BIOTIC Species Information for Protanthea simplex
|Click here to view the MarLIN Key Information Review for Protanthea simplex|
|Researched by||Angus Jackson||Data supplied by||MarLIN|
|Refereed by||Dr Ib Svane|
||Feeding method||Passive suspension feeder
|Typical food types||Insufficient information||Habit||Attached|
|Bioturbator||Not relevant||Flexibility||High (>45 degrees)|
|Height||Up to 2 cm||Growth Rate||Insufficient information|
|Adult dispersal potential||Insufficient information||Dependency||Independent|
|General Biology Additional Information||This species exhibits an unusual collapse behaviour, where at intervals, muscle tone is rapidly lost and the animals hangs limply from its disk attachment. This is considered to be an egestion process rather than a feeding, alarm or escape response. Despite the primitive musculature, Protanthea simplex is capable of active movement.
In Sweden Protanthea simplex has been recorded historically at densities of up to 2000 per square metre. Svane & Gröndal (1988) reported that the species was abundant below the algal belt in semi-sheltered and sheltered sites in the Gullmarsfjorden, Sweden (10.7 % and 4.5 % cover per 0.25 square metre respectively). This contrasted with earlier work by Gislén, undertaken between 1926-29, where the species was not recorded in the semi-sheltered sites and only made up a small proportion of the total wet weight of species in the sheltered sites (Svane & Gröndal, 1988).
|Biology References||McFarlane, 1985, Nyholm, 1959, Carlgren, 1893, Carlgren, 1921, Manuel, 1988, Svane & Groendahl, 1988,|