BIOTIC Species Information for Protanthea simplex
Researched byAngus Jackson Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byDr Ib Svane
Reproduction/Life History
Reproductive typeGonochoristic
Developmental mechanismLecithotrophic
Reproductive SeasonSeptember to October Reproductive LocationWater column
Reproductive frequencyAnnual episodic Regeneration potential Yes
Life spanInsufficient information Age at reproductive maturityInsufficient information
Generation timeInsufficient information FecundityInsufficient information
Egg/propagule sizeInsufficient information Fertilization typeExternal
Larval/Juvenile dispersal potential>10km Larval settlement periodInsufficient information
Duration of larval stage11-30 days   
Reproduction Preferences Additional InformationAt 10-12 °C the larvae spend 15-20 days in the plankton before settling. In Sweden breeding occurs in September and October. Breeding terminates earlier in shallower water. Fertilization of the eggs occurs in the water column. The reproductive organs are white or orange- pink. Fragments of tissue in this species (except the tentacles) are capable of regenerating into complete anemones, a form of vegetative, asexual reproduction (Manuel, 1988).
Apart from Protanthea simplex, the only other species in the family Gonactinidae is Gonactinia prolifera. Gonactinia prolifera is unique in that the planula larva carries 'collar cells' similar in structure to the choanocyes of sponges and it is possible that Protanthea simplex has similar cells (I. Svane, pers. comm.). These secretory cells contain yolk granules and are undoubtedly involved in the formation of the fibrous coating of the planula which is again a unique feature of its planula (Chia et al, 1989).
Reproduction References Nyholm, 1959, Carlgren, 1921, Chia et al., 1989,
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