BIOTIC Species Information for Balanus crenatus
Researched byNicola White Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byProf. Alan J. Southward
Reproduction/Life History
Reproductive typePermanent hermaphrodite
Developmental mechanismPlanktotrophic
Reproductive SeasonFebruary to September Reproductive LocationAs adult
Reproductive frequencyAnnual episodic Regeneration potential No
Life span1-2 years Age at reproductive maturity<1 year
Generation time<1 year FecundityInsufficient information
Egg/propagule sizeInsufficient information Fertilization type
Larval/Juvenile dispersal potential>10km Larval settlement periodInsufficient information
Duration of larval stage11-30 days   
Reproduction Preferences Additional Information
  • Balanus crenatus is an obligate cross-fertilizing hermaphrodite. Nauplii larvae are released from the barnacle between February and September, with peaks in April and late summer when phytoplankton levels are highest. However, release is not synchronised with the spring algal bloom, unlike Semibalanus balanoides.
  • Nauplii larvae are planktotrophic and develop in the surface waters. They pass through six nauplii stages before eventually developing into a cyprid larva. Cyprid larvae are specialised for settlement. They drift and swim in the plankton before selecting a suitable substratum for settlement and metamorphosis. Peak settlement occurs in April and declines until October. Metamorphosis usually takes place within 24 hours of settlement.
  • Barnacles grow rapidly except in winter. April-settled individuals may release larvae the same July and reach full size before their first winter. Individuals that settled later reach maximum size by the end of spring the following year (Rainbow, 1984).
  • Balanus crenatus has a life span of 18 months (Barnes & Powell, 1953). Growth rate varies greatly with the degree of current flow and the presence of silt. Balanus crenatus populations attached to Nephrops norvegicus grew only 2mm in 4 months, whereas populations on rafts grew at 0.2mm per day. This reduction in growth in epizoic populations is attributed to the higher presence of silt and reduction in water currents (Barnes & Bagenal, 1951).
Reproduction References Rainbow, 1984, Barnes & Powell, 1953, Barnes & Bagenal, 1951,
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