Glossary of specific terms

Biological 'traits' are arranged by 'category'. For example, the category 'growth form' includes traits such as 'radial' or 'conical', while the category 'characteristic feeding method', includes traits such as 'predator' and 'surface deposit feeder'. BIOTIC also includes some free text fields that include traits that do not easily lend themselves to standardised terms.

Due to the syntax of database field names, the trait categories are abbreviated in the downloadable CSV files. The abbreviated name for the trait categories is given in brackets after each category name if different from their respective category name. The abbreviated category names are listed in alphabetical order at the end of this glossary.

General Biology

Fragility

Trait

Definition

Fragile

Likely to break, or crack as a result of physical impact; brittle or friable.

Intermediate

Liable to suffer minor damage, chips or cracks as result of physical impacts.

Robust

Unlikely to be damaged as a result of physical impacts, e.g. hard or tough enough to withstand impact, or leathery or wiry enough to resist impact.

Habit

Trait

Definition

Attached

Adherent to a substratum.

Bed forming

Forming a dense aggregation that visually dominates the seabed or shore.

Burrow dwelling

Living within a burrow.

Ectoparasitic

Parasitic on the outer surface of its host (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).

Encrusting

To cover with a crust or thin coating (OED, 1990).

Erect

Upright.

Free living

Living without attachment or restriction.

Reef building

Forming an elevated structure on the seabed through chemical precipitation or concretion (adapted from Hiscock, 1996).

Tubicolous

Tube dwelling (Barnes et al., 1993).

Method of bioturbation (bioturbator)

Trait

Definition

Diffusive mixing

Vertical bioturbation as a diffusive transport process resulting from the activities of e.g. free-living polychaetes, subsurface deposit feeders and carnivores, and burrow excavating species such as crustaceans (Pearson, 2001).

Surface deposition

Deposition of particles at the sediment surface resulting from e.g. defecation or egestion (pseudofaeces) by e.g. filter and surface deposit feeding tubicolous polychaetes and sedentary bivalves (Pearson, 2001).

Conveyer belt transport

Translocation of sediment from depth within the sediment to the surface during subsurface deposit feeding or burrow excavation (Pearson, 2001).

Reverse conveyer belt transport

The subduction of particles from the surface to some depth by feeding or defecation (Pearson, 2001).

Dependency

Trait

Definition

Independent

Any organism not relying on another for food (except as prey), environment or livelihood.

Parasite on/in

An organism that lives in or on another living organism (the host), from which it obtains food and other requirements. The host does not benefit from the association and is usually harmed by it.

Mutualist with/on/in

A partner in a symbiosis where both organisms benefit, frequently a relationship of complete dependence (Lincoln et al., 1982). 

Inquilinist with/on/in

A partner in a symbiotic association which lives in close association with another, generally in the tube or burrow or actually within a body chamber of the host (Brusca, 1980).

Commensal with/on/in

A partner in a symbiosis in where one species derives benefit from a common food supply, whilst the other species is not adversely affected (Lincoln et al., 1982).

Host

Any organism that provides food or shelter for another organism, e.g. the definitive host of a parasite (for mature or developmental stages), or a symbiont (commensal, mutualist or inquilinist) (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).

Sociability

Trait

Definition

Solitary

Living alone, not gregarious (Thompson, 1995).

Gregarious

Living in groups or communities, growing in clusters (Thompson, 1995).

Colonial

Descriptive of organisms produced asexually which remain associated with each other; in many animals, retaining tissue contact with other polyps or zooids as a result of incomplete budding (Barnes et al., 1993).

Toxicity (toxic)

Trait

Definition

1

Toxic / poisonous

0

Non-toxic / poisonous

Environmental position (envpos)

Code

Trait

Definition

1

Epifaunal

An animal living on the surface of the substratum.

2

Epifloral

A plant living on the surface of the substratum.

3

Infaunal

Benthic animals which live within the seabed.

4

Interstitial

Relating to the system of cavities and channels formed by the spaces between grains in a sediment (interstitial space).

5

Demersal

Living at or near the bottom of a sea or lake, but having the capacity for active swimming (from Lincoln et al., 1998).

14

Pelagic

Inhabiting the open waters of the sea or ocean, excluding the bottom layers.

16

Insufficient information

17

Not relevant

18

Not researched

19

Epibenthic

Living on the surface of the seabed.

20

Epilithic

Growing on the surface of rock or other hard inorganic substrata.

21

Epiphytic

Growing on the surface of a living plant but not parasitic upon it.

22

Epizoic

Growing or living on the exterior of a living animal but not parasitic upon it.

23

Neustonic

Living on or under the surface film of open water.

24

Pleustonic

Living permanently at the water surface due to their own buoyancy, normally positioned partly in the water and partly in the air.

25

See additional information

26

Lithotomous

Relating to an organism that burrows into rock.

28

Hyperbenthic

Living above but close to the substratum (from Lincoln et al., 1998).

Characteristic feeding method (feedingmethod)

Code

Trait

Definition

1

Photoautotroph

An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by a photochemical process such as photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton)

2

Suspension feeder : Any organism which feeds on particulate organic matter, including plankton, suspended in the water column (from Lincoln et al., 1998).

Active

Catching food on a filter from water by actively sweeping (e.g. Porcellana platychelyes ) or pumping (e.g. sea squirts, many bivalve molluscs) 

3

Passive

Catching food on a filter held into flowing water (e.g. hydroids, sea fans, sea pens), or collecting the 'rain' of detritus on sticky apparatus other than a filter (e.g. Cucumaria frondosa ).

4

Deposit feeder : Any organism which feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter from the substratum; detritivores (from Lincoln et al., 1998).

Surface

Obtaining food from the surface of the substratum (e.g. Corophium volutator).

5

Sub-surface

Obtaining food from within the substratum (e.g. Echinocardium cordatum ).

8

Omnivore

Animal which feeds on a mixed diet including plant and animal material (from Lincoln et al., 1998).

10

Herbivore

An organism which feeds on plants, including phytoplankton. 

11 Scavenger Any organism that actively feeds on dead organic material (e.g. crabs, whelks).
12 Symbiont contribution Where some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).
14 Insufficient information  
16 Not relevant  
17 Field unresearched  
19 Planktotroph Feeding at least in part on materials captured from the plankton (Barnes et al., 1993).
20 Chemoautotroph An organism that obtains metabolic energy from oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron (e.g. some microorganisms).
21 See additional information  
22 Predator An organism that feeds by preying on other organisms, killing them for food (Lincoln et al., 1998).
23 Interface feeder An organism that feeds at the interface between the water column and underlying substratum.
26 Grazer (grains / particles) Animals which rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from inorganic particles e.g. sand grains.
27 Grazer (fronds / blades) Animals which rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from the surface of macroalgal fronds and blades.
28 Grazer (surface / substratum) Animals which rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from the substratum.
29 Detritivore An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter (detritus) (Lincoln et al., 1998).

Growth form

Code

Trait

Definition

1

Boring

Makes an excavation (through physical or chemical action) in which to live.

2

Crustose hard

Forming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995) that is solid or resistant to touch or pressure e.g. the encrusting coralline algae or sea mats such as Umbonula littoralis.

3

Crustose soft

Forming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995) that yields to the touch or pressure e.g. the gelatinous colonies of Botryllus schlosseri or soft cushions of sponges such as Halichondria sp..

5

Flaccid

Soft, limp, flabby ( Brusca, 1980).

6

Massive

Bulky (Homes, 1979).

7

Cushion

A mass or pillow of soft material.

8

Turf

The lowest stratum of erect branching or filiform species.

9

Foliose

Bearing leaves or leaf-like structures; having the appearance of a leaf.

10

Shrub

Having a very short stem with branches near the ground (Thompson, 1995).

11

Arborescent / Arbuscular

Having the shape or characteristics of a tree.

12

Forest

A large number or dense mass of vertical objects (Thompson, 1995).

13

Algal gravel

Maerl; twig-like unattached (free-living) calcareous red algae, often a mixture of species and including species which form a spiky cover on loose small stones - 'hedgehog stones'.

16

Accretion

Build up or accumulation of sediment.

17

Mat

A dense mass which blankets the substratum.

18

Faunal beds

Dense aggregation of animals that visually dominate the seabed or shore such as brittlestars (e.g. Ophiothrix fragilis ) or mussels (e.g. Mytilus edulis).

19

Radial

Symmetrical about any plane passed perpendicular to the oral/aboral axis (Barnes et al., 1993).

20

Stellate

Arranged like a star.

21

Whiplike

In the form of a whip.

22

Straplike / Ribbonlike

In the form of a strap or ribbon.

23

Filiform / Filamentous

Slender and thread-like (Kozloff, 1996).

25

Vermiform unsegmented

Wormlike but lacking true segments although annuli may be present, e.g. roundworms (Nematoda) and ribbon worms (Nemertea).

26

Vermiform segmented

Wormlike with the body divided into semi-independent, serially repeated units (Barnes et al., 1993) e.g. Annelida.

27

Vermiform annulated

Wormlike where the external surface is divided into a chain of rings or 'annuli' by furrows giving the appearance of segments (Barnes et al., 1993).

28

Digitate

Having parts arranged like fingers on a hand (Holmes, 1979).

29

Lanceolate

Lance shaped and usually elongate (Brusca, 1980).

30

Penicillate

Brush like (Prescott , 1969).

31

Pinnate

Branching like a feather - an elongate main axis with lateral branches or lobes (Prescott, 1969).

32

Capitate / Clubbed

Enlarged or swollen at the apex, with a 'head', clubbed. (Prescott, 1969).

33

Clathrate

Latticed (Holmes, 1979).

34

Reticulate

In the form of a mesh or net (Prescott, 1969).

35

Funnel shaped

In the shape of a funnel.

36

Dendroid

Branching irregularly - similar to that of a root system (Prescott, 1969).

37

Flabellate

Shaped like a fan, fanlike (Brusca, 1980).

39

Tubicolous

Tube dwelling (Barnes et al., 1993).

40

Medusiform / Medusoid

Disk, bell or umbrella shaped and often gelatinous (Barnes et al., 1993).

41

Cylindrical

With straight sides and a circular section (Thompson, 1995).

42

Globose

Spherical / ovoid / globular (Brusca, 1980).

43

Bullate / Saccate

Balloon or sac-like (Prescott, 1969).

44

Articulate

Jointed, arthrous (Holmes, 1979).

45

Bivalved

Characteristically a shell of two calcareous valves joined by a flexible ligament.

46

Turbinate

Whorled (Brusca, 1980).

47

Pisciform

Fishlike.

48

Insufficient information

50

Not relevant

51

Not researched

52

Conical

Cone shaped e.g. limpet -shaped, patelliform, (adapted from Stachowitsch, 1992).

53

See additional information

54

Tadpole

Having the body form of a tadpole i.e. consisting of a round head with a tail.

Mobility

Code

Trait

Definition

4

Swimmer

An organism that moves through the water column via movements of its fins, legs or appendages, via undulatory movements of the body or via jet propulsion (e.g. Gadus, Loligo).

5

Crawler

An organism that moves along on the substratum via movements of its legs, appendages or muscles (e.g. Carcinus).

6

Burrower

An organism that lives or moves in a burrow (e.g. Arenicola).

7

Drifter

An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents (e.g. Aurelia).

8

Temporary attachment

Temporary / sporadic attachment. Attached to a substratum but capable of movement across (or through) it (e.g. Actinia).

10

Permanent attachment

Non-motile; permanently attached at the base (Lincoln et al., 1998) (e.g. Caryophyllia).

11

Insufficient information

13

Not relevant

14

Field unresearched

15

See additional information

Is the species a host for another species? (isHost)

Trait

Definition

1

Yes, it is a host

0

No, it is not a host

Reproduction

Regeneration potential? (regeneration)

Trait

Definition

1

Yes

0

No

Reproductive frequency (ReprodFreq)

Trait

Definition

Semelparous

Breeding only once then dying (Barnes et al., 1993).

< Biannual

Breeds less frequently than every two years.

Biannual episodic

Breeds every second year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).

Biannual protracted

Breeds once every two years over an extended or drawn out period.

Annual episodic

Breeds every year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).

Annual protracted

Breeds every year over an extended or drawn out period.

Developmental mechanism (devmech)

Code

Trait

Definition

1

Planktotrophic

Feeding at least in part on materials captured from the plankton (Barnes et al., 1993).

2

Lecithotrophic

Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female (Barnes et al., 1993).

3

Direct development

Development without a larval stage (Barnes et al., 1993).

8

Oviparous

A type of reproduction in animals in which the fertilized eggs are laid or spawned by the mother.

9

Ovoviviparous

A type of reproduction in animals in which the embryo(s) develop in persistent membranes and hatch within the maternal body. No nutrition is derived from the mother.

10

Viviparous (parental care)

A type of reproduction in animals in which the embryo(s) develop within and derive nourishment from the maternal body.

11

Viviparous (no care)

12

Insufficient information

14

Not researched

15

Not relevant

16

Spores (sexual / asexual)

A plant reproductive cell capable of developing into a new individual, directly or after fusion with another spore. Spores may be produced either by meiosis or mitosis (Lincoln et al., 1998).

18

See additional information

19

Brooding

The incubation of eggs either inside or outside the body. Eggs may be brooded to a variety of developmental stages. Males or females may be responsible for brooding (adapted from Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).

Reproductive type (reprodtype)

Code

Trait

Definition

7

Budding

A form of asexual multiplication in which a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism (Barnes et al., 1993).

8

Parthenogenesis

A form of asexual multiplication in which the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization (Barnes et al., 1993).

9

Fission

A form of asexual multiplication involving division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals (Barnes et al., 1993).

10

Permanent hermaphrodite

Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time (Barnes et al., 1993).

11

Protandrous hermaphrodite

A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature (Holmes, 1979).

12

Protogynous hermaphrodite

A condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where female gametes mature and are shed before male gametes mature (Holmes, 1979).

13

Gonochoristic

Having separate sexes (Barnes et al., 1993). 

16

Insufficient information

18

Not relevant

19

Not researched

20

Vegetative

Development by somatic growth. Vegetative reproduction is, therefore, an asexual processes occurring as a result of fragmentation, division or budding from the parent organism.

21

Self-fertilization

Selfing or autogamy. Fertilization of a female gamete by a male gamete produced by the same individual.

22

Alternation of generations

The alternation of generations, in the life cycle of an organism, that exhibit different modes of reproduction; typically sexual (diploid) and asexual (haploid) phases. Also termed metagenesis (Lincoln et al., 1998).

23

Gamete type

Isogamous

Having gametes of similar size, shape and behaviour. (Lincoln et al., 1998).

24

Anisogamous

Having flagellate gametes of different size, shape or behaviour (from Bold, 1977 and Lincoln et al., 1998).

25

Oogamous

Having large, non-motile eggs and small motile sperm. Usually applied to algae (Lincoln et al., 1998).

26

See additional information

Distribution and Habitat

Migration pattern (migratory)

Trait

Definition

Non-migratory / resident

Remaining within the same area (from Lincoln et al., 1998).

Seasonal (feeding)

A seasonal migration for the purpose of following or moving to suitable feeding grounds.

Seasonal (reproduction)

A seasonal migration in order to reproduce.

Seasonal (environment)

A seasonal migration in order to remain within suitable environmental conditions.

Diel

Daily, pertaining to a 24 hour period.

Passive

A migration undertaken through the effects of tide, current or wind.

Active

A migration undertaken by active movement across the substratum or through the water column.

Biological Zone (biozone)

Code

Preference

Definition (Hiscock, 1990 unless otherwise stated)

1

Supralittoral

The lower terrestrial zone, characteristically dominated by orange and white-to-grey lichens on hard substrata with scattered salt-tolerant higher plants and mosses.

2

Upper littoral fringe

This is colonized by Verrucaria maura with Littorina saxatilis and Littorina neritoides often present. May include saltmarsh species on shale/pebbles in shelter.

3

Lower littoral fringe

The Pelvetia/Porphyra belt with patchy Verrucaria maura and Fucus spiralis (on sheltered shores). Fucus distichus and Fucus spiralis nana occurs on extremely exposed shores in the NE.  Verrucaria mucosa present above the main barnacle population. May also include saltmarsh species on shale/pebbles in shelter.

4

Upper eulittoral

Barnacles and limpets present in quantity with Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum  although often this belt has only sparse algal cover compared with the lower eulittoral.

5

Mid eulittoral

Barnacle - limpet dominated, sometimes mussels, with Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum Mastocarpus stellatus and Palmaria palmata patchy in lower part. Usually quite a wide belt. 

6

Lower eulittoral

Fucus serratus , Mastocarpus stellatus , Himanthalia elongata and Palmaria palmata present; sparse barnacles. Patchy Alaria .

7

Sublittoral fringe

Dominated by Alaria esculenta , Laminaria digitata or L. saccharina with sparse barnacles and encrusting Rhodophycota.

8

Upper infralittoral

Kelp forest.

9

Lower infralittoral.

Sparse or no kelp, dominated by foliose algae except where grazed.

10

Upper circalittoral

Dominated by animals with sparse foliose algae except where grazed.

11

Lower circalittoral

Dominated by animals with no foliose algae but encrusting Rhodophycota patchy in grazed areas.

13

Insufficient information

15

Not relevant

16

Field unresearched

17

Circalittoral offshore

Typically occurs below 50-70 metres away from the influence of wave action. Aphotic with animal communities in stable or stenothermal and stenohaline conditions. Open sea (Connor et al., 1997).

18

Bathybenthic (Bathyal)

Occupying the ocean floor from ca 200 - 4000 m depth.

19

See additional information

20

Epipelagic

The photic zone, includes the open ocean influenced by light. The lower boundary is dependant on the depth of light penetration and is generally regarded extend to ca 200 m in depth.

21

Mesopelagic

The upper aphotic zone and extends to a depth of ca 1000 m.

22

Bathypelagic

Extends from ca 1000 - 2500 m.

23

Abyssopelagic

Overlays the plains of the major ocean basins with a lower boundary of ca 6000 m.

24

Hadopelagic

Open waters of deep oceanic trenches, from ca 6000 m and below.

25

Benthopelagic

A zone of open water extending ca 100 m above the surface of the sea bed at all depths below the edge of the continental shelf.

26

Neritic

Water column overlying the continental shelf; surface to ca 200m depth.

27

Oceanic

Open waters beyond the continental shelf.

28

Abyssobenthic (Abyssal)

Occupying the ocean floor from ca 4000 - 6000 m depth. Usually a more or less flat plain.

29

Hadobenthic (Hadal)

Occupying the ocean floor at depths exceeding ca 6000 m. Usually in trenches and canyons of the abyssal zone.

Physiographic features (physpref)

Code

Preference

Definition (derived from Hiscock, 1996)

1

Open coast

Any part of the coast not within a marine inlet, strait or lagoon, including offshore rocks and small islands.  This includes MNCR types; Linear coast, Islands / Rocks and Semi-enclosed coast.

2

Offshore seabed

Seabed beyond three miles (5 km) from the shore.

3

Strait/Sound

Channels between the mainland and an island or between two islands which are open at both ends to the open coast (it does not refer to similar features or narrows within marine inlets).

5

Sea loch

Glacially formed inlets (fjords, fjards) of western Scotland and Ireland; typically elongate and deepened by glacial action with little freshwater influence.  Often with narrows and sills dividing the loch into a series of basins.

6

Ria/Voe

Drowned river valleys of south-west Britain (ria) and Shetland (voe). Often with a greater presence of rock and more marine in character than estuaries.

7

Estuary

Downstream part of a river where it widens to enter the sea; often with significant freshwater influence and predominantly comprising sediment habitats.

8

Isolated Saline Water (Lagoon)

Enclosed bodies of water, separated or partially separated from the sea by shingle, sand or sometimes rock and with a restricted exchange of water with the sea, yielding varying salinity regimes.

9

Enclosed Coast / Embayment

Any other sort of enclosed coast not covered by the definitions above such as harbours or marinas. 

15

Insufficient information

17

Not relevant

18

Field unresearched

20

See additional information

Salinity

Code

Preference

Definition (adapted from Hiscock, 1996)

1

Full salinity

30-40

2

Variable salinity

18-40

3

Reduced salinity

18-30

4

Low salinity

<18

6

Insufficient information

8

Not relevant

9

Field unresearched

10

See additional information

Substratum

Code

Preference

Definition

1

Bedrock

Any stable hard substratum, not separated into boulders or smaller sediment units. Includes soft rock-types such as chalk, peat and clay.

2

Large to very large boulders

>512 mm. Likely to be stable.

3

Small boulders

256 - 512 mm.  May be unstable.

4

Cobbles

64-256 mm.  May be rounded to flat. Substrata that are predominantly cobbles.

5

Pebbles

16-64 mm.  May be rounded to flat. Substrata which are predominantly pebbles.

6

Gravel / shingle

4 -16 mm.  Clean stone or shell gravel including dead maerl. >80% gravel.

7

Maerl

Live maerl. Phymatolithon calcareum and Lithothamnion corallioides in Britain and Ireland.

8

Muddy gravel

50 - 80 % gravel, 20 - 50 % mud.

27

Coarse clean sand

0.5 - 4 mm.  > 80 % sand.

28

Fine clean sand

0.063 - 0.5 mm.  >80 % sand.

29

Sandy mud

50 - 80 % mud, 20 - 50 % sand

30

Muddy sand

50 - 80 % sand, 20 - 50 % mud.

31

Mud

<0.063 mm (silt / clay fraction). >80% mud.

32

Mixed

Mixtures of a variety of sediment types, composed of pebble / gravel / sand / mud. This category includes muddy gravels, muddy sandy gravels, gravelly muds, and muddy gravelly sands.

35

Algae

Macroalgae surfaces, such as Laminaria spp., or fucoids.

37

Other species

The surface of other species, e.g. shells or carapace.

38

Biogenic reef

An elevated structure on the seabed built by calcareous or other concretion-forming organisms, or by chemical precipitation (Hiscock, 1996). For example by Modiolus modiolus or Sabellaria alveolata.

39

Artificial

E.g. wood, metal or concrete structures.

40

Water column

Pelagic.

41

Strandline

A line on the shore composing debris deposited by a receding tide; commonly used to denote the line of debris at the level of extreme high water (Lincoln et al., 1998).

42

Salt marsh

A flat, poorly drained coastal swamp inundated by most high tides (Lincoln et al., 1998).

43

Seagrass

Habitat associated with seagrass bed communities.

44

Rockpools

A pool of water among rocks left behind by the ebbing tide.

45

Under boulders

Habitat associated with the underside of boulders.

46

Caves

A large hollow in the side of a vertical rock face or cliff.

47

Crevices / fissures

Narrow openings (Thompson, 1995).

48

Overhangs

An overhanging part of a rock formation (Thompson, 1995).

50

Not relevant

51

Insufficient information

53

Field not researched

54

See additional information

55

Muddy fine sand

 

57

Clay

1) Sediment particles less than 0.004 mm in size (Wentworth, 1922).
2)
A soft very fine-grained sedimentary rock composed primarily of clay-sized particles.

58

No preference

 

59

Sandy gravel

50 -80% gravel, 20 -50% sand.

60

Muddy sandy gravel

50 -80% gravel, 20 -50% mud and sand

61

Gravelley sand

50 -80% sand, 20 -80% gravel.

62

Muddy gravelly sand

50 -80% sand, 20 -50% mud and sand

63

Sandy gravelly mud

50 -80% mud, 20 -50% sand and gravel.

64

Gravelly mud

50 -80% mud, 20 -50% gravel.

Water flow rate (waterflow)

Code

Preference

Definition (from McLeod, 1996)

1

Very strong

> 6 knots ( >3 m/sec.)

2

Strong

3 to 6 knots (1.5-3 m/sec.)

3

Moderately strong

1 to 3 knots (0.5-1.5 m/sec.)

4

Weak

< 1 knot (<0.5 m/sec.)

5

Very weak

negligible

7

Insufficient information

9

Not relevant

10

Field unresearched

11

See additional information

Wave exposure (waveexp)

Code

Preference

Definition (from Hiscock, 1990)

1

Extremely exposed

 Open coastlines which face into the prevailing wind and receive both wind-driven waves and oceanic swell without any offshore obstructions such as islands or shallows for several thousand kilometres and where deep water is close to the shore (50 m depth contour within about 300 m).

2

Very exposed

1) Open coasts which face into prevailing winds and which receive wind-driven waves and oceanic swell without any offshore obstructions for several hundred kilometres, but where deep water is not close to the shore (50 m depth contour further than about 300 m). 
2) Open coasts adjacent to extremely exposed sites but which face away from prevailing winds.

3

Exposed

1) Coasts which face the prevailing wind but which have a degree of shelter because of extensive shallow areas offshore, offshore obstructions, or a restricted (less than 90°) window to open water. These sites are not generally exposed to large waves or regular swell. 2) Open coasts facing away from prevailing winds but with a long fetch, and where strong winds are frequent.

4

Moderately exposed

Generally coasts facing away from prevailing winds and without a long fetch, but where strong winds can be frequent .

5

Sheltered

Coasts with a restricted fetch and/or open water window. Coasts can face prevailing winds but with a short fetch (< 20 km) or extensive shallow area offshore, or may face away from prevailing winds.

6

Very sheltered

Coasts with a fetch less than about 3 km where they face prevailing winds or about 20 km where they face away from prevailing winds, or which have offshore obstructions such as reefs or a narrow (< 30°) open water window

7

Extremely sheltered

Fully enclosed coasts with a fetch of no more than about 3 km.

8

Ultra sheltered

Fully enclosed coasts with a fetch measured in tens or at most a few hundred metres.

10

Insufficient information

12

Not relevant

13

Field unresearched

14

See additional information

List of abbreviated category names

Abbreviated name

Category

Field format

bioturbator

Bioturbation method

Single-select

biozone

Biological zone preference

Multi-select

devmech

Developmental mechanism

Multi-select

DispPotAdult

Dispersal potential of adult

Single-select

DispPotLarvae

Dispersal potential of larvae

Single-select

envpos

Environmental position

Multi-select

feedingmethod

Characteristic feeding method

Multi-select

flexibility

Body flexibility

Single-select

isHost

Is the species a host species?

yes/no

LarvalSettlePeriod

Larval settlement period

Text field

LarvalSettlingTime

Time larvae spend in plankton

Single-select

maturity

Age at sexual maturity

Single-select

migratory

Migration pattern

Single-select

migratory

Migration pattern

Single-select

physpref

Physiographic preference

Multi-select

regeneration

Can the animal regenerate body parts?

yes/no

ReprodFreq

Reproductive frequency

Single-select

ReprodLocation

Reproductive location

Single-select

ReprodSeason

Reproductive season

Text field

reprodtype

Method of reproduction

Multi-select

toxic

Is the animal toxic?

yes/no

waterflow

Tidal strength preference

Multi-select

waveexp

Wave exposure preference

Multi-select

References

Barnes, R.S.K., Calow, P. & Olive P.J.W., 1993. The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.

Bold, H.C., 1977. The Plant Kingdom (4th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Brusca, R.C., 1980. Common intertidal invertebrates of the Gulf of California. University of Arizona Press.

Connor, D.W., Brazier, D.P., Hill, T.O. & Northen, K.O., 1997. Marine Nature Conservation Review: marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Volume 1. Littoral biotopes. Version 97.06. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, J NCC Report, no. 229.

Connor, D.W., Allen, J.H., Golding, N., Howell, K.L., Lieberknecht, L.M., Northen, K.O. & Reker, J.B., 2004. The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland. Version 04.05. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough. Available from: www.jncc.gov.uk/MarineHabitatClassification

Hiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]

Hiscock, K., 1990. Marine Nature Conservation Review: methods. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, No. 1072. (Marine Nature Conservation Review Report, No. MNCR/OR/5.).

Holmes, S., 1979. Henderson 's dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. London: Hendersons.

Kozloff, E.N., 1996. Marine invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Lincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1982. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics. Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.

Lincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.

McLeod, C.R., 1996. Glossary of marine ecological terms, acronyms and abbreviations used in MNCR work. In Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods, (ed. K. Hiscock), Appendix 1, pp. 93-110. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom, MNCR Series].

OED, 1990. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford : Clarendon Press

Pearson, T.H., 2001. Functional Group Ecology In Soft-Sediment Marine Benthos: The Role Of bioturbation. Oceanography and Marine Biology. Annual Review, 39, 233-267.

Prescott , G.W., 1969. The algae: a review. Sunbury-upon-Thames: T. Nelson and Sons Ltd.

Ruppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.

Stachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Thompson, D., (ed.) 1995. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. 9th ed. London: Oxford University Press.

Wentworth, C.K., 1922. A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments. Journal of Geology, 30, 377-392.

About MarLIN | Contact, Enquiries & Feedback | Terms & Conditions | Funding | Glossary | Accessibility | Privacy | Sponsorship

Creative Commons License BIOTIC (Biological Traits Information Catalogue) by MarLIN (Marine Life Information Network) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license are available at http://www.marlin.ac.uk/termsandconditions.php. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own terms and conditions and they may or may not be available for reuse. Based on a work at www.marlin.ac.uk.