BIOTIC Species Information for Protanthea simplex
Researched byAngus Jackson Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byDr Ib Svane
General Biology
Growth formCylindrical
Feeding methodPassive suspension feeder
Mobility/MovementTemporary attachment
Environmental positionEpifaunal
Typical food typesInsufficient information HabitAttached
BioturbatorNot relevant FlexibilityHigh (>45 degrees)
FragilityFragile SizeSmall(1-2cm)
HeightUp to 2 cm Growth RateInsufficient information
Adult dispersal potentialInsufficient information DependencyIndependent
General Biology Additional InformationThis species exhibits an unusual collapse behaviour, where at intervals, muscle tone is rapidly lost and the animals hangs limply from its disk attachment. This is considered to be an egestion process rather than a feeding, alarm or escape response. Despite the primitive musculature, Protanthea simplex is capable of active movement.
In Sweden Protanthea simplex has been recorded historically at densities of up to 2000 per square metre. Svane & Gröndal (1988) reported that the species was abundant below the algal belt in semi-sheltered and sheltered sites in the Gullmarsfjorden, Sweden (10.7 % and 4.5 % cover per 0.25 square metre respectively). This contrasted with earlier work by Gislén, undertaken between 1926-29, where the species was not recorded in the semi-sheltered sites and only made up a small proportion of the total wet weight of species in the sheltered sites (Svane & Gröndal, 1988).
Biology References McFarlane, 1985, Nyholm, 1959, Carlgren, 1893, Carlgren, 1921, Manuel, 1988, Svane & Groendahl, 1988,
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