Map accurate at time of writing. Visit NBN or OBIS to view current distribution
Other common names
Lophelia prolifera (Linnaeus, 1758)
The coral forms large bushy colonies which can be fixed to the substratum or free. The polyps are translucent and have up to 50 tentacles with obsolete terminal knobs. The colour is white, pink or yellowish.
In British and Irish waters, Lophelia pertusa colonies occur in groups which are no more than 5-10 m in diameter and often smaller.
Individual polyps are connected by their external calcareous skeletons. The skeletons of individual polyps are up to 12 mm in diameter.
Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland
Recorded mainly off the continental shelf. Most records are from west Scotland and Ireland. Some specimens recorded from deep (ca. 50-100 m) inshore waters in Scotland. Also known from the North Sea attached to oil industry structures.
In the North Atlantic, Mediterranean, along the east and west Atlantic coasts, around the mid-Atlantic islands south to Tristan da Cunha, from southern California and Cobb Seamount in the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the Macquarie Ridge off New Zealand.
Occurs on soft bottoms usually in excess of 150 m and occasionally in shallower inshore waters. Rarely found attached to solid substrata.
Forms bushy colonies which are generally no larger than 5-10 m in diameter, but may join together to form larger reefs.
Polyps have up to 50 tentacles.
Translucent polyps which are white, pink or yellowish in colour.
Generally found in areas with strong currents.
Lophelia pertusa reefs provide a habitat for a variety of species and the living and dead coral skeletons provide a biodiversity 'hot spot' on the edge of the continental shelf (Jensen & Frederiksen, 1992; Mortensen, 2001).
The deep waters where Lophelia pertusa reefs occur were undisturbed by human activity until recently. Fishing trawlers are now operating in the deeper water where Lophelia pertusa occurs and causing damage to the reefs (e.g., Hall-Spencer et al., 2002). Oil extraction from deeper waters may possibly cause damage to the reefs (see e.g., Roberts, 1997; Rogers, 1997, 1999). The implementation of the Habitats Directive to the limits of the EEZ and the adoption in 1998 of a new Annex to the OSPAR Convention (1992 Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North East Atlantic) may offer an opportunity to protect important deeper water or offshore habitats and species, such as Lophelia pertusa. For further information see COR.Lop.
Bett, B.J., 2001. UK Atlantic Margin environmental survey: introduction and overview of bathyal benthic ecology. Continental Shelf Research, 21, 917-956.
de Mol, B., Van Rensbergen, P., Pillen, S., Van Herreweghe, K., Van Rooij, D., McDonnell, A., Huvenne, V., Ivanov, M., Swennen, R. & Henriet, J.P., 2002. Large deep-water coral banks in the Porcupine Basin, southwest of Ireland. Marine Geology, 188, 193-231.
Fosså, J.H., 2003. Coral reefs in Norway. [On-line] http://www.imr.no/coral/index.php, 2003-03-27
Fosså, J.H., Mortensen, P.B. & Furevik, D.M., 2002. The deep-water coral Lophelia pertusa in Norwegian waters: distribution and fishery impacts. Hydrobiologia, 471, 1-12.
Frederiksen, R., Jensen, A. & Westerberg, H., 1992. The distribution of the Scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa around the Faroe Islands and the relation to internal tidal mixing. Sarsia, 77, 157-171.
Freiwald, A., 2002. Tiefwasser-Riffe [On-line]. http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/geo/gpi/ag-freiwald/exp/dw-reefs/img/lophelia.jpg, 2002-07-04
Freiwald, A., Henrich, R. & Pätzold, J., 1997. Anatomy of a deep-water coral reef mound from Stjernsund, West Finmark, North Norway. In Cool-water carbonates (ed. N.P. James & J.A.O., Clarke), pp. 141-162. [Society for Sedimentary Geology, Special Volume, no. 56.]
Gubbay, S., Baker, C.M. & Bett, B.J., 2002. The Darwin Mounds and Dogger Bank. Case studies of the management of two potential Special Areas of Conservation in the offshore environment. A report to WWF-UK., 72 pp.
Hall-Spencer, J.M., Allain, V. & Fosså, J.H., 2002. Trawling damage to Northeast Atlantic ancient coral reefs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 269, 507-511.
Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), 1997. The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.]
ICES, 2002. Study group on mapping the occurrence of cold water corals. Interim Report. Report to the Advisory Committee on Ecosystems of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), ICES CM 2002/ACE:05 Ref: E, WGECO.
Jensen, A. & Frederiksen, R., 1992. The fauna associated with the bank-forming deepwater coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinaria) on the Faroe Shelf. Sarsia, 77, 53-69.
Manuel, R.L., 1988. British Anthozoa. London: Academic Press.[Synopses of the British Fauna, no. 18.]
Masson, D.G., Bett, B.J., Billet, D.S.M., Jacobs, C.L., Wheeler, A.J. & Wynn, R.B., 2003. The origin of deep-water, coral topped mounds in the northern Rockall Trough, Northeast Atlantic. Marine Geology, 194, 159-180.
Mortensen, P.B., 2001. Aquarium observations on the deep-water coral Lophelia pertusa (L., 1758) (Scleractinia) and selected associated invertebrates. Ophelia, 54, 84-104.
Roberts, J.M., 2002a. The occurrence of the coral Lophelia pertusa and other conspicuous epifauna around an oil platform in the North Sea. Journal for the Society for Underwater Technology, 25, 83-91.
Roberts, M., 1997. Coral in deep water. New Scientist, 155, 40-43.
Rogers, A.D., 1997. The biology of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758) and oil exploration west of Shetland. London: Greenpeace, 67p.
Rogers, A.D., 1999. The biology of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758) and other deep-water reef-forming corals and impacts from human activities. International Review of Hydrobiology, 84, 315-406.
Wilson, J.B., 1979a. The distribution of the coral Lophelia pertusa (L.) [L. prolifera (Pallas)] in the North-east Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 59, 149-164.
World Wide Fund for Nature, 1998. Lophelia pertusa - a cold water coral. Marine Fact sheet, 2p., Goldalming, Surrey: WWF-UK., http://www.wwf-uk.org
Zibrowius, H., 1980. Les scleractiniaires de la Mediterranee et de l'Atlantique nord oriental. Memoires de l'Institut Oceanograhique, Monaco. 11, 391 pp.
This review can be cited as:
Peckett, F. 2003. Lophelia pertusa A cold water coral. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1806
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