BIOTIC Species Information for Polinices spp.
Researched byMorvan Barnes Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byThis information is not refereed
Scientific namePolinices spp. Common nameA neckless shell
MCS CodeW488 Recent Synonyms

PhylumMollusca Subphylum
Superclass ClassGastropoda
SubclassProsobranchia OrderMesogastropoda
Suborder FamilyNaticidae
GenusPolinices Species

Additional Information
Taxonomy References Hayward & Ryland, 1995b, Howson & Picton, 1997,
General Biology
Growth formTurbinate
Feeding methodPredator
Environmental positionEpifaunal
Typical food typesPredominantly bivalves HabitFree living
BioturbatorNot relevant FlexibilityNone (< 10 degrees)
FragilityRobust SizeSmall(1-2cm)
HeightNot researched Growth RateNot Researched
Adult dispersal potentialNot researched DependencyIndependent
General Biology Additional Information
Biology References Edwards & Huebner, 1977, Kingsley-Smith et al., 2003, Ansell, 1982, Copeland, 1922, Graham, 1988, Christensen, 1980, Seaward, 1982, Hayward & Ryland, 1995b,
Distribution and Habitat
Distribution in Britain & IrelandFound on all British and Irish coasts.
Global distributionFound throughout the world's oceans including north-west Europe much of Asia, north-east Australia, southern Africa, Brazil and the American north Atlantic.
Biogeographic rangeTemperate to warm temperate, occasionally tropical. Depth rangeFrom 10 m to 200 m depth.
MigratoryNon-migratory / Resident   
Distribution Additional Information

Substratum preferencesGravel / shingle
Coarse clean sand
Fine clean sand
Muddy sand
Muddy sandy gravel
Gravelley sand
Physiographic preferencesOpen coast
Offshore seabed
Biological zoneSublittoral Fringe
Upper Infralittoral
Lower Infralittoral
Upper Circalittoral
Lower Circalittoral
Circalittoral Offshore
Wave exposureField unresearched
Tidal stream strength/Water flowField unresearched
SalinityFull (30-40 psu)
Habitat Preferences Additional Information
Distribution References Christensen, 1980, Seaward, 1982, Hayward & Ryland, 1995b,
Reproduction/Life History
Reproductive typeGonochoristic
Developmental mechanismPlanktotrophic
Reproductive SeasonSee additional information Reproductive LocationAs adult
Reproductive frequencyAnnual protracted Regeneration potential No
Life span3-5 years Age at reproductive maturity1-2 years
Generation time1-2 years FecunditySee additional information
Egg/propagule sizeEgg collar weight variable Fertilization typeInternal
Larval/Juvenile dispersal potentialNot relevant Larval settlement period45 days after hatching
Duration of larval stage1-2 months   
Reproduction Preferences Additional InformationReproductive maturity is related to size-8-10mm. Fecundity is also variable, and strongly correlated to age and size of female. Larval duration is around 45 days, but this is dependant on sediment triggered metamorphosis. Reproduction is throughout the year, with access to males and sufficient food, with peaks in July and August. Developmental mechanism is primarily planktotrophic although some species are thought to have direct development.
Reproduction References Kingsley-Smith et al., 2005, Kingsley-Smith et al., 2003, Ansell, 1982, Graham, 1988, Seaward, 1982, Hayward & Ryland, 1995b,
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