BIOTIC Species Information for Paludinella litorina
Researched byNicola White Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byDennis R. Seaward
Scientific namePaludinella litorina Common nameLagoon snail
MCS CodeW405 Recent SynonymsNone

PhylumMollusca Subphylum
Superclass ClassGastropoda
SubclassProsobranchia OrderMesogastropoda
Suborder FamilyAssimineidae
GenusPaludinella Specieslitorina

Additional InformationThe pulmonate Otina ovata is a frequent associate of Paludinella litorina, in caves etc. In shingle it often occurs with the pulmonates Ovatella myosotis and (slightly lower on the shore) Leucophytia bidentata, and the prosobranch Truncatella subcylindrica. The taxonomy of the Gastropoda has been recently revised (see Ponder & Lindberg 1997, and Taylor 1996). Ponder & Lindberg (1997) suggest that Mesogastropoda should be included in a monophyletic clade, the Caenogastropoda.
Taxonomy References Howson & Picton, 1997, Barnes, 1994, Light & Killeen, 1997, Fretter & Graham, 1978, Taylor, 1996, Ponder & Lindberg, 1997,
General Biology
Growth formGlobose
Feeding methodSub-surface deposit feeder
Surface deposit feeder
Environmental positionEpifaunal
Typical food typesNo text entered HabitFree living
BioturbatorNot relevant FlexibilityNone (< 10 degrees)
FragilityRobust SizeVery small(<1cm)
HeightMax. 2 mm Growth RateInsufficient information
Adult dispersal potential>10km DependencyIndependent
General Biology Additional InformationVery little data on biology found. The animal crawls by alternately extending the front and rear halves of the foot forward, producing a shuffling gait. The foot is short and rounded. It is found at low to moderate densities in narrow, linear habitats
Biology References Light & Killeen, 1997, Fretter & Graham, 1978,
Distribution and Habitat
Distribution in Britain & IrelandRecorded from the Isle of Wight, the Fleet, North Devon, South Devon, Pembrokeshire, Cornwall and Isles of Scilly.
Global distributionPrimarily a Mediterranean species (absent from the Black Sea) which extends along Eastern Atlantic coasts from Madeira north to a limit on the south coast of England.
Biogeographic rangeNot researched Depth rangeNot relevant
MigratoryNon-migratory / Resident   
Distribution Additional InformationPaludinella litorina is probably under-recorded due to its small size, inaccessible habitat and the similarity of its shell to that of Littorina saxatilis. An update on the distribution of Paludinella litorina has been compiled by Light & Killeen (2001). Frequent molluscan associates are the pulmonate Otina ovata in the crevice or cave habitat, and the pulmonates Ovatella myosotis and Leucophytia bidentata and prosobranch Truncatella subcylindrica in shingle interstices. Other species particularly associated with Paludinella litorina are the Isopoda Ligia oceanica in cave habitats (unless Ligia oceanica is excessively dominant, then Paludinella litorina is excluded), and Bdella mites in the interstitial habitat of the upper shore shingle or boulders (Light & Killeen, 2001).

Substratum preferencesBedrock
Under boulders
Crevices / fissures
Gravel / shingle
Physiographic preferencesOpen coast
Isolated saline water (Lagoon)
Biological zoneSupralittoral
Upper Littoral Fringe
Lower Littoral Fringe
Wave exposureSheltered
Tidal stream strength/Water flowWeak (<1 kn)
Very Weak (negligible)
SalinityVariable (18-40 psu)
Habitat Preferences Additional Information
Distribution References Barnes, 1994, Light, 1998, Light & Killeen, 1997, Light & Killeen, 1998, Fretter & Graham, 1978, Seaward, 1991, Light & Killeen, 2001, Moore, 2002,
Reproduction/Life History
Reproductive typeInsufficient information
Developmental mechanismInsufficient information
Reproductive SeasonInsufficient information Reproductive LocationInsufficient information
Reproductive frequencyInsufficient information Regeneration potential No
Life spanInsufficient information Age at reproductive maturityInsufficient information
Generation timeInsufficient information FecundityInsufficient information
Egg/propagule sizeInsufficient information Fertilization typeInsufficient information
Larval/Juvenile dispersal potentialInsufficient information Larval settlement periodInsufficient information
Duration of larval stageInsufficient information   
Reproduction Preferences Additional InformationGraham (1988) suggests that a free larval stage is unlikely to occur.
Reproduction References Graham, 1988,
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