BIOTIC Species Information for Conopeum reticulum
Researched byDr Harvey Tyler-Walters & Susie Ballerstedt Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byDr Peter J. Hayward
General Biology
Growth formCrustose hard
Feeding methodActive suspension feeder
Mobility/MovementPermanent attachment
Environmental positionEpifaunal
Typical food typesPhytoplankton (<50µm), macroalgal spores, detritus, and bacteria. HabitAttached
BioturbatorNot relevant FlexibilityNone (< 10 degrees)
FragilityFragile SizeSmall-medium(3-10cm)
HeightInsufficient information Growth RateSee additional information
Adult dispersal potentialNone DependencyIndependent
General Biology Additional InformationGrowth rates
Growth, measured in zooid number, in Conopeum reticulum is exponential (Menon, 1972). Growth rates in bryozoans have been shown to vary with environmental conditions, especially, food supply, temperature, competition for food and space, and genotype. For example, although growth rates increased with temperature, zooid size decreased, which may be due to increased metabolic costs at higher temperature (Menon, 1972; Ryland, 1976; Hunter & Hughes, 1994). Menon (1972) reported that in culture, growth in Conopeum reticulum reached a plateau after about 30 days and that the growth rate had significantly reduced at the end of 6 months. In his experiments Conopeum reticulum colonies grew to ca 1000 zooids within ca 28 days at 12 °C and ca 18 days at 22 °C, although these rates were slower than under natural conditions (Menon, 1972). Feeding rates also varied with respect to temperature (Menon, 1974).

The structure and function of the bryozoan lophophore was reviewed by Ryland (1976), Winston (1977) and Hayward & Ryland (1998). Ambient water flow is important for bringing food bearing water within range of the colonies own pumping ability (McKinney, 1986). Best & Thorpe (1994) suggested that intertidal Bryozoa would probably be able to feed on small flagellates, bacteria, algal spores and small pieces of abraded macroalgae.

Biology References Hayward & Ryland, 1998, Ryland, 1970, Ryland, 1976, Winston, 1977, Best & Thorpe, 1994, Menon, 1972, Hunter & Hughes, 1994, Menon, 1974, Ryland, 1967,
About MarLIN | Contact, Enquiries & Feedback | Terms & Conditions | Funding | Glossary | Accessibility | Privacy | Sponsorship

Creative Commons License BIOTIC (Biological Traits Information Catalogue) by MarLIN (Marine Life Information Network) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license are available at Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own terms and conditions and they may or may not be available for reuse. Based on a work at