spp., either in the form of phytoplankton or detritus. Bugula stolonifera was reported to occur in areas of the Port of Genoa harbour, heavily affected by domestic sewage pollution (Soule & Soule, 1979). Other species of Bugula may shown similar tolerance. Therefore, an intolerance of low has been recorded, albeit with very low confidence.
Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Lynch (cited in Hyman, 1959) reported that increasing salinity hastened metamorphosis in Bugula spp. larvae, resulting in a reduced swimming time of 3-30 minutes. However, little other information was found, and Bugula spp. are unlikely to be exposed to hypersaline effluents in British waters.
Intermediate Very high Low Moderate
Ryland (1970) stated that, with a few exceptions, the Gymnolaemata were fairly stenohaline and restricted to full salinity (ca 35 psu) and noted that reduced salinities result in an impoverished bryozoan fauna. Soule & Soule (1979) suggested that some species of Bugula may be considered euryhaline, e.g. Bugula neritina and Bugula californica occur in harbours subject to large freshwater runoff. Lynch (cited in Hyman, 1959) reported that reduced salinity delayed metamorphosis in larvae of Bugula neritina but not in Bugulina flabellata or Crisularia turrita. Bugulina turbinata populations in the intertidal, are likely to be exposed to freshwater runoff and rainfall. Therefore, based on the above evidence, Bugulina turbinata may not be adversely affected by exposure to variable salinities in the short or long term (see glossary). However, it is probably intolerant of an acute change or reduction in salinity in the short term, which may result in a reduction of the extent of the population. Therefore, an intolerance of intermediate has been recorded. Recoverability is likely to be very high (see additional information below).
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
No information on the tolerance of Bugula spp. to changes in oxygenation was found.

Biological pressures

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence/Confidence
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
No information found.
No information Not relevant No information Not relevant
No information found.
Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Bugula turbinata is not known to be subject to specific extraction. However, many bryozoans have been recently found to contain pharmacologically active substances, e.g. bryostatin extracted from Bugula neritina may have anti-cancer properties (Hayward & Ryland, 1998). Therefore, species of Bugula may be subject to harvesting in the future.
Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant
Bugulina turbinata is not known to be associated with species or habitats subject to extraction.

Additional information

Recoverability
The lecithotrophic coronate larva of Bugula species is free-swimming for a short period of time (<1 to 36 hrs). Therefore, dispersal is likely to be limited, resulting in poor gene flow and population subdivision (Wendt, 1998, 2000). Keough & Chernoff (1987) noted that %Bugula neritina% was absent from areas of seagrass bed in Florida even though substantial populations were present <100m away. In addition, they noted that post settlement mortality was high, ca 70% in the first week after settlement (Keough & Chernoff, 1987). Bugula spp. are common members of the fouling community of shipping and harbour installations but are far less abundant on buoys (Ryland, 1967). Ryland (1976) reported that significant settlement in bryozoans was only found near a reservoir of breeding colonies.

Jensen et al. (1994) reported the colonization of an artificial reef in Poole Bay, UK. They noted that erect bryozoans, including %Bugula plumosa%, began to appear within 6 months, reaching a peak in the following summer, 12 months after the reef was constructed. In a similar experiment in Poole Bay, Hatcher (1998) reported colonization of slabs, suspended 1 m above the sediment, by Bugula fulva within 363 days. However, Castric-Fey (1974) noted that Bugula turbinata, %Bugula plumosa% and %Bugula calathus% did not recruit to settlement plates after ca two years in the subtidal even though present on the surrounding bedrock.

Therefore, short larval life and large numbers of larvae produced probably results in good local but poor long-range dispersal. Species of Bugula are opportunistic, capable of colonizing most hard substrata, and will probably colonize quickly in the vicinity of reproductive colonies, especially in the summer months in temperate waters. Once established, population abundance will probably also increase rapidly. Where the erect parts of colonies have been removed, regrowth from stolons may occur, resulting in rapid recovery. Therefore, populations reduced in extent or abundance will probably recover within between 6 to 12 months in most cases due to local recruitment.

New substrata or areas isolated by distance or hydrographic regime will probably take longer to recruit new individuals, perhaps several years or never depending on distance (see Castric-Fey, 1974; Jensen et al., 1994; Hatcher, 1998). Within coastal waters, however, even prolonged recovery will probably take less than 5 years.

Importance review

Policy/legislation

- no data -

Status

Non-native

Importance information

Bryozoans, including Bugula spp. are grazed by sea urchins such as Echinus esculentus and Psammechinus miliaris in the subtidal. Bryozoans are also preyed on by pycnogonids (sea spiders) and nudibranchs (sea slugs). For example, Pycnogonum littorale or Achelia spp. (Ryland, 1976). Although Achelia echinata has been reported from the tufts of Bugulina turbinata it feeds on the detritus accumulated within the older parts of the colony (Ryland, 1976). Bugulina turbinata is a preferred food of the sea slug Greilada elegans and Bugula spp. are prey for Thecacera pennigera, and Janolus spp. (Picton & Morrow, 1994).

Bibliography

  1. Best, M.A. & Thorpe, J.P., 1994. An analysis of potential food sources available to intertidal bryozoans in Britain. In Proceedings of the 9th International Bryozoology conference, Swansea, 1992. Biology and Palaeobiology of Bryozoans (ed. P.J. Hayward, J.S. Ryland & P.D. Taylor), pp. 1-7. Fredensborg: Olsen & Olsen.

  2. Bryan, G.W. & Gibbs, P.E., 1991. Impact of low concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on marine organisms: a review. In: Metal ecotoxicology: concepts and applications (ed. M.C. Newman & A.W. McIntosh), pp. 323-361. Boston: Lewis Publishers Inc.

  3. Bullimore, B., 1985. An investigation into the effects of scallop dredging within the Skomer Marine Reserve. Report to the Nature Conservancy Council by the Skomer Marine Reserve Subtidal Monitoring Project, S.M.R.S.M.P. Report, no 3., Nature Conservancy Council.

  4. Castric-Fey, A. & Chassé, C., 1991. Factorial analysis in the ecology of rocky subtidal areas near Brest (west Brittany, France). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 71, 515-536.

  5. Castric-Fey, A., 1974. Les peuplements sessiles du benthos rocheux de l'archipel de Glenan (Sud-Bretagne). Ecologie descriptive and experimentale. , Ph. D. thesis, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, L' Université Paris, Paris, France.

  6. Dyrynda, P.E.J. & King, P.E., 1983. Gametogenesis in placental and non-placental ovicellate cheilostome Bryozoa. Journal of Zoology (London), 200, 471-492.

  7. Dyrynda, P.E.J. & Ryland, J.S., 1982. Reproductive strategies and life histories in the cheilostome marine bryozoans Chartella papyracea and Bugula flabellata. Marine Biology, 71, 241-256.

  8. Eggleston, D., 1972a. Patterns of reproduction in marine Ectoprocta off the Isle of Man. Journal of Natural History, 6, 31-38.

  9. Eggleston, D., 1972b. Factors influencing the distribution of sub-littoral ectoprocts off the south of the Isle of Man (Irish Sea). Journal of Natural History, 6, 247-260.

  10. Fehlauer-Ale, K.H., Winston, J.E., Tilbrook, K.J., Nascimento, K.B. & Vieira, L.M., 2015. Identifying monophyletic groups within Bugula sensu lato (Bryozoa, Buguloidea). Zoologica Scripta, 44 (3), 334-347.

  11. Franzén, Å., 1977. Gametogenesis of bryozoans. In Biology of Bryozoans (ed. R.M. Woollacott & R.L. Zimmer), pp. 1-22. New York: Academic Press.

  12. Hartnoll, R.G., 1983. Substratum. In Sublittoral ecology. The ecology of the shallow sublittoral benthos (ed. R. Earll & D.G. Erwin), pp. 97-124. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  13. Hatcher, A.M., 1998. Epibenthic colonization patterns on slabs of stabilised coal-waste in Poole Bay, UK. Hydrobiologia, 367, 153-162.

  14. Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. 1998. Cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Part 1. Aeteoidea - Cribrilinoidea. Shrewsbury: Field Studies Council. [Synopses of the British Fauna, no. 10. (2nd edition)]

  15. Hiscock, H., 1985b. Aspects of the ecology of rocky sublittoral areas. In The Ecology of Rocky Coasts: essays presented to J.R. Lewis, D.Sc. (ed. P.G. Moore & R. Seed), pp. 290-328. London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.

  16. Hiscock, K. & Mitchell, R., 1980. The Description and Classification of Sublittoral Epibenthic Ecosystems. In The Shore Environment, Vol. 2, Ecosystems, (ed. J.H. Price, D.E.G. Irvine, & W.F. Farnham), 323-370. London and New York: Academic Press. [Systematics Association Special Volume no. 17(b)].

  17. Hiscock, K., 1985. Littoral and sublittoral monitoring in the Isles of Scilly. September 22nd to 29th, 1984. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, CSD Report, no. 562., Field Studies Council Oil Pollution Research Unit, Pembroke.

  18. Hoare, R. & Hiscock, K., 1974. An ecological survey of the rocky coast adjacent to the effluent of a bromine extraction plant. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 2 (4), 329-348.

  19. Holt, T.J., Jones, D.R., Hawkins, S.J. & Hartnoll, R.G., 1995. The sensitivity of marine communities to man induced change - a scoping report. Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, Contract Science Report, no. 65.

  20. Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E., 1997. The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.]

  21. Jennings, S. & Kaiser, M.J., 1998. The effects of fishing on marine ecosystems. Advances in Marine Biology, 34, 201-352.

  22. Jensen, A.C., Collins, K.J., Lockwood, A.P.M., Mallinson, J.J. & Turnpenny, W.H., 1994. Colonization and fishery potential of a coal-ash artificial reef, Poole Bay, United Kingdom. Bulletin of Marine Science, 55, 1263-1276.

  23. JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), 1999. Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line] http://www.jncc.gov.uk/mermaid

  24. Keough, M.J. & Chernoff, H., 1987. Dispersal and population variation in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. Ecology, 68, 199 - 210.

  25. Lee, S.W. & Trott, L.B., 1973. Marine succession of fouling organisms in Hong Kong, with a comparison of woody substrates and common, locally available, anti-fouling paints. Marine Biology, 20, 101-108.

  26. Lewis, J.R., 1964. The Ecology of Rocky Shores. London: English Universities Press.

  27. McKinney, F.K., 1986. Evolution of erect marine bryozoan faunas: repeated success of unilaminate species The American Naturalist, 128, 795-809.

  28. Mohammad, M-B.M., 1974. Effect of chronic oil pollution on a polychaete. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 5, 21-24.

  29. Moore, P.G., 1977a. Inorganic particulate suspensions in the sea and their effects on marine animals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 15, 225-363.

  30. Moran, P.J. & Grant, T.R., 1993. Larval settlement of marine fouling organisms in polluted water from Port Kembla Harbour, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26, 512-514.

  31. National Biodiversity Network (NBN) Atlas website. Available from: http://www.nbnatlas.org.  Accessed 01 April 2017

  32. Okamura, B., 1984. The effects of ambient flow velocity, colony size and upstream colonies on the feeding success of Bryozoa, Bugula stolonifera Ryland, an arborescent species. Journal of the Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 83, 179-193.

  33. Picton, B. E. & Morrow, C.C., 1994. A Field Guide to the Nudibranchs of the British Isles. London: Immel Publishing Ltd.

  34. Rees, H.L., Waldock, R., Matthiessen, P. & Pendle, M.A., 2001. Improvements in the epifauna of the Crouch estuary (United Kingdom) following a decline in TBT concentrations. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 137-144.

  35. Ryland, J.S., 1967. Polyzoa. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 5, 343-369.

  36. Ryland, J.S., 1970. Bryozoans. London: Hutchinson University Library.

  37. Ryland, J.S., 1976. Physiology and ecology of marine bryozoans. Advances in Marine Biology, 14, 285-443.

  38. Ryland, J.S., 1977. Taxes and tropisms of Bryozoans. In Biology of bryozoans (ed. R.M. Woollacott & R.L. Zimmer), pp. 411-436.

  39. Schneider, D., 1963. Normal and phototropic growth reactions in the marine bryozoan Bugula avicularia. In The lower metazoa. Comparative biology and phylogeny (ed. E.C. Dougherty), pp. 357-371.

  40. Soule, D.F. & Soule, J.D., 1979. Bryozoa (Ectoprocta). In Pollution ecology of estuarine invertebrates (ed. C.W. Hart & S.L.H. Fuller), pp. 35-76.

  41. Wendt, D.E. & Woollacott, R.M., 1999. Ontogenies of phototactic behaviour and metamorphic competence in larvae of three species of Bugula (Bryozoa). Invertebrate Biology, 118, 75-84.

  42. Wendt, D.E., 1998. Effect of larval swimming duration on growth and reproduction of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa) under field conditions. Biological Bulletin, 195, 126-135.

  43. Wendt, D.E., 2000. Energetics of larval swimming and metamorphosis in four species of Bugula (Bryozoa). Biological Bulletin, 198, 346-356.

  44. Winston, J.E., 1977. Feeding in marine bryozoans. In Biology of Bryozoans (ed. R.M. Woollacott & R.L. Zimmer), pp. 233-271.

Citation

This review can be cited as:

Tyler-Walters, H., 2005. Bugulina turbinata An erect bryozoan. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1715

Last Updated: 13/08/2005