BIOTIC Species Information for Littorina littorea
Researched byAngus Jackson Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byDr David Reid
General Biology
Growth formTurbinate
Feeding methodHerbivore
Environmental positionEpifaunal
Typical food typesA range of fine green, brown and red algae, including Ulva lactuca, Ulva spp., Cladophora spp. and Ectocarpus spp. HabitFree living
BioturbatorNot relevant FlexibilityNone (< 10 degrees)
FragilityRobust SizeSmall-medium(3-10cm)
HeightInsufficient information Growth Rate0.065-0.097 mm/day
Adult dispersal potential100-1000m DependencyIndependent
General Biology Additional InformationSize and growth rate measurements apply to shell height. Most work suggests that maturity is reached at between 10-12mm shell height. Littorina littorea has various biochemical adaptations that allow the stressful intertidal habitat to be exploited. The species tends to aggregate and form clusters in areas that are more favourable for them, such as rock pools, rather than drier areas. Males are believed to mature earlier than females but females mature at a smaller size. Animals are more active when submerged due to the lower cost of moving on mucus when under water.
Biology References Hayward et al., 1996, Campbell, 1994, Hayward & Ryland, 1995b, Fish & Fish, 1996, Newell, 1958, Fish, 1972, Fretter & Graham, 1994, Erlandsson & Johannesson, 1992, Rutherford, Web pages, Fox, 1994(b), Davies & Beckwith, 1999, Yamada, 1987, Gardner & Thomas, 1987, Erlandsson & Kostylev, 1995,
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