BIOTIC Species Information for Protanthea simplex
|Click here to view the MarLIN Key Information Review for Protanthea simplex|
|Researched by||Angus Jackson||Data supplied by||MarLIN|
|Refereed by||Dr Ib Svane|
|Reproductive Season||September to October||Reproductive Location||Water column|
|Reproductive frequency||Annual episodic||Regeneration potential||Yes|
|Life span||Insufficient information||Age at reproductive maturity||Insufficient information|
|Generation time||Insufficient information||Fecundity||Insufficient information|
|Egg/propagule size||Insufficient information||Fertilization type||External|
|Reproduction Preferences Additional Information||At 10-12 °C the larvae spend 15-20 days in the plankton before settling. In Sweden breeding occurs in September and October. Breeding terminates earlier in shallower water. Fertilization of the eggs occurs in the water column. The reproductive organs are white or orange- pink. Fragments of tissue in this species (except the tentacles) are capable of regenerating into complete anemones, a form of vegetative, asexual reproduction (Manuel, 1988).
Apart from Protanthea simplex, the only other species in the family Gonactinidae is Gonactinia prolifera. Gonactinia prolifera is unique in that the planula larva carries 'collar cells' similar in structure to the choanocyes of sponges and it is possible that Protanthea simplex has similar cells (I. Svane, pers. comm.). These secretory cells contain yolk granules and are undoubtedly involved in the formation of the fibrous coating of the planula which is again a unique feature of its planula (Chia et al, 1989).
|Reproduction References||Nyholm, 1959, Carlgren, 1921, Chia et al., 1989,|