BIOTIC Species Information for Electra pilosa
|Researched by||Dr Harvey Tyler-Walters||Data supplied by||MarLIN|
|Refereed by||Dr Peter J. Hayward|
|Growth form||Crustose hard
||Feeding method||Active suspension feeder
|Typical food types||Phytoplankton, algal spores.||Habit||Attached|
|Bioturbator||Not relevant||Flexibility||None (< 10 degrees)|
|Height||Growth Rate||Specific growth rate 0.08 / day|
|Adult dispersal potential||10-100m||Dependency||Independent|
|General Biology Additional Information||Growth form
Electra pilosa displays a variety of growth forms, such as, stellate patches on flat substrata, cylindrical growths around algae to narrow tufts, and narrow bilaminar fronds or occasionally as spherical masses around small substrata, described earlier (see Ryland, 1967, 1976; and Silén, 1987 for reviews).
The median proximal spine may become greatly elongated in response to overgrowth by colonies of other bryozoans (Stebbing, 1973; Ryland, 1976) or in response to wave related abrasion by algae (Bayer et al., 1997). The extended spine may protect the feeding polypide from physical or mechanical disturbance (Bayer et al., 1997).
Growth rates in bryozoans have been shown to be vary with environmental conditions, especially water flow, food supply, temperature, competition for food and space, and genotype. For example:
The structure and function of the bryozoan lophophore was reviewed by Ryland (1976), Winston, (1977) and Hayward & Ryland (1998). Best & Thorpe (1994) suggested that intertidal Bryozoa would probably be able to feed on small flagellates, bacteria, algal spores and small pieces of abraded macroalgae.
Electra pilosa and other bryozoans have been reported to cause dermatitis and occupational eczema in fishermen (Ryland, 1967; Jeanmougin et al., 1987 summary only).
|Biology References||Hayward & Ryland, 1995b, Hayward & Ryland, 1998, Ryland, 1967, Jeanmougin et al, 1987, Stebbing, 1973, Ryland, 1976, Bayer et al., 1997, Best & Thorpe, 1986, Bayer et al., 1994, Silén, 1987, Hermansen et al., 2001, Okamura, 1988, Ryland, 1977, Menon, 1972, Hunter & Hughes, 1994, Ryland, 1970, Best & Thorpe, 1994, Winston, 1977,|