BIOTIC Species Information for Molgula manhattensis
Researched byDr Keith Hiscock Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byThis information is not refereed.
Distribution and Habitat
Distribution in Britain & IrelandDistributed all around Britain and Ireland but no records from the east basin of the Irish Sea.
Global distributionIn the north Atlantic, extending from the White Sea and North Cape to Portugal and, on the American coast from Maine to the Gulf of Mexico (Berrill 1950). Since the early 1970's at least, it has been present in the western Pacific (Tokioka & Kado 1972).
Biogeographic rangeNot researched Depth rangeLittoral to 90 m
MigratoryNon-migratory / Resident   
Distribution Additional InformationIdentifying the distribution of Molgula manhattensis is confused by taxonomic problems (see taxonomy page). Although indicated as a native species, the author of this review suggests that it is possible that Molgula manhattensis is an early 'import' from North America as it settles on the hull of ships and could have been transported on wooden sailing ships at a very early stage in north Atlantic crossings. Van Name (1945), quoted in Kott (1985), noted that Molgula manhattensis occurred in salinities equivalent to 20 to 36 psu.

Substratum preferencesSeagrass
Large to very large boulders
Small boulders
Physiographic preferencesRia / Voe
Enclosed coast / Embayment
Biological zoneLower Infralittoral
Upper Circalittoral
Lower Circalittoral
Wave exposureExposed
Moderately Exposed
Very Sheltered
Extremely Sheltered
Tidal stream strength/Water flowModerately Strong (1-3 kn)
Weak (<1 kn)
Very Weak (negligible)
SalinityVariable (18-40 psu)
Full (30-40 psu)
Habitat Preferences Additional Information
Distribution References Tokioka & Kado, 1972, Millar, 1970, Howson & Picton, 1997, Berril, 1950, Kott, 1985,
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