BIOTIC Species Information for Himanthalia elongata
Researched byNicola White Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byDr Dagmar Stengel
General Biology
Growth formCapitate / Clubbed
Straplike / Ribbonlike
Feeding methodPhotoautotroph
Mobility/MovementPermanent attachment
Environmental positionEpifloral
Typical food typesNot relevant HabitAttached
BioturbatorNot relevant FlexibilityHigh (>45 degrees)
FragilityIntermediate SizeLarge(>50cm)
Height Growth Ratemax. 16 mm/day
Adult dispersal potentialNone DependencyIndependent
General Biology Additional Information
  • Himanthalia elongata has a two stage morphology. A small button-like frond is first produced, from which large strap-like reproductive fronds are formed. The button stage is clubbed shaped at first and then develops into a button shape 2-3 cm in diameter, which is connected to the substrate by a holdfast and short stipe. Each button typically produces 2 strap-like reproductive fronds in autumn, although plants have been observed with 1 to 4 straps.
  • "Growth rate" refers to growth of reproductive straps at 10-12 degrees C, which is the optimum growing temperature in spring.
  • "Size at maturity" refers to the minimum diameter of the button, which is required for it to produce receptacles.
Biology References Stengel et al., 1999,
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