MarLIN

information on the biology of species and the ecology of habitats found around the coasts and seas of the British Isles

A bryozoan (Escharoides coccinea)

Distribution data supplied by the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). To interrogate UK data visit the NBN Atlas.

Summary

Description

Escharoides coccinea forms reddish-orange encrusting colonies of many individuals (zooids) that are separated from each other by a deep groove. Individual zooids are quadrangular in shape with a convex-shaped upper surface. The upper surface has a broad opening (orifice) that is sealed by an operculum and marked by a wide shelf inside the outer rim and distinct tooth-like projections on the inner rim. The side of the orifice facing the edge of the colony bears an arc of 6, long, tubular spines, although these are absent from fertile zooids that house globular-shaped ovicells encasing red coloured embryos instead. The sides of the individual zooids are calcified with irregular nodules and marked along the edges by large pores. On either side of the orifice is a smaller, pointed, avicularia that extends outwards away from the main zooid.

Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland

Escharoides coccinea is common on all British and Irish coasts.

Global distribution

Escharoides coccinea is found from west Norway to the Mediterranean.

Habitat

Escharoides coccinea is found on rocky coasts attached to hard substratum, stones, the holdfasts of Laminaria and below rocks on the lower shore and in shallow water.

Depth range

-

Identifying features

  • Reddish-orange encrusting colony.
  • Individual zooids quadrangular-shaped with broad orifice.
  • Orifice has wide inner shelf and bears tooth-like projections.
  • Small, lateral zooids either side of orifice.
  • Zooids have either 6 long, tubular spines or globular-shaped red ovicells.
  • Surface of zooids covered by irregular nodules.
  • Sides of zooids marked by large pores.

Additional information

Individuals colonies of Escharoides coccinea have a lifespan of at least two years.

Listed by

- none -

Further information sources

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Bibliography

  1. Costello, M.J., Bouchet, P., Boxshall, G., Emblow, C. & Vanden Berghe, E., 2004. European Register of Marine Species [On-line]. http://www.marbef.org/data/erms.php,

  2. Crothers, J.H. (ed.), 1966. Dale Fort Marine Fauna. London: Field Studies Council.

  3. Foster-Smith, J. (ed.), 2000. The marine fauna and flora of the Cullercoats District. Marine species records for the North East Coast of England. Sunderland: Penshaw Press, for the Dove Marine Laboratory, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

  4. Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C. 1996. Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins.

  5. Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.) 1995b. Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  6. Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. 1979. British ascophoran bryozoans. London: Academic Press.

  7. Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E., 1997. The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.]

  8. National Biodiversity Network (NBN) Atlas website. Available from: http://www.nbnatlas.org.  Accessed 01 April 2017

  9. Picton, B.E. & Costello, M.J., 1998. BioMar biotope viewer: a guide to marine habitats, fauna and flora of Britain and Ireland. [CD-ROM] Environmental Sciences Unit, Trinity College, Dublin., http://www.itsligo.ie/biomar/

Citation

This review can be cited as:

Richards, S. 2008. Escharoides coccinea A bryozoan. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from: http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/26

Last Updated: 24/06/2008