BIOTIC Species Information for Pennatula phosphorea
Researched byMorvan Barnes Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byThis information is not refereed
Scientific namePennatula phosphorea Common namePhosphorescent sea pen
MCS CodeD623 Recent Synonyms

PhylumCnidaria Subphylum
SuperclassAnthozoa ClassOctocorallia
Subclass OrderPennatulacea
Suborder FamilyPennatulidae
GenusPennatula Speciesphosphorea

Additional Information
Taxonomy References Manuel, 1988, Howson & Picton, 1997, Mackie, 1998, Nicol, 1958, Howson & Picton, 1997, Hayward & Ryland, 1995b,
General Biology
Growth formPinnate
Feeding methodPassive suspension feeder
Permanent attachment
Environmental positionEpifaunal
Typical food typesPlankton and organic particles HabitErect
Bioturbator FlexibilityLow (10-45 degrees)
FragilityIntermediate SizeMedium-large(21-50cm)
HeightNot researched Growth Rate
Adult dispersal potential DependencyIndependent
General Biology Additional Information
Biology References Hayward & Ryland, 1995b, Basford et al., 1989, Mackie, 1998, Manuel, 1988, Nicol, 1958,
Distribution and Habitat
Distribution in Britain & IrelandFound on all British and Irish coasts, except in the south.
Global distributionFound in north-west Europe, mainly around Britain and Ireland, as far south as southern Spain and the Azores and off the coasts of Greece.
Biogeographic rangeTemperate to warm temperate. Depth rangeFound below 15 m depth.
MigratoryNon-migratory / Resident   
Distribution Additional Information

Substratum preferencesCoarse clean sand
Fine clean sand
Sandy mud
Muddy sand
Muddy sandy gravel
Gravelley sand
Muddy gravelly sand
Sandy gravelly mud
Physiographic preferencesOpen coast
Offshore seabed
Biological zoneUpper Circalittoral
Lower Circalittoral
Circalittoral Offshore
Wave exposureField unresearched
Tidal stream strength/Water flowField unresearched
SalinityFull (30-40 psu)
Habitat Preferences Additional Information
Distribution References Manuel, 1988, Basford, Eleftheriou & Raffaelli, 1989, NBN, 2002, Hayward & Ryland, 1995b, Basford et al., 1989, Manuel, 1988,
Reproduction/Life History
Reproductive typeGonochoristic
Developmental mechanismPlanktotrophic
Reproductive SeasonNot researched Reproductive LocationWater column
Reproductive frequencyAnnual protracted Regeneration potential No
Life span11-20 years Age at reproductive maturity6-10 years
Generation timeNot researched FecundityInsufficient information
Egg/propagule sizeNot researched Fertilization typeExternal
Larval/Juvenile dispersal potentialNot researched Larval settlement periodNot researched
Duration of larval stageNot researched   
Reproduction Preferences Additional Information
Reproduction References Hayward & Ryland, 1995b, Manuel, 1988,
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