BIOTIC Species Information for Philine aperta
Researched byEmily Wilson Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byThis information is not refereed.
Scientific namePhiline aperta Common nameLobe shell
MCS CodeW1038 Recent SynonymsNone

PhylumMollusca Subphylum
Superclass ClassGastropoda
SubclassOpisthobranchia OrderCephalaspidea
Suborder FamilyPhilinidae
GenusPhiline Speciesaperta

Additional InformationNo text entered
Taxonomy References Howson & Picton, 1997, Hayward & Ryland, 1995b, Hayward et al., 1996, Fish & Fish, 1996, Thompson & Brown, 1976,
General Biology
Growth formGlobose
Feeding methodPredator
Environmental positionInfaunal
Typical food typesPectinaria koreni, Echinocyamus pusillus, foraminiferans, and small infaunal lamellibranchs and gastropods. HabitFree living
Bioturbator FlexibilityLow (10-45 degrees)
FragilityIntermediate SizeSmall-medium(3-10cm)
HeightInsufficient information Growth RateInsufficient information
Adult dispersal potential>10km DependencyIndependent
General Biology Additional Information
  • Philine aperta lives just beneath the surface of fine sediment. The species 'ploughs' through the sediment as it moves and should not really be considered as burrowing species.
  • Although the species has an internal shell, this is small relative to the total body size and there is therefore, some flexibility.
  • A scavenging habit was observed under laboratory conditions on freshly killed bivalves.
Biology References Hayward & Ryland, 1995b, Hayward et al., 1996, Fish & Fish, 1996, Thompson & Brown, 1976, Thompson, 1976, Lancaster, 1983,
Distribution and Habitat
Distribution in Britain & IrelandAt a few recorded locations all around the British Isles.
Global distributionNorway to the Mediterranean Sea, South Africa, Sri Lanka and the Philippines.
Biogeographic rangeNot researched Depth range0-500m
MigratoryData deficient   
Distribution Additional InformationNo text entered

Substratum preferencesMuddy sand
Fine clean sand
Sandy mud
Physiographic preferencesInsufficient information
Biological zoneLower Eulittoral
Sublittoral Fringe
Upper Infralittoral
Wave exposureInsufficient information
Tidal stream strength/Water flowInsufficient information
SalinityInsufficient information
Habitat Preferences Additional Information
Distribution References Hayward & Ryland, 1995b, Hayward et al., 1996, Fish & Fish, 1996, Thompson & Brown, 1976, Thompson, 1976, Lancaster, 1983,
Reproduction/Life History
Reproductive typePermanent hermaphrodite
Developmental mechanismPlanktotrophic
Reproductive SeasonApril to August Reproductive LocationInsufficient information
Reproductive frequencyAnnual episodic Regeneration potential No
Life span3-5 years Age at reproductive maturityInsufficient information
Generation timeInsufficient information FecundityUp to 50,000 ova per egg mass
Egg/propagule sizeInsufficient information Fertilization typeInsufficient information
Larval/Juvenile dispersal potential>10km Larval settlement periodInsufficient information
Duration of larval stage1-6 months   
Reproduction Preferences Additional InformationLongevity is believed to be 3-4 years. In Britain spawning has been recorded from spring to summer when flask-shaped egg masses are laid. Egg masses may each contain up to 50,000 white ova. Veliger larvae hatch after a few days.
Reproduction References Fish & Fish, 1996, Thompson, 1976, Lancaster, 1983, Hansen & Ockelmann, 1991,
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