BIOTIC Species Information for Helcion pellucidum
Researched byDr Harvey Tyler-Walters Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byDr David McGrath
Reproduction/Life History
Reproductive typeGonochoristic
Developmental mechanismPlanktotrophic
Reproductive SeasonAll year with a peak in spring Reproductive LocationAs adult
Reproductive frequencyAnnual protracted Regeneration potential No
Life span1-2 years Age at reproductive maturity<1 year
Generation time<1 year FecundityInsufficient information
Egg/propagule sizeCa 0.16 mm diameter Fertilization typeExternal
Larval/Juvenile dispersal potential10-100m Larval settlement periodInsufficient information
Duration of larval stage11-30 days   
Reproduction Preferences Additional InformationFew individuals survive into their second years. Most specimens >1 year old are found in holdfasts as the laevis form. Breeding occurs throughout the year with a peak in spring. Fertilization is external and eggs are shed singly. The eggs are greenish, ca 0.16 mm across and covered with a gelatinous coat giving an overall diameter of ca 0.32 mm (Fretter & Graham, 1976; Lebour, 1937). Eggs hatch into a 200 micrometer tall trochophore that develops into a 160-180 micrometer veliger larva (Lebour, 1937). Fretter & Graham (1947) state that planktonic life is 'a few weeks'. There is little information on dispersal range, however, 10-100m is assumed given the depth of adult distribution and its settlement on lower shore at least. McGrath (1992) examined recruitment in south east Ireland and reported that newly settled spat have a preference for lower shore Lithothamnia (encrusting corallines). As they grow juveniles (up to 1.8 mm) migrate to Mastocarpus stellatus. The juveniles recruit to Laminarians at about 1.8 mm but are found mainly at the tips of the fronds. Juveniles up to 3 mm may also be found on the receptacles of Himanthalia elongata. McGrath (1992) suggested that larvae settle on Lithothamina and migrate to Mastocarpus stellatus as they grow and finally to Laminaria sp. via Himanthalia elongata.
Reproduction References Fish & Fish, 1996, Fretter & Graham, 1976, Graham & Fretter, 1947, McGrath, 1992, Fretter & Graham, 1994, Lebour, 1937,
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