BIOTIC Species Information for Palinurus elephas
|Researched by||Angus Jackson & Charlotte Marshall||Data supplied by||MarLIN|
|Refereed by||This information is not refereed.|
|Typical food types||Echinoderms, small gastropods and bivalves, microalgae, shrimp larvae, bryozoans, annelids.||Habit||Free living|
|Bioturbator||Not relevant||Flexibility||None (< 10 degrees)|
|Height||Insufficient information||Growth Rate||12 mm/year|
|Adult dispersal potential||>10km||Dependency||Independent|
|General Biology Additional Information||The male and female size range units used are total length (TL) although carapace length (CL) is the measurement usually used for fisheries management. Maximum overall total length is about 600 mm, although more commonly between 400 - 500 mm. In terms of carapace length, male and female sizes have been recorded to range between 85-193 mm and 79-180 mm respectively.
In Britain and Ireland, females moult in late summer between July and September (Hepper, 1977; Ansell & Robb, 1977; Hunter et al., 1996). The moult cycle of males in Britain and Ireland seems to be less clear. Hunter et al. (1996) reported that males have a moult peak in September coinciding with the female moult. According to Hepper (1977) and Hunter (1999), male Palinurus elephas in Britain and Ireland moult mainly in the winter months although Hunter (1999) also states that males moult throughout the year. In Ireland, moulting occurs from late spring to early summer (Gibson & O'Riordan, 1965; Mercer, 1973, both cited in Hunter, 1999).
Moult frequency decreases with increasing age (Hunter, 1999).
Size at maturity
Palinurus elephas typically crawls on the substratum but may occasionally be found to swim. Mercer (1973, cited in Hunter, 1999) describes the species as 'typically gregarious'.
|Biology References||Hepper, 1977, Hunter et al., 1996, Campillo & Amadei, 1978, Ansell & Robb, 1977, Ingle, 1997, Hunter, 1999, Mercer, 1973, Noel, 1999, Goñi et al., 2003, Gibson & O'Riordan, 1965, Goñi & Lacrouite, 2005,|