|Researched by||Judith Oakley||Refereed by||Admin|
|Authority||(Harvey) Suringar, 1873|
|Other common names||-||Synonyms||-|
Wakame is a laminarian kelp indigenous to the temperate regions of Japan, China and Korea (Stuart, 2003). It has been spread around the world by international shipping and mariculture. It has extended its range to include 12 countries on four continents since 1981 (Stuart, 2003). Wakame is a non-native species, which may cause displacement of native species. It was first recorded in the UK from the Hamble Estuary in the Solent on 15 June 1994 (Farell & Fletcher, 2000). It tolerates a wide salinity and temperature range. Its morphological and reproductive characteristics make it a very successful invasive species. Undaria pinnatifida possesses a heteromorphic life cycle with alternation of generations between a diploid sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte (Aguilar-Rosas et al., 2004). It may be confused with Alaria esculenta but the corrugated stipe is distinctive.Wakame is economically important as a food crop but is also a fouling organism. It is able to compete with native kelp species in the shallow sublittoral/infralittoral zone (Farrell & Fletcher, 2000). It is also effective in providing habitats, nursery areas and protective cover for many species. It grows well in estuarine conditions unlike many of the native kelp species (Farrell & Fletcher, 2000) .
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Aguilar-Rosas, R., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Ávila-Serrano, G. & Marcos-Ramírez, R., 2004. First record of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Botanica Marina, 47, 255-258.
Eno, N.C., Clark, R.A. & Sanderson, W.G. (ed.) 1997. Non-native marine species in British waters: a review and directory. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.
Farell, P. & Fletcher, R., 2000. The biology and distribution of the kelp, Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, in the Solent. In Solent Science - A Review (ed. M. Collins and K. Ansell), pp. 311-314. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.
Gibson, R., Hextall, B. & Rogers, A., 2001. Photographic guide to the sea and seashore life of Britain and north-west Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), 1999. Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line] http://www.jncc.gov.uk/mermaid,
Maggs, C.A., 2005a. Wakame Undaria pinnatifida. Marine Aliens pages. [On-line] http://www.marlin.ac.uk/marine_aliens/marine_aliens.htm,
National Biodiversity Network (NBN) Atlas website. Available from: http://www.nbnatlas.org. Accessed 01 April 2017
Stuart, M.D., 2003. Review of research on Undaria pinnatifida in New Zealand and its potential impacts on the eastern coast of the South Island. DOC Science Internal Series 166. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 40 pp.
Verlaque, M., 2005. Undaria pinnatifida (alga/seaweed) [On-line]. http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=68&ver=print,
This review can be cited as:
Last Updated: 03/07/2007